The purpose of this study was to investigate several aspects of eating out behavior especially in relation to food waste. The data were collected from 620 housewives in Jeonbuk area but, except for 134 case not eating out . The 66.9% of subjects ate eating out 1 to 2 times monthly. The younger in age, higher in education level and employed housewives, higher in monthly income have a more increase in eating out frequency. In the 50.8% of subjects food rest was rare when eating out. The higher in educational level and higher in monthly income have an inclination to more food waste. The 51.4% of subjects don't know [Good Menu System]. We housewives should order a planned and moderate food amount when eating out, and make an effort normally anywhere for the reduction of food waste, and then the wasted food and food rubbish will be reduced. Besides this, the restaurants should practice [Food Bank] & [Good Menu System] and the academic world should make further researches on this field. Moreover the government administration should enlighten the people and have a public information for the more reasonable food culture.
This study was carried out to survey dietary intakes of 739 elementary students, 4-6grades, in Won-Ju area, in 1998, to enhance the effect of school foodservice. The results were as follows : 1. Most investigated students had nuclear family with one brother or one sister. 2. The average height of boys and girls was 141.0±7.7cm and 141.4±8.0cm, and the average weight of them was 35.7±8.5kg and 36.1±8.5kg, respectively. There was no significant difference between boys and girls. 3. The rates of obesity were 12.2% in urban, 7.4% in rural and 0% in remote rural area by Rohrer index and 22.9% in urban 13.9% in rural and 0% in remote rural area by the rate based on standard weight. 4. All nutrients intake of investigated students were sufficient according to recommended dietary allowances. All nutrients intake of boys were higher than those of girls. Calcium intake of children with well educated mother was higher than that of children with poorly educated mother. Children in remote rural area had lower carbohydrate, calory and calcium intake than those in other areas. 5. Students without breakfast had lower protein and iron intake and higher calory from snack than those with breakfast. 6. Students who thought themselves to be obesity had low intake of carbohydrate, total calory and calory from snack and students with regular exercise had high intake of protein, iron, calcium and calory from snack. 7. Students with unbalanced diet, snack intake in large quantities and irregular meal had lower protein, fat, iron and calcium intake and higher calory from snack than other students. As a result, Students without breakfast often had lower all nutrients except calory from snack than other students, significantly. Problems of nutrients intake of elementary students in Won-Ju area were high rate of obesity, high intake of protein, unbalanced nutrients intake of students without meal or students with excessive eating and limited calcium intake of students with poorly educated mother. It is important to confirm desirable food habits for balanced nutrients intake in all areas and to increase calcium intake of students in remote rural area.
This study was designed to evaluate food habits, anthropometry and obesity of 252 children(136 boys, 116 girls) aged 2~6 years old. The anthropometric indices were measured and food habits were surveyed. Average food habit score was 11.7/20.0 in boys and 11.8/20.0 in girls. It was found that 60.3% of the subjects belonged to fair score group(7-13) in food habits, while subjects in poor (0-6) and in excellent (14-20) were 30.6% and 9.1% respectively. There was no significant difference in food habits score between boys and girls. The food habits score tended to be higher as the mother's education level, total family income, number of siblings were increased. The mean height, weight and chest circumference of the subjects were much higher than the Korean standards. Evaluating the obesity by weight for height, 77.8% subjects was normal, 4.0% was underweight and 18.3% was obese. Underweight children did not seem to enjoy their meals and ate too slowly compared to normal or obese children. Therefore they needed to promote food habits by good nutritional education.
To compare actual obesity rate and self-evaluated body shape, 651 women living in Inchon were participated in the measurement of anthropometric indices and in the survey by questionnaire. Mean RBW and BMI were in normal range except the girl in 13-15 years. RBW and BMI of the women in 40s and 50s were significantly higher than those in women in younger ages(p<0.001). Triceps skinfold thickness of the subjects were not significantly different. Significantly low DRBW in teenagers and women in 20s showed that their desire to reduce body weight were very strong. Over the half of the subjects thought they were too heavy and unsatisfied at their body shapes. The parts of the body desired to remove extra fat were the waist & abdomen in women over 30s and the thigh & legs in teenagers. It is thought that women, especially in 10s and 20s need the education about the appropriate evaluation of body shape and also need the nutrition education about the deteriorated influence of underweight on health.
