The objective of this study was to assess the physicochemical characteristics of morning rolls containing various levels (0, 2, and 4%) of Makgeolli lees extract powder, which has nutritional and health effects. The results demonstrated that pH, moisture content, volume, weight, and baking loss rate of morning rolls were not significantly different among the groups. In the morning rolls with 4% Makgeolli lees extract powder, the Hunter's color 'a' (redness), but not L (lightness) or b (yellowness), was significantly higher than that in the other two groups. After estimating the texture quality of morning rolls, hardness, chewiness, and gumminess decreased significantly with added Makgeolli lees extract powder, but springiness was not significantly different. The results of the sensory test showed that appearance and texture increased as more Makgeolli lees extract powder was added, and that the overall acceptability score and air cell uniformity score for 2% and 4% Makgeolli lees extract powder morning rolls were significantly higher than those of controls. These results indicate that the texture and sensitivity of morning rolls can be increased by adding Makgeolli lees extract powder without affecting the overall quality.
This study investigated women's magazines and women's food consumption stories of the 1950/s. That is, it attempted to comprehend the connection between the public and private aspects of food consumption as discussed in the 1950's. The public aspect of culture was investigated using the women's magazine "Yeo-won" which reflected the social and intellectual hegemony of the time. The private aspects of culture were investigated by reviewing the daily life of women though in-depth interviews. Mass media reflected the social and intellectual hegemony and indicated that a cultivated woman who supported western food was a wise mother and a good wife, and that a woman who consumed flour-based food was a reasonable and modern consumer, ahead of her time The admiration for the U.S. and its advanced civilization through free handouts of flour and powdered milk accelerated the consumption of industrialized flour-based foods such as noodles, hardtack, and steamed bread. This lead to the rigid traditional food-eating habits of boiled rice, and side dishes changed to flour-based and processed foods. That is, food represented a cultural identity.
The aim of this study was to develop a KDPS (Korean dietary pattern score) to assess dietary patterns and diet quality of Koreans from a food culture perspective. The KDPS was applied to dietary data collected during the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2007, and the validity and reliability of the KDPS were evaluated. The targets of the study included 2,278 Korean adults aged 20n89 years. The KDPS was developed using the sum of the scores of 13 components. Each component scored up to 10 points and there was a total of 130 points. The first seven components were for the KSMS (Korean-style meal score) and assessed the dietary balance based on the 3-Chup Bansang daily basic table setting. The components numbered 8 to 13 were for the FGS (food group score), which measured the degree of compliance with the six major food groups based on the Korean recommendation for one serving size of grains, meats, vegetables, fruits, milk, and oils. This KDPS was verified through content validity, concurrent-criterion validity, principal components analysis, and a reliability analysis. The results showed that content validity and construct validity were high. The KDPS developed in this study adhered to the Korean dietary pattern and a healthy diet intake. Furthermore, this study presented an integrated index by scoring the Korean style table setting in addition to evaluating meals from a nutrition perspective. This study can be extended to develop a score for assessing.
Although many studies have suggested that introducing the distance learning method, including Web-based learning, to a practice class is effective, studies applying the distance learning method to subjects who are practicing cooking are rare. The purpose of this study was to determine the perception of the distance learning method, the degree of computer use, and the use of distance learning by college students with cuisine-related majors to practice cooking. The results showed that most students used the distance learning method, and that the method was positively perceived, as it was a great aid in learning. Most of the cooking information was obtained through the internet, and the most effective learning media for practicing cooking was "e-learning" using a computer. The most effective learning method for those who were practicing cooking was a "face-to-face learning method", because face-to-face type of teaching and learning was most universally recognized. Most of the students surveyed responded that using the distance learning method was a positive experience, indicating that cyber lectures could be applied at more universities for subjects practicing cooking.
This study investigated the perception, evaluation, and the possibility for globalizing Korean foods and Yak-sun among different nationalities of foreigners living in Korea. A survey was conducted with 171 foreigners (eastern Asian, southeastern and central Asian, European, and American). The questionnaire was composed of three parts, including perception, evaluation, and the possibility for globalizing Korean foods and Yak-sun. The reason for choosing Korean foods cited by southeastern and central Asians and Americans was "taste", whereas eastern Asians and Europeans chose "culture" and "curiosity", respectively. Americans and Europeans considered "spiciness" as a reason not to choose Korean foods (P<0.001). Regarding the possibility of globalizing Korean foods, eastern Asians and Americans/Europeans/southeast Asians and central Asians responded "Korean dining culture" and "incomprehensive menus", respectively (P<0.05). An "explanation of the menu to foreigners" was regarded as the main suggestion for globalizing Korean food. Most of the respondents understood that Yak-sun is an oriental medicinal food that provides improved health and disease prevention. A number of Europeans and Americans expressed high interest in the conceptualization of Yak-sun (P<0.001). With regard to the priority for developing Yak-sun, eastern Asians, southeastern and central Asians, and Europeans picked out "health status improvement", whereas "improved nutritional status" was manifested in the majority of the American's responses (P<0.001). Therefore, it is crucial that "localization" be applied to Korean foods and Yak-sun to meet the international standard. Furthermore, it is necessary to provide simplified and correct Korean food content information to foreigners.
