The objective of this study was to determine the changes in content of polyphenolics, flavonoids, amino acids, especially γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and the antioxidant activities in the methanol extracts of four different pigmented rice seeds (white, black, red, and green color) at different germination stages, dry seeds (DS), imbibed seeds (IS), and germinated seeds for 1 (GS1), 2 (GS2) and 3 days (GS3). Total phenolics content at 1000 mg/kg extract was highest in black rice, ranging from 208.3 to 257.3 mg/kg, and followed by red rice 144.7 to 185.7 mg/kg, brown rice 151.3 to 194.2 mg/kg and green rice 125.7 to 160.7 mg/kg (lowest). Total flavonoid level had same tendency to total phenolics among colored rices with significant differences, showing highest amounts (45.2 to 56.8 mg/kg) in black rice and lowest (18.8 to 23.0 mg/kg) in green rice. Total phenolics and total flavonoids levels in black and brown seeds were highest when soaked, and in red rice when nonsoaked, and in green rice when germinated for 1 day. These results showed that content of physiologically- active substances were differ depending on seed coat color, soaking or germinating degree. Content in total amino acids during germination was ranged from 136.5 to 232.0 mg/kg in green rice (highest), and 98.9 to 176.0 mg/kg in red rice (lowest). Total content of amino acids and GABA level in all seed colors were high in order of GS3 > GS1 > IS > DS. The antioxidant activity of the methanol extracts from all the seed colors concentration-dependently increased. DPPH free radical scavenging activity at 2,000 mg/kg was highest in black rice by 83.0 to 87.7%, and lowest in green rice by 44.3 to 65.7%.
Analysis of nutritional compositions of soybean sprouts cultivated with bamboo ash was carried out. Bamboo ash was utilized as sprouting water of soybeans and adjusted to 0.2, 0.6, 1.0, 1.4, 2.0, 6.0 and 10.0 g/L. Stem length and contents of isoflavone (daidzin, glycitin, genestin, daidzein, glycitein, and genestein) and vitamin C in soybean sprouts cultivated with 0.2 g/L were higher than those in soybean sprouts cultivated with only water. Potassium, magnesium, and calcium of all cultivation methods were detected in higher contents than others. In particular, potassium showed a high absorption rate in the soybean sprouts. The major amino acid was asparagine (616.05~849.15 mg/100 g, soybean eq.), and contents of lysine, leucine, and ornithine in soybean sprouts cultivated at 0.2 g/L were higher than those of methods by only water and addition of 6-benzylaminopurine. According to the results, soybean sprouts cultivated with 0.2 g/L of bamboo ash were effective for increasing nutritional compositions.
Bamboo sprout powder was added to rice cake in an effort to improve the quality and functional properties of dough. The contents of crude protein and carbohydrates increased as the amount of bamboo sprout powder increased, whereas moisture contents decreased. According to increasing contents of bamboo sprout powder, total amino acid contents significantly increased. Hunter’s L value decreased as contents of bamboo sprout powder increased, whereas sucrose contents increased. Addition of bamboo sprout powder to rice cake increased dietary fiber contents. Sensory scores of rice cake containing 90 g of bamboo sprout powder were the highest of all rice cakes tested. According to the results, adding bamboo sprout powder could improve the quality and sensory characteristics of rice cake.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of addition of Artemisia annua L. powder in jeonbyeong. Contents of crude ash increased as the amount of Artemisia annua L. powder increased, whereas crude fat contents decreased. According to increasing contents of Artemisia annua L. powder, total amino acid contents significantly increased. Hunter’s L value increased as contents of Artemisia annua L. powder increased, whereas total free sugar contents decreased. Addition of Artemisia annua L. powder to jeonbyeong increased dietary fiber contents. The sensory score of jeonbyeong containing 100 g of Artemisia annua L. powder was the highest of all jeonbyeong tested. According to the results, addition of Artemisia annua L. powder could improve the quality and sensory characteristics of jeonbyeong.
