This nutritional survey was conducted from February 8 to March 10, 1994, in order to investigate the nutritional knowledge, food habits, nutritional attitude, food preferences and nutrient intakes of urban middle-aged women living in Daegu and Pohang district. The subjects of this survey were 164 urban middle-aged women living in Daegu and Pohang Area. The completely answered questionnaires were analyzed for nutritional knowledge, food habits, nutritional attitude, food preference and nutrient intakes of urban middle-aged women. The results obtained are summarized as follows: The subjects had a high level of perceived knowledge (82.9%), that is the knowledge that each subject believed she had, but the accuracy of the knowledge was only 66.1%. The average nutrition knowledge score was 8.26 out of possible 15 points, and food habit score was 5.50 out of 10 points. Most of the subjects belonged to 'Fair' or 'Good' food habit group, which is considered to be relatively good. With increasing age, the percentage of perceived knowledge, accuracy, and nutrition knowledge score were getting lower. But food habit score and nutritional attitude score were getting higher at 40's women than 30's women. The correlation between nutritional knowledge score and food habit score was low (r=0.0748). The correlation between nutritional attitude score and food habit score was low, too (r=-0.0653). Food preferences for kimchi, potato, cooked rice, beef, noodle, cabbage and milk were high. Average calorie and protein intake of the subjects were 1967.4±27.8 Kcal, 75.8±1.4 g respectively. Carbohydrate, protein and fat ratio on energy composition was 63.3%:15.5%:21.2%.
After 1960, staple food consumption pattern of Korea underwent a significant change from the former rice-barley pattern to the present rice-wheat pattern. Therefore the present staple food consumption pattern of Korea may be defined as a mixture of grain and flour consumption.
결명자 종실을 볶음처리 조건을 달리하여 볶은 후 결명자차를 제조하여 5단계 평점법으로 각각의 관능적 품질을 평가하였다. 결명자의 성분조성은 수분 11.6%, 조단백질 13.1%, 조지방 9.4%, 조섬유 13.8%, 조회분 4.9%, 가용성 무질소물이 47.2%이었다. 결명자를 볶음 처리하여 제조한 결명자차에서 관능적으로 느낄 수 있는 향미성분은 단맛, 떫은 맛, 시큼한 맛, 쓴맛, 볶은 커피냄새, 볶은 보리냄새 및 탄내 등이었으며 결명자차의 관능적 품질을 묘사분석에 의하여 평가한 결과 볶음처리함에 따라 전체적인 기호도가 증가하였으며 지나친 볶음처리시 쓴맛, 탄내 등에 의하여 낮은 관능 평점을 나타내었다. 관능적 특성들간의 상관관계에서는 단맛과 쓴맛이 전체적인 기호도에 가장 큰 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났으며 210℃에서 20분간 볶음처리한 경우 전체적인 기호도가 가장 높게 나타났다.
The proximate composition and calorie of kidney bean sediment, amylogram, color, texture and sensory evaluation of Yanggaeng mixed with kidney bean sediment. Significant differences in the protein and fat contents were noticed among kidney bean sediment samples. The amylograms of sediment mixed with sugar and/or agar showed no peak and increase of viscosity compared with the control. When the Yanggaeng was prepared from the mixture of sediments of red bean and kidney bean, noticiable color changes were observed at 30% level of kidney bean sediment. Hardness and cohesiveness of Yanggaeng were increased but elasticity decreased as the proportion of kidney bean sediment increased. Sensory evaluation of Yanggaeng stored at 4℃ for 24 hr revealed that the product prepared from the mixture of red bean sediment (70%) and kidney bean sediment (30%) was not significantly different (p〈0.05) compared with that from the 100% red bean sediment.