Research was conducted on vinegar types and characteristics with reference to representative literature such as SanGaYoRok, SikRyoChanYo, SooEunJabBang, GoSaChalYo, DongEuiBoGam, SaSiChanYoCho, JuBangMoon, ShinGanGuWhang, ChalYoSeo, EumSikDiMiBang, YoRok, ChiSengYoRam, SanRimKyoungJae,EumSikBo,OnJuBeop, SulManDeuNunBeop, KyuHapChongSeo, ImWonSipYukJi, JungIlDangJabJi, SulBitNeunBeop, SiUiJeonSeo, and BuInPilJi from the 15th to the 19th centuries of the Joseon Dynasty. Based on this research, a classification of materials used in vinegar, knowledge on treatment, preparation of ingredients, capturing flavor, storage of vinegar, as well as the favorable days that vinegar can be manufactured were studied and analyzed based on the different aspect of vinegar. Vinegar is a wellknown condiment throughout the world and has the potential of becoming a luxurious food. Replication and further analysis to expand the properties of vinegar is necessary using old literature, together with the literature identified above. Based on ongoing research, it is foreseeable that the development of a vinegar with unique characteristics and improved standards will be the foundation for the globalization of Korean cuisine, which is our current focus.
This study was conducted to examine the effects of a healthy dietary life and purchase of environmental-friendly food materials according to a mother's lifestyles of health and sustainability (LOHAS) attitudes. The subjects consisted of 295 mothers. The findings are summarized as follows. The mother's LOHAS attitude index averaged 3.39 points out of 5 points. High LOHAS attitude items were "I participate actively in separating the trash collection" (4.16 points), and "I recycle dresses that I do not wear by taking them to the recycling center" (4.08 points). In contrast, LOHAS attitude items for "I do community service activity on the weekend" (2.57 points), and "I try to serve in the local community" (2.63 points) scored very low. A high LOHAS behavior index occurred for mothers who were "resource saving", whereas "social welfare" scored low. Mother's intention to purchase environmental-friendly food materials averaged 3.61 points. Mother's health dietary life attitude score averaged 3.52 points. When age, monthly income, and the environmental-friendly food materials purchase ratio of the mother was high, the health dietary life performance was high. The LOHAS attitude index of mothers had an impact on the purchase intention of environmental-friendly food materials in resource saving and environmental-friendly oriented propensity groups. The LOHAS attitude index of mothers impacted healthy dietary life in environmental-friendly, family and health oriented propensity groups.
The purpose of this study was to survey public preferences for dining space image styles depending on the types of passage rites in Korea and to determine potential differences in public preferences for dining space image styles depending on the types of passage rites in terms of various general characteristics such as gender, age, family type, and preference for the image and color styles of the dining space. As a result, this study determined the following: According to a public preference survey of dining space image styles depending on the type of passage rites, our respondents showed the highest preference for casual images (27.1%) at a party for a 100-day-old baby. Additionally, our respondents showed the highest preference for casual images (27.4%) when celebrating a baby's first birthday but showed the highest preference for romantic images (35.8%) when celebrating a baby girl's first birthday. Our respondents showed the highest preference for casual images (21.4%) for graduation ceremonies. Our respondents showed the highest preference for classic images (21.7%) at coming-of-age ceremonies for new adult men, but also showed highest preference for elegant images (26.2%) at coming-of-age ceremonies for new adult women. Moreover, the respondents showed highest preference for classic images (41.0%) at traditional wedding ceremonies but elegant images (24.1%) at modern wedding ceremonies. In contrast, the respondents showed highest preference for classic images (31.3%) for a 60th birthday party. The highest preference for classic images (28.9%) was found for a diamond wedding ceremony. Respondents showed highest preference for classic images (30.4%) for a funeral ceremony Finally, our respondents showed highest preference for classic images (32.5%) at memorial services (religious ceremonies).
This study examined the understanding and use of information on nutrition labels based on one serving size among female consumers above the age of 20 in Seoul area. According to the survey, 69.9% of respondents were aware of the current system of nutrition labeling based on one serving size, and 51.8% of the respondents expressed their dissatisfaction with the system because the nutrition labels were difficult to understand or appeared unreliable. The nutrition label literacy of the consumers varied with respect to different packaging units. The respondents were likely to be less accurate in calculating the expected caloric intake when only portions of a multi-serving package were used. Initially 69.0% of respondents reported that they had read the nutrition label before purchasing a product but 91.9% of respondents said that they would check the label after learning how to read the label properly. It is very important to make consumers aware that the labels are very reliable sources of nutrition information. A public education campaign on the use of nutrition labels should focus on developing the consumers' ability and skills in using the label information when choosing foods.