To make fermented bamboo shoot liquid, we isolated and classified a microorganism growing in bamboo shoot and investigated its quality characteristics. Crude fiber, crude ash, nitrogen-free extracts, and total sugar contents were higher after fermentation. For free amino acids, only alanine was detected in the control group. Detected 13 kinds of free amino acids were detected in fermented bamboo shoot liquid. In organoleptic test, fermented bamboo shoot beverage containing 20 percent strawberry showed the highest consumer preference.
Chungtaejeon is a traditional tea introduced in the age of the Three States and is the only "Don-cha" culture in the world that survived on the southwestern shore of Korea. To restore Chungtaejeon and to make the tea with consistent quality, the microorganisms involved in traditional type fermentation of Chungtaejeon were isolated, and the tea was prepared with high fermentation ability starters. The sensuous characteristics of Chungtaejeon were also examined. Only Bacilli were found in 3 and 5 year aged Chungtaejeon samples. The Lactobacilli were isolated from properly fermented kimchi and one of them showed high growth capability in media containing green tea extract and also showed strong antagonistic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus, Salmonella, and E. coli. It was identified and named Lactobacillus plantarum CHO25. Chungtaejeon was fermented with a single starter of L. plantarum CHO25 and with a mixed starter (L. plantarum CHO25, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Bacillus amyloliquefaciens CHO104). The single fermented sample had the highest cell growth after 5 days of inoculation and the level decreased slowly thereafter. The mixed fermented sample showed strong growth of S. cerevisiae. The highest hunter values were the a value of the single fermented sample and the b value of the mixed sample. The single fermented tea showed the best incense score.
Long-term trends and distribution patterns of water quality were investigated in the Asan coastal areas of Yellow Sea, Korea from 1975 to 2005. Water samples were collected at 3 stations and physicochemical parameters were analyzed including water temperature, salinity, suspended solids (SS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and nutrients. Spatial distribution patterns were not clear among stations but the seasonal variations were distinct except COD, SS and nitrate. The trend analysis by principal component analysis (PCA) during twenty years revealed the significant variations in water quality in the study area. Annual water qualities were clearly discriminated into 4 clusters by PCA; year cluster 1988-1991, 1994-1997, and 1992-1993/1998- 2005. By this multi-variate analysis we can summarize the annual trends as the followings; salinity, suspended solids and dissolved oxygen tended to increase from late 1980's, increased pH and COD from 1992, and decreased salinity and increased nitrogen and COD from 1990 due to the runoff frow agricultural lands causing eutrophication.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diet quality of the menus delivered by 17 free meal service centers for the low-income home-bound elderly in Chung- cheong buk-Do. Statistical data analysis was compleleted using the SPSS package program for descriptive analysis, T-test, and ANOVA. The meals offered by free meal service centers were not met the 1/3 recommended dietary allowances in calcium and vitamin B2. There were significant differences between dependent variables(nutrient content, nutrient density, nutrient deficiency, NAR, MAR, food group intake patterns) and independent variables (operation type, operation status, operation period, nutritionist, food cost).
A survey was conducted in 591 college students using 8 different cafeterias serving 31 meals. The information was obtained about the name and amount of dishes they consumed from the menu offered by college foodservice. Mean nutrient contents per meal in offered menu were higher than 1/3 of RDA for their age, sex in offered menu. The mean energy content was 466kcal from rice, 113kcal from soup, 141kcal from side dish and 21kcal from kimchi. When side dishes were classified by cooking methods, side dishes using grilling, frying, roasting methods had high energy content and fat percent above 200kcal, 40% per dish. By main ingredients, side dishes with animal food were higher energy than with plant food. Students consumed 94% of the energy provided in offered menu. When compared to proportion of foods consumed by sex, there was 43% of female and 22% of male consumed less than half in soup and 31% of female and 12% of male in kimchi. The most prevalent menu patterns of subjects included rice, soup, 2 side dishes, kimchi and were the same in both sexes. Mean energy intakes per meal were 989kcal for males and 842kcal for females which were enough to meet 1/3 of RDA for their age and sex. Most nutrient intake except fat and vitamin B1 were higher in set menu than in cafeteria. Nutrient adequacy ratio(NAR) were above 0.9 except calcium and vitamin A. The mean energy intake was 542kcal from rice, 70kcal from soup, 164kcal from side dish and 20kcal from kimchi. In conclusion, intake of most of the nutrients of students obtained from males in college foodservice were sufficient but calcium intake was insufficient and fat content was above 20% of energy. High fat consumption was due to side dishes from frying, grilling, roasting with animal food. To provide desirable meals in college foodservice, use of fat in cooking must be decreased.
