This study explores the original text of a Korean recipe book written in the 17th century, which is hitherto unknown to food-related societies, and analyzes the characteristics of the recipes in this book. Choi’s recipes in Jasonbojoen (子孫寶傳) are significant, as it is a rare instance of a Korean cookbook written by a woman-few pre-17th century recipe books of this type are known to have survived. This study made some important discoveries after analyzing this book. First, by using pasqueflower and cockscomb, it was possible to identify the era-specific characteristics of kimchi recipes from the 1400s until after the 1700s. Second, this book has historical value, as it shows that the combination of kimchi with cockscomb and the recipe for stuffed eggplant kimchi made only with a small portion of garlic and salt have existed for longer than was previously believed. Third, this book can serve as a valuable database for studies on historical changes in Korean food recipes, as the recipes in this book besides those related to kimchi are representative of recipes in cookbooks before the 17th century. Additionally, it appears that some recipes in the book use very unique minor ingredients that cannot be found in other books.
GichukJinchanEuigwe is a celebration of King Soonjo’s 40th birthday and 30th accession to the throne. The Royal
banquet was carried out on February 9th MunggunggunJinchan and JagyeongjeonJeongilJinchan 3 days later.
JagyeongjeonJeongilJinbyulhangua is located beside JagyeongjeonJinchanan. The banquet table setting, table, dish level,
and table type are different according to royal hierarchy class. Jinbulhangua is served to only the king, queen, crown prince,
crown princess, and Myongon princess. The number of JagyeongjeonJinchanan served was as follows: king 30 plates,
crown prince 20 plates, and Myongon princess 15 plates. Tableware used were brassware and pottery.
Tean Mado Shipwreck No. 3 is presumed to have been shipwrecked between 1260 and 1268. It departed from a Southern costal area of Yeosu in Jeonnam Province to Ganghwa Island, its final destination at which the temporal regime of Koryo Dynasty was located. In the shipwreck, a total of 35 wooden tablets were found, and forwarding places, senders, receivers, descriptions, and quantities of freight were written on the wooden tablets. The names of receivers included Kim Jun, who was influential in the late Musin Era of the Koryo Dynasty, and key institutions such as Junmin and Sambyulcho of the Musin force. Twenty wooden tables had lists of food items such as barley, abalone, salted-fermented abalone, mussel, dried mussel, salted fermented mussel, dried shark meat, fish oil, pheasant, and dried dog meat. The food items in the late 13th century were systematically examined using scientifically determined food organic remains and records of wooden tablets among the marine relics of Mado Shipwreck No. 3.
The purpose of this study was to categorize and comparatively analyze tourists of different life-style groups who visit Yesan according to their lifestyles as well as their consumption behaviors and attitudes towards local foods or specialty agricultural products in order to understand the various needs, attitudes, and behaviors of consumers in each life-style group. Group 1 had a high percentage of single people in their 20s and those who worked in technology. Group 2 had a high percentage of those in their 30s and 40s who were married and were professionals. Group 3 had a high percentage of men and those in their 40s and 50s, as well as a high percentage of high income, highly educated people. Group 4 had a high percentage of those in their 20s or those in their 60s or higher. Compared to other groups, group 4 had a larger percentage of lower income and less educated people. In verifying the difference between life-style groups in terms of their behaviors and attitudes toward local foods and specialty agricultural products, consumption and experience of regional specialty foods showed high average scores in groups 1, 2, and 3, with significant differences from group 4.
This study assessed the effect of color marketing in the RTD coffee industry in Korea. In order to investigate the effect of color marketing, this study measured the characteristics of color marketing as well as brand image and attitude in accordance with behavioral intention to purchase. Data were collected using questionnaires, and a total of 310 questionnaires were distributed with 298 entered for data analysis. Frequency analysis, factor analysis, correlation, and multiple regression analysis were tested using SPSS. A total of seven factors were extracted, including brand attitude, purchase intention, association, identification, brand awareness, symbolism, and attention. Significances were found between brand awareness and identification (p<0.001) and attention (p<0.001). In the relationship between characteristics of colors and brand attitude, significances were found in identification (p<0.001), attention (p<0.001), and association (p<0.001). Further, brand attitude and brand awareness had a significant positive effect on purchasing intention of RTD coffee. Results of this study suggested that color marketing is a good marketing tool to persuade potential consumers to purchase RTD coffee based on brand attitude and brand awareness.
Restaurants implement menu labeling to provide nutritional information to customers in an attempt to help customers select healthy menu items. Considering the increase in food-away-from-home consumption, the purpose of this study was to identify motivators and barriers in restaurant customers regarding use of menu labeling. Data were collected from a survey on restaurant customers in Seoul, Korea. The findings of this study indicate that customers used menu labeling for health reasons. However, barriers to using menu labeling were identified as small font size, difficulty in locating nutritional information display, and difficulty in interpreting nutritional information. In addition, they also suggested expanding the scope of menu labeling for restaurants by including chain restaurants with less than 100 units. The findings of this study offer strategies for the government to improve menu labeling practices for customers.