We evaluated the nutritional and socioeconomical factors of 100 children aged 5~6 years. Forty five children (45%) were selected from families with low socioeconomic status, while 55 children (55%) were from those with high socioeconomic status. Some differences of the nutritional factors (eating behavior, food preference, food frequency) were found between low and high socioeconomic groups. This survey suggest that eating behavior, food preference and food frequency may be useful in estimating nutritional factors. And the nutrition education for the children and their meal planners is necessary to improve the nutritional status of the subjects.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships of nutritional and social factors among 100 children aged 5~6 years. Forty five children (45%) were selected from families with low socioeconomic status, while 55 children (55%) were from those with high socioeconomic status. Cognitive performance of the children was measured by the Draw a man test and the degrees of hyperactivity were assessed by both children's mothers and their teachers using two different Check List (Behavior check list and Conner's rating scale). There were few associations between cognitive performance and nutritional variables. However, levels of hyperactivity were related positively to diversity of food intake and weight percentage for age, and negatively to animal and processed food preferences. These results indicate a possible role of nutrition on psychological development.
The purpose of this paper is to develop the software for the diagnosis and evaluation of the nutritional ingestion status of inviduals or a group of family members who have inhabited in rural and urban, based on the suggested amount of nutrition and foods. This software can be used for the computation for the needed amount of nutrition, which is suitable to the economic conditions of individuals and group of family members, and for the reduction of effort to plan the balanced table menu and effort to manage the diets. However, those commercial softwares were hard to be purchased and expensive for the users, and even if they were purchased, it needs much time and efforts to operate and run the program. Especially those commerical software were not possible to revise when the user has faced with the need to revise and complement the input data according to his situations such as the individuals and the group of family members. The software which was developed to treat the table menu and the nutrition was very limited to the particular persons. That is, the software was not for the evaluation of the nutrition synthetically and reasonably, because it was planed to use for the patients and the group of hospital and research centers. However this software has a merit of providing the table menu and the nutritional diagnosis in that it can show the suggested amount of nutrition, the evaluation of nutrition, the methods of diet, and management of nutrition individually according to the age, sex, amount of exercise, and experience of sickness. The expected effect can be predicted to calculate the lacking amount of nutrition which the individual has taken, and be provided to the suitable table menu. In addition to this, the various table menu is based on the foods which can be purchased easily and inexpensively at any times.
The purpose of this paper is to survey various recipes of the roasted beef with twenty three classical cookboods written before 1943. The roasted beefis found total 32 times in the literature which can be classified into seven groups such as the roasted rib, roasted foot, roasted tail, roasted heart, roasted gall, roasted kidney and roasted fresh meat. The most frequent one is the roasted rib appearing eight times and the next is the roasted sliced beef with seasoning appearing seven. This proves that the those recipes have been the most favorite ones to Korean people for a long time. The roasted rib has been found since the middle of the 17th century, but the process of roasting ribs again with seasoning after three successions of dipping shortly into cold water in the midst of roast wasz disappeared. The roasted sliced beef with seasoning originated since the late 18th century, and the roasted beef with salt since the early 19th century which has been inherited as the roasted raw upper part of roasted beef recipes have been continued until today in the similar manner. Generally the roasted meat with bones and the roasted internal organs started in 1766 earlier than the roasted fresh meat by a century. The main ingredients were rib, foot, tail, heart, gall, kidney, fresh meat and knee bone, and the seasonings were mixtures of scallion stalk, garlic, pepper, oil, soy sauce and sesame seed powder. And peculiarly salted shrimp, pear juice, ginger were added to seasonings and pine nut powder was used as decorating ingredient.