소의 도체로부터 사태, 갈비 및 등심을 분리하고 8℃에 저장하면서 actomyosin을 추출하여 부위별 저장기간에 따라 추출성 및 ATPase활성을 비교하였다. Actin과 myosin이 유리되어 형성된 actomyosin의 추출성은 저장초기 사태, 갈비 및 등심이 각각 36.74, 72.55 및 56.77㎎/g이었으며, 저장기간에 의한 추출양상은 갈비와 등심이 비슷하였고, 사태는 이들과 다르게 진행되었다. 사태의 Mg- 및 Ca-ATPase활성은 저장 3일까지 상승하다가 6일째 감소하였고, 갈비는 저장기간 동안 비슷하였으며, 등심은 저장기간에 따라 조금씩 낮아지는 경향이었다. 그리고 Mg- 및 Ca-ATPase활성은 사태, 등심 및 갈비의 순으로 크게 나타났다. 사태와 갈비의 EDTA-ATPase활성은 저장기간과 이온강도에 따라 차이를 보였지만 등심은 이온강도가 커짐에 따라 계속 상승하였다.
우리나라 고유 식품인 소양의 영양적 가치와 최적조리 조건을 제시하기 위해서, 소양 조직의 일반 영양성분과 조리방법(가열처리, 압력처리, 양과 물의 첨가비)에 따른 질소성분과 미네랄성분의 용출, 핵산관련 맛성분의 용출 및 관능검사 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1. 소양의 제 1위와 제 2위의 영양성분은 거의 차이가 없었으며 수분 약 83%, 회분 0.4~0.5%, 지방 약 3%, 단백질 약 13%, 칼슘 50~56mg%, α-amino N 75~76mg%, 인 75~76mg%였다. 소양의 상피세포층의 중량은 제 1위에서 35%, 제 2위에서 29%를 차지하였으며, 회분과 칼슘을 제외한 모든 영양성분은 상피세포층과 근육층에 균일하게 분포되어 있었으나 칼슘은 총함량의 80% 이상이 상피세포층에 함유되어 있었다. 2. 소양을 2, 4, 8, 12, 24시간 가열한 후 질소성분(총질소와 α-amino N)과 미네랄성분(칼슘과인)은 각각 8시간과 4시간 가열에 의해 plateau에 달하였으며, 맛성분인 5'-IMP는 8시간 가열에 의해 plateau에 달하였다. 관능검사 결과는 8-12시간 가열시 좋은 성적을 얻었다. 3. 소양을 압력솥에서 30분, 1, 2, 3, 4시간 가열조리한 후 질소성분과 미네랄성분은 각각 2시간과 1시간 가열에 의해 plateau에 달하였으며 5'-IMP는 2시간의 압력가열로 최대값을 나타냈다. 관능검사 결과는 1시간 이상 가열시 좋은 성적을 나타내었다. 4. 소양의 중량별 용출액 중의 영양성분을 보면, 양에 대한 물의 첨가량이 10배 이상일 때 용출량은 증가하고, 특히 칼슘은 10배 이하에서는 20배에서의 용출량의 50%로 감소되었다. 맛성분의 용출은 20배에서 가장 효과적이었으며, 관능검사 결과에는 차이가 없었다. 이상의 실험 성적에서 소양은 단백질과 칼슘의 급원 식품으로서 조리시 상피세포층을 제거하였을 때 영양적 손실이 크며, 특히 칼슘의 손실이 컸다. 영양성분의 충분한 용출과 맛을 위해서는 상압가열 조리에 있어서는 8시간의, 압력조리에 있어서는 1~2%시간의 조리시간, 양에 대한 물의 첨가량은 10배 이상이 필요하였다. 이것은 소양의 조리시 충분량의 물을 넣어 장시간 가열하는 우리나라 재래식 조리방법이 영양적, 미각적 측면에서 매우 합리적임을 시사한 것으로 본다.
