Smart City operates with the purpose of solving urban problems. The important thing in smart city operation is that spatial information must be managed at a high level. In addition, it has the characteristics of being managed by one platform. This study presented the core value dimension of smart city based on analysis of various domestic and overseas smart city operation cases. Smart cities are basically operated based on spatial information, and the higher the level of spatial information, the more smart city services can be connected and managed in an integrated manner. The performance dimension of smart city core values presented in the study includes prosperity, personalization, convenience, accuracy, sustainability, safety, environment, integration, etc., and there is a connectivity dimension, a concept that can be managed in an integrated manner. This study will be useful for empirical research on smart city performance dimension design and surveys based on case studies. It will also help field managers who develop, operate, and manage smart cities when quantifying performance dimensions.
Curcumin is a hydrophobic polyphenol extracted from turmeric that exhibits a variety of biological functions has albeit with limited efficacy as a functional food material owing to its low absorption when administered orally. The newly developed curcumin powder formulation exhibits improved absorption rate in vivo. This study evaluates the anti-oxidant effects of Theracurmin® (TC), which is highly bio-available in curcumin powder. The antioxidant activity of TC was investigated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity, ferrous reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays, NO radical, superoxide radical, H2O2 scavenging activity, and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Additionally, we evaluated the antioxidant activity of TC in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed streptozotocin (STZ)-induced Type 2 diabetic rats. As a result of oral administration of TC for 13 weeks in type 2 diabetic rats, the group administration of 2,000 mg/kg significantly increased FRAP, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced the level of glutathione (GSH) in liver tissue 1.9, 1.2, and 1.2-times, respectively. Furthermore, serum TAC levels increased by 1.3-fold after the rats were administered with a dose of 500 mg/kg. These results were consistent with the in vitro assay results. In conclusion, TC exhibited its potential as a functional food material through its antioxidant properties.