This study was conducted to assess dietary intake and quality obtained by 24-hour recall method between Korean-Chinese in Yanbian, China(Korean-Chinese) and Koreans in Kuri, Korea(Koreans). The subjects consisted of 730 Korean-Chinese and 696 Koreans. Mean daily energy intake of Korean-Chinese was 1,788kcal and that of Korean was 1,844kcal. Proportions of energy intake from carbohydrate, fat, and protein were 62.6: 16.9: 14.2 for Korean-Chinese and 65.4: 16.3: 14.4 for Koreans. Nutrient intake levels of Koreans were higher than those of Korean-chinese in most nutrients. Calcium and vitamin B2 intakes as percent of Korean RDA were less than 60% in Korean-Chinese. Koreans consumed calcium and vitamin A in the level less than 80% of Korean RDA. Iron intake level of Korean females was less than 75% of Korean RDA. Korean-Chinese consumed 90.4% of food from plant origin, and Koreans consumed 82.5% of food from plant origin. Mean dietary diversity score(DDS) of Korean-Chinese, 3.00±0.39, was significantly lower than that of Koreans, 3.73±0.76(p<0.05). Mean dietary variety score(DVS) of Korean-Chinese, 13.6, was significantly lower than that of Koreans, 20.1(p〈0.001). According to these results, some adults in the both Korean-Chinese and Koreans did not consume enough nutrients, especially calcium and vitamin B2 intake for Korean-Chinese and calcium and vitamin A intake for Koreans. Dietary qualities of Korean-Chinese subjects and Korean females were not adequate. In the future, further research to promote dietary quality of Koreans including Korean-Chinese must consider the results of this study.
This study was performed to investigate the recognition on preprocessed foods among dietitians employed in 106 elementary school foodservices in Inchon by questionnaire from December 11th to 28th in 1999. Number of cooks in school foodservices increased significantly(p〈0.01) with the number of children to feed, and 8 or 9 cooks were the most typical number(36.79%). Most(93.4%) of the subjects understood that it is necessary to use the preprocessed foods and they considered the food hygiene as the most important factor. Many subjects(89.62%) responded that the lack of cooks and cooking equipment was partly solved by using preprocessed foods and the expected reductions in personnel and waste through using preprocessed foods were 15~20% (38.68% of the subjects) and 20-30% (41.51% of the subjects), respectively.
A survey was carried out to investigate relation between life stress and nutrient intake status in female university students. It was represented that increasing trends of food intake under the stress condition and preference taste was sweet and hot in female students. The female students thought that food intake for coping with stress was produced negative results and they perceived the relation between stress and their health problem. There was a positive correlation between stress level and the change of food intake in female students statistically(p〈0.01). They had higher stress in future prospect, academic problem, friend relationship, personality and family relationship. The average calorie intake of female university students was 1553.06kcal(77.65% of RDA). The intake of protein, calcium and iron were quite less than the RDA, whereas the intake of phosphate, vitamin A, B2, C, niacin were more than the RDA. In changes of nutrient intake under the stress conditions, the higher stress group had decreased intake of calcium, iron, vitamin B1, B2, C than the lower stress group(p〈0.05).
The purposes of this study are : (a) to investigate the attitude to various coffee and tea of women, (b) to analyze the characteristics of each classified group according to eating frequency, and (c) to abstract the factors which can influence the consumption of coffee and tea. Questionnaires were hand delivered to 1,200 women residing in Seoul. A total of 1012 was usable: resulting in 84% response rate. Statistical data analysis was completed using SAS Package program for the one way-analysis of variance(ANOVA), Duncan's multiple comparison test, factor analysis and analysis of covariance (ANOCOVA). (a) Instant coffee was most consumed(22.1 times a month), green tea in tea bag(8.7), Donggulre tea(8.3), Coffee (72) in order of frequency. Among Korean traditional tea Donggulre tea(8.3) and Yuja tea (2.0) were most prefered but still a minute quantity of Korean traditional tea was enjoyed. (b) Coffee and Black tea was regarded unhealthful but habitual, delicious and familiar beverage. Green tea was regarded good for health but not so habitual, practical and familiar. The consumer awareness can be grouped into 3 clases : Healthy factor, Habitual Practical factor, Familiar factor. (c) The sociodemographic characteristics of women influenced the beverage consumption. Women in their 30s and 40s consumed much of instant coffee and coffee. 10s and 20s consumed much of canned coffee. Working women drank much of instant coffee and green tea in tea bag. Women in highest income group(≥ 4,000,000 won/month) consumed much of coffee. (d) The factors which influenced the eating frquency of those beverages were various. The eating frequency of instant coffee was influenced by the age, familiar factor and habitual practical factor. And coffee were influenced by income level, habitual practical factor. The frequency of green tea in tea bag was influenced by habitual practical factor and familiar factor, green tea was influenced by healthy factor and habitual practical factor, Donggulre tea was influenced by habitual practical factor.
This study was undertaken to investigate meal pattern, nutrition knowledge and food preference of 438 rural middle school students living in ChunNam area. As far as nutrition knowledge is concerned, most subjects did not answer correctly on the items of basic five food groups, animal fat and vegetable oil, empty source of soft drink, nutrient requirement and water's role in energy metabolism. However they responded well on the item of iron deficiency and dietary source of Ca. Male students were significantly better in the answering the items of dietary source of energy and nutrient requirement than females, while female students were significantly better on the items of water's role in energy metabolism related to obesity. Generally the respondents did neither consume oil often nor consider consumption of salty food. Furthermore, only 38.6% of subjects drink milk daily in spite of understanding dietary source of Ca, which suggested that they should incorporate nutrition knowledge into dietary behavior. The preferred foods for most subjects were fruit, kimbab and ice cream. Contrastingly the food that they did not prefer was fermented vegetable probably due to strong flavor.
