1. Both the festival held in Confucian temple to honor Confucius or a religious ceremony in Korean traditional lecture-hall are the sacrificial rituals which is the mark of the respect for prescholars and these rituals has been followed the rules written in the book,'Yaegi' 2. For the Food formal display for the festival in Confusian temple of Chinese Gukjagam, Pebak(clothes), Mohyul(hair and blood), and the ritual food dishes, such as Byun 10, Doo 10, Gang 3 (Deung 1, Hyung 2), Bo 2, Cue 2, Jo 3 (Taeraeu as beef dish 1, Soraeu as sheep and pork dishes 2), Joo(alcohol) 3 were displayed, while in Juhyunhak, Byun 8, Doo 8 were displayed. In Taesangji edited around in 1873 in Korea, for the Confucian shrine Pebak, Mohyul, Byun 10, Doo 10, Deung 3, Hyung 3, Bo 2, Cue 2, Jo 6 (raw 3, cooked 3), Joo 3 were displayed. In pedantry Confucian temple, Pebak, Byun 8, Doo 8, Bo 2, Cue 2, Jo 2 (raw sheep and pork), Joo 3 were displayed while Mohyul was omitted, which this type of display was almost identical through the nationwide survery for the Confucian food display. Some of the Confucian food display, most of the display for Bo and Cue have been changed to Bo 1 and Cue 1, and one fifth of the Confucian display for Byun and Doo also has been changed in the numbers and food varieties. 3. In most of the sacrificial ritual food display in the Korean traditional lecture-hall, Pebak (some not applicable), Byun 4, Doo 4, Bo 1, Cue 1, Jo 1 (raw), Joo 1 were displayed. In these days, the number of the Confucian temple where the sacrificial rituals is not held, has been increased. 4. For the names of food for the Byun and Doo dishes, mostly the old names are used, however, minor changes in materials and cooking method have been found.
라면 제조에 있어서 알카리제의 첨가가 라면의 조직감과 관능적 특성에 미치는 영향을 검토하기 위하여 알카리제의 조성을 달리하여 소맥분에 대하여 0.5%를 사용하여 라면을 제조한 뒤 조리시험, 면의 조직 특성을 측정하고 관능검사를 평가하였다. 알카리제를 첨가하여 제조한 라면의 층밀림 압출력은 시료 A(potassium carbonate 64%, sodium carbonate 14%, sodium pyrophosphate 2% and sodium metaphosphate 20%)가 12.80(kgf)로 가장 높게 나타났으며, 표준 시료 E는 가장 작은 수치인 5.34(kgf)로 측정되었다. 경도도 시료 A가 18.57(kgf)로 가장 높게 나타났으며, 표준 시료 E는 11.23(kgf)으로 측정되었다. 시료 A로 제조한 라면의 무게 증가는 표준 시료 E보다 높게 나타났다. 반면에 부피 증가는 오히려 낮게 나타났으며 시료 A가 가장 낮은 수치를 보였다. 용출양의 차이는 모든 시료가 35~38%의 범위를 나타낸 반면 표준 시료 E는 70%로 나타나 시료 A보다 2배 정도 많게 증가하는 현상을 보였다. 요오드 정색도는 모든 시료가 2.10~2.20으로 유사하게 나타났다. 관능검사 결과는 시료 A와 B(potassium carbonate 31%, sodium carbonate 39%, sodium pyrophosphate 1%, sodium metaphosphate 15%, sodium polyphosphate 8%, sodium phosphate monobasic 4% and sodium phosphate basic 2%)가 각각 4.4, 4.2로 비교적 좋은 점수를 얻었으며, 그 다음이 시료 C(potassium carbonate 60%, sodium carbonate 33% and sodium pyrophosphate 7%)와 D(potasaum carnate 44%, sodium carbonate 27%, sodium metaphosphate 27% and sodium polyphosphate 2%)로 각각 3.8, 3.7을 얻었다. 반면 표준 시료 E는 2.8로 저조한 결과를 얻었다. 이 결과에서 알 수 있듯이 라면 제조시 알카리제의 조성 비율은 시료 A의 조성으로 하여 사용하면 라면의 품질 향상 효과가 크게 나타난다고 할 수 있겠다.