This study was conducted to investigate the bioconversion of ginsenosides as well as anti-inflammatory activities of fresh ginseng Kkakdugi during fermentation. Fresh ginseng Kkakdugi reached proper ripeness, pH 4.30, and acidity 1.69% at 15oC after 10 days. Lactic acid bacteria grew until reaching 1.10×109 CFU/mL after 20 days of fermentation, and β- glucosidase activity increased from 1.154 to 1.885 units/g. The bioconversion of ginsenosides was confirmed based on increased content of Rg3, an aglycone, from 0.13 to 0.17 mg/g during fermentation through HPLC. Fresh ginseng Kkakdugi did not display cytotoxicity up to the concentrations of 80 μg/mL, regardless of ripening period. Nitrite production and expression of inflammation-related proteins, iNOS and COX-2, decreased in a dose-dependent manner regardless of ripening period. From these results, fresh ginseng Kkakdugi showed the bioconversion of ginsenosides to aglycone during the lactic acid fermentation as well as an anti-inflammatory effect through the reduction of NO production and iNOS and COX-2 expression
The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of cookies containing Ligularia fischeri powder (0, 1, 2, 3, 4%) substituted for flour. This study measured the density, pH, spread ratio, volume, color values, hardness, and sensory properties of cookies. The pH of cookie dough significantly decreased in response to addition of Ligularia fischeri powder (LFP) at all levels. The spread factor of cookies also significantly increased with higher LFP content. In addition, Hunter's color L, a, and b values significantly decreased with increasing LFP content. According to hardness measurement, substitution of 1~4% LFP resulted in increased hardness compared to the control. In the sensory evaluation, sensory scores for color, flavor, and overall acceptability were highest in 2% Ligularia fischeri powder cookies. Thus, our results suggest that the optimum amount of Ligularia fischeri powder added to cookies was 2%. These results suggest that Ligularia fischeri powder can be applied to cookies to achieve high quality and functionality.
This study was conducted to promote the utilization of fish paste containing four different amounts (0%: control, 2, 4, and 6%) of cheonggukjang powder. For Hunter color values, L values of samples decreased as concentration of cheonggukjang powder increased, and a and b values increased. Folding tests for all samples showed good flexibility. In the texture meter test, hardness, cohesiveness, and springiness increased according to increasing concentrations of cheonggukjang powder. However, gumminess and brittleness of fish paste were reduced upon addition of cheonggukjang powder. In the sensory evaluation, fish paste prepared with 2% cheonggukjang powder was more preferred over other fish pastes. This study suggests that addition of 2% cheonggukjang powder to fish paste could be a good way to increase cheonggukjang powder without decreasing texture acceptability.
This study was to conducted to investigate the antioxidative activity of 70% ethanol extracts of kiwi of three different colors (gold, green and red) by measuring DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging activity, tyrosinase inhibitory effect, metal chelating effect, reducing power, and nitrite scavenging activity. Total polyphenol contents were: gold kiwi, 3.09 mg GAE/g, green kiwi 2.71 mg GAE/g, and red kiwi 4.59 mg GAE/g, respectively. Red kiwi showed higher antioxdidant activity than gold and green kiwi. DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and nitrite scavenging activity of red kiwi exhibited 94.83, 99.57, and 97.88%, respectively, at a concentration of 20 mg/mL, which were equal to those of ascorbic acid (positive control). Metal chelating effect of red kiwi was superior to that of ascorbic acid. Therefore, the availability of red kiwi will be increased in the field of functional material for food additives and value added products.
The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Hericium erinaceum Powder (HEP) on the quality characteristics of Jook. The proximate composition of HEP was as follows: moisture, 6.10%; crude protein, 32.69%; crude lipid, 4.63%; crude ash, 11.40%; and carbohydrates, 45.18%. Each sample contained 3, 6, and 9% Jook of Hericium erinaceum Powder (JHEP) compared to the control and their physicochemical properties assessed. As the level of HEP increased, there was a significant decrease in pH (p<0.05) and significant increase in total acidity (p<0.001). In addition, L and a values decreased, whereas b value increased with increasing addition of HEP. The Jook showed lower spreadability and higher viscosity values as its content increased. According to the results, addition of HEP positively affects the quality characteristics of Jook.
To make fermented bamboo shoot liquid, we isolated and classified a microorganism growing in bamboo shoot and investigated its quality characteristics. Crude fiber, crude ash, nitrogen-free extracts, and total sugar contents were higher after fermentation. For free amino acids, only alanine was detected in the control group. Detected 13 kinds of free amino acids were detected in fermented bamboo shoot liquid. In organoleptic test, fermented bamboo shoot beverage containing 20 percent strawberry showed the highest consumer preference.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the perception of health functional foods and preference for desired onion peel products. Questionnaires were distributed to 582 adults (34.2% male, 65.8% female) living in Gyeongnam province. The major information sources on biological effects of onions cited by respondents were TV/radio (37.1%), followed by nearby people (32.8%) and Internet (11.0%), in that order. Reducing cholesterol effect was the most important factor in terms of perception and concerns relating to biological function of onions. Over 73% of subjects had experience of eating processed onion products, and among all types of onion products, onion juice (53.5%) was the most frequently eaten. The most considered factors for processing onion peel-derived functional foods were taste & odor (29.6%), convenience of eating (28.9%), and nutrition value (27.1%), in that order.