The purpose of this study was to develop menu planning in the elementary food service system. This survey conducted in 10 elementary schools located in Inchon area. Among 300 questionnaires, 258 responses were collected and were analyzed by SAS program. Household income levels, food habits and preference of menu were investigated using frequency and percentiles with chi-square test. The result showed that mostly people belonged to lower middle income classes. As for preference of school food service menu, elementary students chose correction of unbalanced diet and good nutrition, while mothers of them ranked correction of unbalanced diet and convenience of preparing food. Regardness of mothers for menu preference of the elementary school students came to an agreement overall.
대구효성가톨릭대학교 여대생 412명과 일본의 후쿠오카 지역 여대생 423명을 대상으로 설문지 및 신체계측을 통하여 조사한 청년기 여대생의 자기체형인식과 수척하기 원하는 조절 지향 및 사회적 체형 불안도를 알아본 결과는 다음과 같다. 1. 조사대상자의 평균연령은 대구지역은 19.2±2.1세이며 신장은 159.6±4.9cm, 평균체중은 51.2±6.0kg로 BMI 수치는 20.1±2.2이었다. 이 수치는 한국인 20대 여자 평균 체중인 53 Kg 보다는 조금 낮았으며 키는 160cm로 근접한 수치를 보여주고 있다. 일본의 후쿠오카 지역 대상자는 18.3±0.6세이며 신장은 157±5.0cm, 평균체중은 53.3±6.9kg로 BMI 수치는 21.5±2.5이었다. 2. 대구지역 여대생의 이상적으로 생각하는 신상, 체중 및 BMI와 현실치와의 차는 희망신장은 164.7±2.9cm로 실제 그들의 평균 신장보다 5.1±4.1cm의 차이를 보였고 이상적체중은 48.7±2.9kg로 실제체중보다 -2.6±5.0kg로 적게 나타났다. 또한 이상적인 BMI수치를 보면 18.0±1.0로 실제 BMI수치보다 -2.2±2.0 더 낮은 BMI수치를 선호함을 보여주었다. 후쿠오카 지역 대상자의 이상적으로 생각하는 신장, 체중 및 BMI와 현실치와의 차는 이상신장은 160.7±3.5cm로 실제 그들이 평균 신장보다 3.2±4.2cm의 차이를 보였고 이상적 체중은 47.9±3.4kg로 실제체중보다 -5.4±5.8kg로 적게 나타났다. 또한 이상적인 BMI수치를 보면 18.5±1.2로 실제 BMI수치보다 -3.0±2.2 더 낮은 BMI수치 선호함을 보여주었다. 대구 및 후쿠오카 양 지역 대상자는 이상체형에서는 마른 쪽으로의 선호 경향이 높았다. 3. 체중조절지향도에서는 대구지역 대상자 중 좀더 마르기를 희망하는 학생의 수는 285명으로 전체의 70.1%를 나타냈으며, 좀 더 살찌기를 희망하는 학생의 수는 30명으로 전체의 7.3%, 현 상태에 만족하면서 그대로의 유지를 원하는 학생의 수는 93으로 22.6%이었다. 일본의 후쿠오카 지역의 대상차들 중 좀더 마르기를 희망하는 학생의 수는 361명으로 전체의 85.6%를 나타냈으며, 좀 더 살찌기를 희망하는 학생의 수는 93명으로 전체의 2.6%, 현 상태에 만족하면서 그대로의 유지를 원하는 학생의 수는 51명으로 전체의 12.1%였다. 4. 실제체형과 자기평가체형과의 비교 평가율에서는 과대 평가율이 대구지역은 56.5% 후쿠오카지역은 57.2%로 나타났으며 정당평가율은, 39.1%. 40.3% 과소평가율은 4.4%, 2.3%이 었다. 5. 대구지역 대상자의 체형평가에 따른 사회적 체형 불안도는 전체 대상자의 평균치는 28점이었으며 여윔에서는 너무 살찜으로 갈수록 사회적 체형 불안도가 상승하는 경향을 나타내었다. 후쿠오카 지역 대상자의 체형평가에 따른 사회적 체형 불안도는 전체 대상자의 평균치는 34점이었으며 여윔에서는 너무 살찜으로 갈수록 사회적 체형불안도가 상승하는 경향을 나타내었다. 후쿠오카 지역의 체형 불안 도가 대구지역보다 유의적으로 높았다. 한 일 여대생의 자기 체형인식 및 체형 불안도에 관한 비교연구에서 한국여대생이 일본여대생보다 평균 신장은 크고 평균체중은 적으며 이상적으로 생각하는 신장은 한국이 일본보다 더 크고 체중은 비슷하였다. 체중조절지향도는 한국여대생보다 일본여대생이 마르기를 희망하는 율이 더 높고 체형의 과대평가율은 한국여대생과 일본여대생이 비슷하였으며 사회적 체형불안도는 일본여대생이 대구여대생보다 높았다.