신선편의 과채류의 소비형태를 조사한 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1. 과채류의 구입장소는 수퍼마켓이 46.4%로 가장 많으며 APT지역 거주자가 일반주택지 거주자에 비해 백화점과 수퍼마켓을 더 많이 이용하였다(p〈0.05). 구입 빈도는 주2~3회 가 58%였고 미혼인 조사대상자의 50.0%가 주1회, 확대가족의 형태가 매일 구입하는 비율이 20.0%로 다른 가족구성에 비해 높게 나타났으며(p〈0.05) 직업이 있는 사람보다 전업주부의 구입이 더 잦은 것으로 나타났다. 2. 과채류의 구입시 가장 우선적으로 고려하는 요인의 70.2%는 품질인 것으로 나타났고 고학력일수록(p〈0.01), 타지역에 비해 APT지역에 거주자들이 보다 고품질을 중요시하였다(p〈0.05). 3. 구입하는 과채류의 형태는 주로 생산된 그대로의 신선한 과채류였으며 최소가공처리 된 신선편의 과채류를 주로 구입하는 사람은 미혼(37.5%)또는 무자녀 가정 (16.7%)이었다(p(0.01). 4. 신선편의식품화된 과채류의 구입경험이 있는 사람은 81.0%로 저연령(20~30대), 고학력일수록 더 많이 구입한 것을 알 수 있었다(p〈(0.05) 구입한 신선편의식품화된 과채류는 적정량의 단순 절단가공형태가 가장 많았다. 5. 신선편의식품화된 과채류의 구입동기는 조리시간 단축과 적정량 구입이 가장 많은 것으로 나타났고, 구입하지 않은 이유로는 가격이 비싸거나 비위생적으로 생각되었기 때문으로 나타났다. 6. 신선편의식품화된 과채류의 필요성에 대하여서는 92.5%가 긍정적인 반응을 보였는데 이를 위해 고려할 사항은 신선도와 위생적 처리, 좋은 외관과 영양소의 보존 등의 순으로 나타났고, 신선도 저하와 비싼 가격 등의 문제가 신선편의식품화된 과채류의 생산과 판매를 부정적으로 받아들이게 하는 원인이 되는 것으로 나타났다. 조사대상자들이 원하는 신선편의식품화된 과채류의 가격은 가공전 상태의 110~120% 수준으로 조사되었다.
Food irradiation is an emerging technology which offers many advantages such as reduction of microorganisms, extension of shelf-life of foods, reduction in the use of post-harvest chemicals, and destruction of insects and parasites. The commercial utilization of food irradiation, however, has been restricted because of the uncertainty of consumers' responses to it. Because success of food irradiation in the marketplace will depend upon their acceptability by consumers, this study focused on the consumers' perception and acceptance toward food irradiation in order to get basic data for commercial utilization of food irradiation and give information to consumers to help rational consumption behavior. The survey with 411 respondents living in Youngnam area was conducted during the spring of 1997 by the questionnaires. The results and implications from this study are as follows. First, consumers' knowledge about food irradiation is scanty. Two-thirds of respondents in the survey had not heard of irradiated foods and many people confused irradiation with radioactivity. In the willingness to accept food irradiation, one-third of respondents showed a wait-and-see attitude. This result indicated consumers had insufficient information about the irradiation process and nationwide education of food irradiation technology should be undertaken. Second, although the purchase and use of food are very important consumption behaviors, consumer education by mass communication has been rarely done. For the successful commercialization of food irradiation, the information provision by mass communication for the consumers should be made. Third, consumers generally worried about residual pesticide and intended to purchase irradiated foods if radioactivity was not retained in the foods. Therefore, food irradiation could be an alternative method to the use of pesticide Fourth, consumers pointed out that they wanted to extend shelf-life of milk and dairy foods, fish and seafood and to irradiate these foods. Therefore, research for the safety of irradiated foods should be continually conducted. finally, labeling for irradiated foods is needed to provide the information and to further increase public understanding. Especially, the labeling should show the definite reason why irradiation is being used. In conclusion, recently, under the circumstances that the commercial utilization of food irradiation and irradiation for the import and export products have been increased in many countries, many efforts are needed to improve the quality of irradiated foods, and prove the safety of them in Korea. In addition, consumer education for food irradiation should be given to help consumers to make decision for food purchase and use.
