The objective of this study was to examine alcohol consumption rates and the perception of drinking cultures among college students in the Wonju area. An examination of factors such as frequency of drinking, average quantity consumed, and frequency of heavy drinking suggested that the drinking rates were relatively high. Over 70% of subjects drank at least once a week, 66.2% typically drank more than 5 servings at a time, and 19.2% of males and 13.0% of females were heavy drinkers. It was revealed from an AUDIT (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test) assessment that 71.3% of the subjects tested had various levels of alcohol-related problems. These problems were more severe in subjects that were male, selfboarding, or overweight. Alcohol related knowledge was not high because the subjects didn't know or incorrectly recognized some contents such as blood alcohol concentration, the energy content of alcohol, and the empty caloric characteristics of alcohol. Generally male, self-boarding, and overweight persons were not critical of the undesirable characteristics associated with drinking culture. Two opinions that were generally considered to be permissible were: 'Men should be able to drink' and 'Drinking is essential for a smooth human relationship'.
The purpose of this study was to survey Chinese university or college students' preference for and satisfaction with Korean food in the Daegu and Gyeongbuk areas. A questionnaire developed from literature review included a series of questions about Korean food that included preference, satisfaction, product quality, and customer satisfaction. We analyzed 240 valid responses. Statistical analyses, including frequence, IPA, factor analysis, and regression were performed using SPSS software. Of the 41 kinds of Korean food included, the students' average preference was 3.24 and satisfaction was 3.23 on a 5-point scale. The students questioned preferred Bulgogi (3.99), Galbigui (3.92), Galbitang (3.88), Galbizzim (3.87), and Samgyeopsal (3.86) to other Korean foods. With regard to satisfaction, Bulgogi (3.94) was chosen by Chinese students as the most satisfying Korean food, followed by Galbitang (3.80) and Galbigui (3.80). The perceived quality of the Korean food also had a significant influence on customer satisfaction.
To identify "Gongsik", defined as food-sharing by picking food from a common plate using personal utensils, we conducted 7 focus group interviews including 47 university students during a 6 month period. Focus group discussions were audio taped, transcribed, and categorized into major themes. We divided Gongsik into the following categories: practical reasons, socio-psychological reasons, boundaries, suppressive situations, emotional characteristics, attitudes towards using different utensils, and future prospects. Gongsik appeared to be useful for fostering quick food sharing, intimacy and solidarity, and a fixed behavior learned at home. If the amount of food was too small to provide individual servings, as in Jjigae, Gongsik was likely to occur spontaneously. Family, close relatives, friends, and lovers sharing common activities and/ or blood ties were composed the boundaries of Gongsik. However, Gongsik was avoided in elegant restaurants or in view of foreigners. Participants showed mixed feelings towards Gongsik. Gongsik conducted with a spoon was considered to increase the degree of suggested intimacy in a food sharing context. Half of the students believed that the practice of Gongsik would be maintained into the future. Gongsik is a culturally-specific behavior that includes both positive and negative meanings. Aside from improving understanding of the cultural aspects of food-sharing, we suggest that the negative aspects of Gongsik related to the issue of hygiene be considered in food and nutrition education.
The mainly purpose of this research was to investigate tendency of changes regarding the recipe of Naengmyeon (Korean cold noodles) based on water. In order to conduct of this research, we analyze the recipe data published in Korea from 1800's to 1980's. A method of mainly study was conducted by content analysis and literature review. The documents of recipe used research were 42 literatures (euigwae, recipe book, magazines, and dictionaries). In addition, the recipes of Naengmyeon based on water were total method of 84. The results of an analysis of recipe data published in the last 200 years showed 3 different types of the recipe of Naengmyeon based on water; 1) Naengmyeon based on water of Kimchi juice type 2) Naengmyeon based on water of (meat) broth type 3) Naengmyeon based on water of mixed (Kimchi juice+broth) type.
This study investigated and compared the brand personality of domestically run family restaurants with quick service restaurants. Information was elicited from respective patrons using self-administered questionnaires which asked questions on recognizable brand characteristic and attributes of each restaurant through image maps. Data from the self-administrated questionnaires were collected and analysed using comparative statistical analysis, including frequency, t-test, chi-square, factor analysis, reliability analysis and correspondence analysis. Overall, patrons identified 5 factors which they used to rank individual restaurants; sophistication, competence, likeableness, trendiness, and ruggedness. Overall results showed the family restaurants that scored highly on likeableness and trendiness were Outback and TGIF. Furthermore, Vips was the only family restaurants that scored highly in ruggedness. In relation to quick service restaurants, Lotteria scored highest for competence while McDonalds and Burger King scored best for sophistication. Limitations and future research directions are also discussed.