The purpose of this study is to survey various recips of the roasted skewered beef (Sanjuk) with twenty three classical cookbooks written before 1943 in Korea. The recipes of the roasted skewered beef are found thirty times in the records, which can be classified into six groups such as the palm-type skewered beef (Sulhamyukjuk), little finger-type skewered beef, mixed skewered beef, juice skewered beef, little finger-type skewered internal organs, and wide-cut skewered internal organs. The palm-type skewered beef and the mixed skewered beef most frequently appeared in the records. The 'Sulhamyukjuk' in the 17th century were inherited while changing its name to 'Sanjuk' in the late 18th century, which is the origin of 'Bulkoki'. There were two types of the roasted skewered beef, the palm-type and the little finger-type; and the palm type preceded the little finger-type. They were used with no change until the 19th century. Actually the roasted skewered beef existed even in the 16th century, but were put down in the early 17th century. In the cooking of 'Sulhamyukjuk' the process of dipping shortly into cold water in the midst of roast seems to absolutely disappeared. Some recipes of the roasted skewered beef were lost, but most have been inherited in the similar way with simplification including little use of internal organs. The main ingredients consisted of parts of cattle such as fresh meat, intestines, heart, liver, omasum, tripe, head, sweet bread, and lung with various vegetables and mushroom. And the main seasonings were mixtures of oil, soy sauce, sesame seed powder, scallion stalk, pepper, sesame seed oil, and salt. And sometimes wine, vinegar, ginger, garlic, and sugar were added.
The history of vegetable preservation technology by salting and fermentation in Korea was reviewed from the Three Nations Era to the end of Chosun Kingdom, and the development of present day's Kimchi processing technology was traced back by using the classic books as well as recent review papers published in Korea. Although the written record on salting and fermentation of vegetables first appears in a 12th century literature (Dongkukisangkukjib, Gyu-Bo Lee 1168~1241), the use of salted/fermented vegetables could be dated back to the Three Nations Era (B.C. 37~A.D. 668) and even earlier period. The present type of Kimchi was gradually evolved after the introduction of red pepper into Korea in the 17th century. The descriptions on Kimchi fermention appeared in the literatures written in the period of 16th~19th centuries in Korea, Suunjapbang (1500~), Domundaijak (1611), Sasichanyocho (1656), Eumsikdimibang (1670), Chubangmun (1600~), Saekgyung (1676), Yorok (1600~), Sanlimkyungje (1715), Cheungbosanlimkyungje (1766), Kyuhapchongsoe (1800~), Imwonsipyukji (1827), Dongkuksesiki (1849) and Buinpylji (1855~) were reviewed.
감과육과 곶감 제조시에 폐기되는 많은 양의 감껍질의 유효성분을 비교 조사하였다. 감껍질은 과육부보다 조단백질, 조지방 및 조회분 함량이 높았으며 그 중 조지방 및 조단백질의 함량이 크게 높았고 가용성 탄닌의 함량은 과육이 다소 높았다. 총당의 함량은 과육부의 함량이 크게 높았으며 구성당의 조성은 껍질부가 과육부보다 glucose와 fructose가 각각 약 절반씩 함유되어 있었으며 sucrose의 함량은 상대적으로 낮게 나타났다. 전아미노산 함량은 껍질부가 과육부보다 높은 함량을 나타내었으나 유리아미노산은 과육부가 껍질부보다 오히려 높았다. 감과육의 주요 지방산은 oleic acid, palmitic acid 및 linoleic acid 였으며 감껍질은 oleic acid, linoleic acid 및 palmltic acid의 순으로 많았으며 특히 불포화지방산의 함량이 높았다. 과육분말 및 껍질분말을 이용하여 당과자를 제조하였으며 5~10% 첨가할 경우 기호성이 인정되었으며 곶감떡의 경우 감 절편(slice)제품은 10~20% 첨가시 기호도가 향상되었으나 껍질은 기호도가 낮았다. 감과육분말을 이용하여 개발한 죽제품의 경우 과육 3%외에 쌀가루, 찹쌀가루, 옥수수전분, 탈지분유 등을 첨가하였을 때 기호도가 높게 나타났으나 껍질로서는 죽제품의 개발이 어려웠다.