According to economical status, under-nutrition and over-nutrition coexist in preschool children in Korea. Subjects consumed more than RDA in most nutrients, and children in of the upper income class tended to have more nutrients than those of the low income class. Especially in case of energy, protein, fat, vitamin B2, and P there were significant differences among the different classes. The mean calorie compositions of carbohydrates, protein and fat were 57~59: 16~17: 26~27 and fat calorie percentage was higher than quantity recommended for Korean adults. Energy, protein, Fe, vitamin A, B1 and C intakes were taken mostly from plant food sources. In the upper income class group, intakes of protein and vitamin B2 from animal food sources were higher than in any other income classes. Intakes of iron, vitamin A, B1 and C were largely provided by plant food group. Especially 44-45% of vitamin A were taken from vegetable and fruits group, which indicated that about 50% of vitamin A intake was the form of β-carotene. Also compared with other groups, in the upper income class group, the intakes of energy, protein, Ca, p, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2 from cereal and potatoes were significantly lower, and those of Ca and P from milks and meats, fishes & eggs were significantly higher(p〈0.05). The mean fat intake in all subjects was 38~43g/day. Regardless of income class, oleic acid(6.6~8.4g) and linoleic acid(6.7~8.1g) were the most abundant fatty acids contained in the diet. The upper class group consumed significantly more total saturated fatty acids and total monounsaturated fatty acids(p〈0.05). In polyunsaturated fatty acids, there were no differences between 3 different income classes, but intakes of total Ω6 fatty acids in the upper class tended to be higher and those of total o3 fatty acids in low class tended to be higher. Therefore, Ω6/Ω3 tended to be higher in the upper class group. Regardless of income classes, P/M/S and Ω6/Ω3 ratios in all subjects were 0.9~l.3/1.0~1.1/1.0 and 5.2~7.4/1.0, respectively and were in a desirable range. Cholesterol intake of subject was 184-218 mg/day, which was comparable to the value of Korean adult intake.
Vending machines play an important role of giving convenience and simplicity in modem life style. So they became an indispensible element in life of modern people. This study was peformed to investigate customer's actual status in use as well as the degree of satisfaction and requirement of food and beverage vending machines. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. 1. About the advantage of using the vending machines, respondents answered 'convenience' for 50.2% and 'closeness' for 33.6% of all the answers. About the dissatisfaction for vending machine, three factors of 'inappropriate taste, temperature. quantity' and 'unsanitary pakage material and food' were the main causes. 2. About the credit of food quality,48.6% of respondents answered' some what doubtful'.58.1% of respondents pointed out that they couldn't confide in freshness and shelf-life' 3. 48.2% of respondents agreed that vending machines would be needed more in the future. Respondents wanted lots of food to be served from vending machines. The foods which respondents wanted to be served from vending machines were noodle(30.8%), rice(19%), pastry(18.2%), bread(17.45) gruel(7.3%) and snack(7.3%).