호박의 부산물인 호박잎과 씨를 첨가하여 제조한 호박죽과, 발효 공정을 첨가하여 제조한 발효 호박죽 제품의 영양학적 특성을 조사한 결과는 다음과 같다. 호박죽의 발효 전과 발효 후 단백질 및 전분 분해효소 활성을 비교한 결과, 발효 후 배지에서 단백질 및 전분 분해효소 활성이 우수함을 알 수 있었다. 주재료(호박, 호박잎, 호박씨) 함량 65% 중 호박잎과 씨를 각각 0.25% 첨가한 시료(0.5%), 0.5%씩 첨가한 시료(1.0%), 1.0%씩 첨가한 시료(2%)를 발효과정을 거쳐 제조한 분말과, 1.0%(호박잎과 호박씨 각각 0.5% 첨가)로 제조한 분말(비발효, 대조구)의 일반성분 분석 결과, 발효 호박죽 시료의 경우 대조구에 비해 탄수화물과 조단백질 함량이 증가하였고, 수분, 조지방 함량은 감소하였다. 총당 분석 결과, 대조구(26.23±2.15%) 시료가 가장 높았으며, 발효 후 시료(18.31%-19.05%)는 낮아지는 결과를 보였다. Glucose, fructose와 sucrose 등 유리당 함량은 모든 시료에서 검출이 되었으며, fructose와 sucrose 함량은 발효 시료에서 감소하였고, 특히 sucrose 함량은 크게 감소하였다. 총 유리당 함량은 대조구(36.54±1.41%)가 가장 높았으며, 발효처리 시료의 경우 14.93-15.72%로 크게 감소하였고, sucrose 함량 감소가 주원인이었으며, 이는 총당 결과 발효과정에 따라 함량이 감소하는 결과와 일치하였다. 색도 측정결과, L 값(명도)은 대조구 비해 발효과정을 거친 제품의 경우 조금 낮아지는 결과를 보였으나, 이는 발효 유무보다는 재료의 첨가량에 따라 영향을 받는 것으로 판단된다. a 값(적색도)과 b 값(황색도)의 경우 발효 유무에 따라 차이를 보여 낮아지는 결과를 보였다. 시료간의 색차값을 비교한 ΔE 값은 0.5% 첨가한 발효 호박죽 분말이 10.09, 1.0% 첨가시료가 8.96, 2.0% 첨가시료가 10.34로 나타나 발효과정이 분말 고유의 색에 영향을 주는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 호박죽을 제조할 때 호박잎과 호박씨를 각각 1.0% 정도 첨가하여 발효처리를 한 호박죽의 제품이 가장 좋을 것으로 판단된다.
The purpose of this study was to determine the content of phenolics and various anthocyanin compounds, and antioxidant and anticancer activities of the extracts from pomergranates, which were produced in two different regions including Goheung, Korea and California, USA. These pomergrantes were divided into juice, pericarp, and seed parts and each part was extracted with 95% methanol. Content of total phenolics [mg chlorogenic acid equivalents/kg DW] was highest in pericarp, followed by juice and seeds from pomergrantes in both regions. The anthocyanins identified in pomegranate fruit were cyanidin-3,5-diglucoside chloride (Cy3,5G), cyanidin-3-O-glucoside chloride (Cy3G), delphini din-3,5-di-O-glucoside chloride (Dp3,5G), delphinidin-3-O-glucoside chloride (Dp3G), pelargonidin- 3,5-di-glucoside chloride (Pg3,5G), and pelargonidin-3-glucoside chloride (Pg3G). Among these, cyanidin-3, 5-diglucoside chloride (Cy3,5G) was the major anthocyanin in California pomegranate fruit juice and Goheung pomegranate fruit pericarp. DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical) free radical scavenging activity was dose-dependently increased, and was higher in pericarp part than juice or seed parts from pomergrantes in both regions. By MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay, pericarp extracts from pomergrantes in both regions showed the highest anticancer activity, which was higher on Calu-6 for human pulmonary carcinoma than SNU-601 for human gastric carcinoma. Correlation between polyphenols and anticancer activity on Calu-6 was determined to be in the range of r2=0.8904 to 0.9706.