The purpose of our study was to examine the effects of dietitians' sanitation training performance on the sanitation knowledge and management practice level of culinary employees. We developed a questionnaire to measure the sanitation knowledge and management practice level of culinary employees and the sanitation training performance of dietitians. The questionnaire was completed by 53 dietitians and 337 culinary employees working in food service in the Chungbuk Province. We found that the sanitation training performance of dietitians had a significant positive affect on the sanitation knowledge and management practice level of culinary employees. There was also a correlation between sanitation knowledge and the management practice level of culinary employees. We conclude that sanitation training performance by dietitians is an effective method of improving the sanitation knowledge and management practice level of culinary employees. Thus, we suggest strengthening the sanitation training programs given by dietitians to improve food hygiene and safety in the foodservice industry.
We suggested specific and practical marketing strategies to coffee shop managers and customers to create a symbiotic relationship. The coffee shop's relationship to reliability, commitment, and shop loyalty was analyzed thoroughly. The samples for this study were 393 coffee shop customers in Seoul. The results showed that customer reliability about coffee shops improved as reputation, customer orientation, specialty, and tie increased, but reliability was reduced as the size of the coffee shop became larger. Communication did not significantly affect reliability. Second, customer reliability positively affected commitment, so commitment increased as customer reliability increased. Third, customer reliability positively affected shop loyalty, so shop loyalty increased as customer reliability increased. Fourth, customer commitment positively affected shop loyalty, so shop loyalty increased as customer commitment increased.
We examined household's food expenditures in this study. The empirical work outlined here used quarterly data from 2003 Q1 to 2010 Q3. All variables are in log form and were obtained from the Korea National Statistical Office. The food items included cereals, dairy products, fruits, meat, vegetables, and alcoholic beverages. We applied the ordinary least squares method to a model consisting of household income and seasonal dummies. This is because household expenditures are ordinarily a function of income and have seasonal characteristics. The household's food consumption patterns also reflect the prevailing social and environmental circumstances. This study showed that the income coefficients of cereals, meat, dairy products, and alcoholic beverages tend to increase in the long-run, whereas those of vegetables and fruits decreased. The results also revealed that consumption of alcoholic beverages and meat was greatly affected by household income fluctuations, whereas those of vegetables and dairy products were not sensitive to income. The impulse response functions indicated that expenditures not only increased slowly before peaking one to eight quarters after the income shock but declined very slowly to pre-shock levels. The response of dairy products at the twelfth step was three times as large as that of the first step.
The objective of this study was to determine the quality and sensory characteristics of ginpi wine using different levels of ginpi at each fermentation step. In the first mash with or without ginpi, lactic acid bacteria and yeast counts were maximum between days 2 and 3 of fermentation. The reducing sugar content increased after 2 days of fermentation of the first mash. Brix content increased rapidly after 1 day of fermentation, but pH decreased rapidly. After 3 days of fermentation of the second mash, 0, 30, 60, or 90 g of ginpi were added, and the yeast counts were 8.89, 8.72, 8.81, and 8.88 \log CFU/mL, respectively but then continually decreased. After 3 days of ginpi wine fermentation of the second mash, the addition of 0, 30, 60, 90 g ginpi resulted in alcohol content of 11.40, 8.90, 9.40, and 8.95%, respectively, and after 3 days of fermentation, alcohol content increased slightly. The results of a sensory evaluation showed that overall acceptability of ginpi wine was not different with different levels of added ginpi. However, the flavor of the 90 g ginpi wine had the highest acceptability.
In the present study, we investigated the physicochemical characteristics and sensory qualities of gruel with added ground yam (20~80%) to increase consumption and application of yams. pH and sugar content of sample gruel decreased with increasing yam content, whereas spreadability increased gradually. Lightness and greenness decreased; however, blueness increased as yam content increased. Viscosity decreased with increasing yam content. Gruel with 40% added yam was the most preferred for flavor, taste, texture, and overall preference. From these results, we found that adding 40% yam was the best to make gruel with high sensory quality.
Chungtaejeon is a traditional tea introduced in the age of the Three States and is the only "Don-cha" culture in the world that survived on the southwestern shore of Korea. To restore Chungtaejeon and to make the tea with consistent quality, the microorganisms involved in traditional type fermentation of Chungtaejeon were isolated, and the tea was prepared with high fermentation ability starters. The sensuous characteristics of Chungtaejeon were also examined. Only Bacilli were found in 3 and 5 year aged Chungtaejeon samples. The Lactobacilli were isolated from properly fermented kimchi and one of them showed high growth capability in media containing green tea extract and also showed strong antagonistic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus, Salmonella, and E. coli. It was identified and named Lactobacillus plantarum CHO25. Chungtaejeon was fermented with a single starter of L. plantarum CHO25 and with a mixed starter (L. plantarum CHO25, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CHO104). The single fermented sample had the highest cell growth after 5 days of inoculation and the level decreased slowly thereafter. The mixed fermented sample showed strong growth of S. cerevisiae. The highest hunter values were the a value of the single fermented sample and the b value of the mixed sample. The single fermented tea showed the best incense score.