서울지역 대학생들의 식생활 태도, 건강과 관련된 사항, 식습관 평가, 스트레스정도를 조사한 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 대학생의 53.5%가 정상체중. 43.3%가 저체중으로 나타났다. 여학생은 저체중이 68.7%로 남학생 20.1% 보다 현저하게 높았다. 2. 대학생의 62%가 '하루 3회' 식사한다고 응답하였고 아침식사를 하는 대학생은 34.1%로 대부분의 대학생이 아침식사를 거르고 있었다. 식사시간은 대체로 불규칙한 것으로 조사되었다. 3. 일주일에 1-2회 이상 운동하는 남학생은 73.2%로 여학생 48.0%보다 높았다. 흡연을 하지 않는 여학생은 89.3%로 남학생 41.5% 보다 현저하게 높았다. 대학생의 84.4%가 자신의 체형에 만족하지 않는 것으로 나타났고 여학생은 현재의 체형보다 날씬해져야 한다는 응답이 80.0%로 남학생의 42.1%보다 높았다. 4. 대학생의 61.5%가 식품의 배합에 별로 관심이 없다고 응답하였고 녹황색채소를 거의 매일 섭취하는 여학생이 41.6%로 남학생의 32.3% 보다 높았고 과일의 섭취도 거의 매일 섭취하는 여학생이 45.3%로 남학생의 20.1%보다 높게 나타났다. 두부나 콩제품은 대학생의 55.6%가 '주 2회 이하' 섭취하는 것으로 조사되었으나 우유나 요구르트는 83.8%의 대학생이 '주 2-3회 이상' 섭취하는 것으로 나타났다. 5. 대학생의 식습관은 보통 이하로 평가되었으며 여학생의 식습관이 남학생보다 바람직하였고 자택에서 통학하는 대학생이 하숙, 자취, 기숙사 또는 친척집에서 통학하는 대학생 보다 식습관이 좋은 것으로 나타났다. 6. 대부분의 대학생(73.8%)이 스트레스를 많이 받는 것으로 나타났고 스트레스를 적게 받고 있는 대학생의 42.9%가 '주 5회 이상' 운동을 하고 스트레스가 매우 높은 대학생의 53.9%는 전혀 운동을 하지 않는 것으로 나타났다. 식사시간에 따른 스트레스점수는 '불규칙' 3.11, '가끔 불규칙' 3.04, '일정한 시간' 2.66으로 식사시간이 일정할수록 스트레스 적게 받는 것으로 나타났다. 이상의 결과를 살펴보면 대학생 특히 여학생에 대한 올바른 식행동과 건강에 대한 교육이 요구되어진다. 또한 운동과 규칙적인 식사는 대학생의 스트레스를 낮추는데 효과적인 것으로 나타났으므로 적절한 운동과 규칙적인 식생활은 정신건강에도 도움을 주는 것으로 사료된다.
A Survey was carried out to investigate relation between depressive trends, stress and attitudes of food intake in adults. In the assessing of Body Mass Index (BMI), the normal weight was 80.1%, overweight was 19.1%, obese was 0.7% in men, but normal weight was 90.3%, overweight was 9.4%, obese was 0.3% in women (p<0.001). It was represented increasing trends of obesity by the increasing of ages. Women thought their health condition was worse than men (p<0.001) 15.1% of all women tried to weight control. In changes of food intake by stress, 37.8% was increased to eat, 33.7% was reduced in women. It seems that women was significantly influenced by stress than men (p<0.01). In changes of food intake by stress in ages, 39.7% was increased of 20 years but over the 30 years was decreased or no changes of food intake (p<0.0001). All subjects wanted hot and sweet taste when stress-induced eating. 56.1% of men preferred to alcohol and beverages but 33.5% of women preferred to chocolate, cookies and breads of carbohydrate foods at the stressful conditions. But stress-induced eating dose not seems to be helpful for coping with stress in adults. In the distribution of depressive trends, the level of depression was higher in women (50.7%), whereas 34.3% in men (p<0.001). The most of 3li subjects represented attitudes of food intake below 60 scores that was needed improve and counseling of professional nutritionist. It was represented inferior to attitudes of food intake by the increasing of depressive trends and stress in women. It was higher level of overweight and obese in the below 60 scores of attitudes of food intake and higher depressive groups.