The purposes of this study were to: (a) identify college students' patronage behaviors, (b) develop an instrument measuring the attitudes of University Students towards university foodservices management practices, (c) determine university students' attitude towards the four types of university foodservices, and (d) provide recommendations on marketing strategies for university foodservice. Questionnaires were hand delivered to 600 Yonsei University students by designated coordinators. A total of 549 questionnaires were usable; resulting in an 93.3% response rate. The survey was conducted between November 28 to December 4, 1995. Statistical data analysis was completed using the SAS Programs for descriptive analysis, T-test, χ2 test, ANOVA, Factor Analysis and Stepwise Multiple Regression. Most (88.3%) of students were patronizing university foodservices for lunch. Underground student foodservice (40.1%) and Restaurants outside the campus (33.7%) were primarily used for lunch and dinner respectively. Eighty six percent of university students had 1 to 2 meals per day at university foodservices. The reasons given by students for patronizing university foodservices were as follows: location, time, price, menu, taste. Most of the respondents were least satisfied with hygiene, taste, menu and atmosphere. Data indicated strong support for eight priori dimensions in terms of food, menu, atmosphere, hygiene, employee attitude, facilities and convenience. After the factor analysis, price, fast service and foodservice location attributes were rearranged, combined and created a new dimension called as 'access'. Three dimensions in terms of menu, hygiene, convenience were important to students although performance was perceived as poor through importance-performance analysis. Most of students were not satisfied with all four types of university foodservices. In terms of food quality and price which university foodservices offer, most of respondents were moderately satisfied. According to multiple regression analysis, 93.31% of the variance respondents' satisfaction score could be explained by food, menu, price, atmosphere, hygiene, employee attitude, facilities, and convenience dimensions.
This study was made in order to find out the relationship between the psychological soundness and the eating attitude influenced by eating disorder, and the summary of the results are as follows; 1. Almost all of the surveyed girls were in the criteria of standard weight, however they regard themselves more obese than what their actual body shape normally shows. It shows that they want a further slimmer body shape than the standard one (p=0.0000). 2. Tangable relationship was observed between such variables as her own acknowledged body type, eating attitude influenced by eating disorder and the psychological soundness. The more the girls think themselves slim the higher the score of eating attitude becomes (p=0.0000) and the lower the anxiety score becomes (p=0.0044). 3. Significant relationships was found between the obesity and the eating attitude influenced by eating disorder (p=0.0001). For the underweighted girls the high score of eating attitude influenced by eating disorder was observed, and it shows the increasing degree of eating disorder risk for them.
This study estimated the status of dietary intake of 258 children from ages 3 to 6 living in Seoul and analyzed the correlation between the degree of children's nutrition awareness and dietary intake, to provide some basic informations on nutrition education program for their health promotion. Average height and weight of the children were 110.5 cm and 19.7 kg. And their body mass index was 16.2 and obesity index was 6.5%. Proportions of carbohydrate, protein and fat to the total calorie intakes were on the average 55.8%, 15.6% and 28.6%. Calorie intake proportion of breakfast, lunch, dinner and snack were 20.9%, 21.9%, 22.3% and 34.9%. In protein intake, proportion of animal and vegetable protein was 1.4, in fat intake pattern, P/M/S ratio was 1.2/1.2/1.0. As a consequence of analyzing the correlation between children's nutrition awareness and dietary intake, children of high awareness degree to the food value did not intake much calorie and carbohydrate, and did not choose cereals and starches, condensed fat food. As a result, dietary intake of pre-school children showed very good but partially showed a problem of over and under nutrition in quantity or in quality we hope that the result of this study could be helpful for the nutrition education program for the health and nutrition of the pre-school children.
This study was undertaken to investigate college students' perception and preference of Korean traditional foods during November in 1994. 493 students in Taejon area were asked to fill out the questionaires. The collected data were analyzed by SAS package. The average height and weight were 173.04 cm, 64.46 kg for male and 161.73 cm, 49.33 kg for female. Students living their own home were 48.8% and self-lodging students were 30.2%. Male have a meal for hunger and female for pleasure (p<0.002). They choose their foods based on the taste (84.6%) and nutrition (8.2%). 85.5% of students prefer Korean traditional foods. Most students think that the Korean traditional foods should be succeeded and developed. However, they want the taste of Korean traditional foods to be changed for their preference. Kimch'i is the most favorate fermented foods. The fermented fish products and jang-atchi are the most unfavorate ones. They don't like too salty taste and strong smell of the Korean fermented foods.