Food goods traded between Korea and Japan during the first term of the Cho Sun era included Omija (fruit of the Maximowiczia chinensis), Jat (pine nuts), Insam (Jinseng), rice, and beans as exports ; and pepper, sugar, and medicinal stuffs as imports. The trade between Korea and Japan was a result of Japanese envoies' visiting. The official number of Japanese envoies who had exchanges with Koreans were two thousand people a year. Once the Japanese entered Korea, they did not need to pay for their living expenses for the length of their visit because the Cho Sun government bore the whole expense. The Cho Sun government gave formal receptions to them, which included daily meals as well as banquet style meals. The daily meals included Jo-ban (breakfast), Jo-seok-ban (breakfast and dinner), and Ju-jeom-sim (lunch). Meals were served four times a day. The banquet style meals included Sam-po-yeon (a banquet that was held in Sam-po), Kyong-joong-young-jeon-yeon (a farewell banquet, and a welcome banquet that was held in Seoul), Jyu-bong-bae (to offer a guest a drink by day), No-yeon (a banquet that was held on the street), Kwol-nae-yeon (a banquet that was held within the Royal Court). It also included Ye-jo-yeon (a banquet that was held in Ye-jo), and Myong-il-yeon (a banquet that was held on a national holiday). The banquet style meals were composed of Ceon-tack (to set a table for dinner), Sang-hwa (a flower that was put on the food), Kwan-hwa (to offer a flower when a banquet was held), Ju-5-jan (the fifth wine glass), Dae-seon (meat), and music.
Food goods traded between Korea and Japan during the middle period of the Cho Sun era included Insam (Jinseng), rice, beans, honey, perilla oil, starch, adlay, walnuts, pine nuts, jujubes, hazelnuts, and dired chestnuts as exports ; and pepper as imports. The number of Japanese envoies that visited regularly was one thousand five hundred people a year. The receptions that were held for them during the middle period equaled those of the first term of the Cho Sun era, but these receptions were only held in Pu-san. The expense of daily meals was broken down into 8 grades ranging from \129,300 to 2133. The daily meals included Jo-ban (breakfast), Jo-seok-ban (breakfast and dinner), and Ju-jeom-shim (lunch) for the Japanese who visited regularly. During the course of a year, the total amount spent on daily meals was put at a billion won. The banquet style meals included Ha-seon-da-rye (a welcome tea party), Ha-seon-yeon (a welcome banquet), No-cha-yeon (a banquet that was held on the street), and Ye-dan-da-rye (a drink banquet that was held when silk was offered as a gift). It also included Byeol-yeon (a banquet out of the dordinary), Sang-seon-yeon (a farewell banquet), and Myong-il-yeon (a banquet that was held on a national holiday). The banquet style meals were composed of Ceon-tack (to set a table for dinner), Sang-hwa (a flower that was put on the food), Kwan-hwa (to offer a flower when a banquet was held), Ju-9-jan (the ninth wine glass), Dae-seon (meat), music, and Jung-bae-rye (a banquet that was held again after a banquet). The Cho Sun government held banquets forty five times for the Japanese, the food expense for the banquets was put at two hundred and thirty million won.
This study was conducted to find the effect of in-class nutrition education and exercise program for obese adolescent boys in Taegu with the nutrition knowledge test before and after education program and anthropometric measurement. The subjects were consisted of a normal group (NG; n= 13) and an obese group (n=30). The obese group is divided into two groups; obese group A (OG-A; n=12), participated in a ten-week nutrition education only; and obese group B (OG-B; n=28), participated in a ten-week nutrition education and exercise program. The anthropometric data of the three groups were increased after the nutrition education program. However the obesity index(BMI, R hrer, WHR, Skinfold thickness) of OG-B were significantly decreased after the programs. The nutrition intake data were also changed after the nutrition education program. Especially the intake of carbohydrate was significantly decreased in OG-B from 421.5±155.9g to 349.0±41.0g (p〈0.05) after the nutrition education program. It was noted that the intake of Ca was significantly decreased in all three groups after the nutrition education program. The mean score of the nutrition knowledge test also significantly increased from 13.7±3.1 to 17.8±3.0 after the nutrition education program. The result strongly suggested that nutrition education program should be successful if the obese adolescents and their parents especially mothers participated in the same class. In summary, nutrition education and exercise programs were effective on reducing obesity of obese adolescents. Nutrition knowledge of obese adolescent was significantly increased after nutrition education program.