"Sikui-simgam ("食醫心鑑", Book for Alimentotherapist)" written by Jameun, a doctor of Tang (唐) in the 9th century, propagated alimentotherapy in Korea, China, and Japan for a long time. In this study, Sikui-simgam medical theories were studied and the medicinal ingredients and types of food therapy were analyzed to understand alimentotherapy characteristics. "Sikui-simgam" is the first food therapy formulary diverged from herbal therapy forms. Various ingredients from "Sikui-simgam" show the food culture of the Tang age and report much about cooking and cultural history. Many prescriptions in the books are the origins of present-day food culture; thus, they are important clues to understand the present food culture. This book also describes actual prescriptions in detail. Various types of prescriptions with different ingredients are unique characteristics of food therapy and show the various possibilities for food therapy prescriptions. The food therapy prescriptions of "Sikui-simgam" were designed for medical specialists, as the book contains doses and incompatibilities for food therapy. Such food therapy prescriptions were used to treat diseases, so they were used with strict standards.
Rural tourism is primarily a domestic tourism activity with visitors traveling to non-urban areas. The development of local and regionally denominate food is a way to distinguish agricultural production and to promote rural tourism. Therefore, this study addressed how utilizing regional agricultural products results in increasing the intention of tourists to revisit an area. The purposes of this study were 1) to identify the image and motives for visiting Yesan, 2) to determine the importance of purchasing intention and the regional menu produced from local agricultural/special products, and 3) to identify the impact of purchasing local agricultural/special products and regional menus on the intention to revisit. A total of 202 usable questionnaires were collected at Ducksan Hotsprings and Suduck Temple in Yean area, which are known tourist attractions. The major findings obtained were as follows: First, Yesan was considered a relaxing place (3.46±1.09), which was the highest ranked image score for a tourist attraction. Second, the highest ranked motive for visiting Yesan was to rest (3.77±1.18). According to these findings, Yesan is a relaxing place, as it is a rural area with no known defined attractions. Third, most tourists (78.7%) recognized the apple as a local agricultural/special product. The intentions to purchase local agricultural/special products and the need for regional dishes in the local restaurant was higher than average. Tourists showed interests (3.88±1.16) in eating regional dishes made with local agricultural/special products at the restaurants. Fourth, a significant impact of purchasing local agricultural/special products and the regional menu was observed on the intention to revisit (p〈0.000). The results indicate that it is very important to develop proper regional menus that concur with images of the location and the regional farming products.
The purpose of this study was to select market variables that a foodservice company should consider when expanding overseas and to regional market analysis by variables. Twenty-three different variables were derived from 17 previous studies. These were: population, urbanization rate, women employed, enrollment in tertiary education, gross domestic product, value added by service, total number of mobile cellular telephone subscribers, number of internet users, total Asian highway, inward foreign direct investment, total service imports, inflation rate, international tourist arrivals, energy use by industry, growth rates of the food consumer price index, access to urban sanitation, per capita total expenditure on health, male life expectancy at birth, adult literacy rate, contributing women family workers, passenger car, and country risk assessment. The selected variables were collected as secondary data from the UN, Asian Development Bank, International Bank for Reconstruction and Development, and Michigan State University.
The aim of this study was to examine how customers perceive storytelling at a real local restaurant and to understand how consumption reflects their evaluation by understanding their values. Participants received information from a real local restaurant in the Gangneung area to examine the effects of storytelling and to evaluate their affective attitudes towards local restaurant stories, word-of-mouth intentions, and purchasing intentions using a seven-point Likert scale. A total of 310 consumers were used. A factor analysis was performed to identify consumption value characteristics and factor structure, which consisted economic value, emotional value, and epistemic value. To test whether local restaurant consumers could be classified into homogenous groups based on their consumption values, a three cluster solution was selected, and a Kmeans cluster analysis was performed. As a result, three groups were identified and labeled appropriate for their scores based on each of the consumption values; emotional value-oriented consumers to cluster 1, epistemic value-oriented consumers to cluster 2, and economic value-oriented consumers to cluster 3. An analysis of variance was used to examine the differences in the affective attitudes towards storytelling at the local restaurant, purchasing intentions, and word-of-mouth intentions across the three clusters. The epistemic value-oriented consumers had the highest score for all three variables. In contrast, economic value-oriented consumers had the lowest scores for the three variables. A regression analysis revealed that affective attitudes towards storytelling were significantly affected by these three consumption values. It also showed that positive affective attitudes towards storytelling were associated with higher purchasing intention and word-of-mouth. The significance of this study was to show how customers perceive storytelling at a real restaurant and reflect on their evaluation by understanding their consumption values. As a result, this study examined the potential power of storytelling as an effective marketing communication tool for local restaurants.
Bamboo leaf powder was added to Jeolpyun to increase the neutraceutical effects and storage period. The bamboo leaf powder was added to rice flour at ratios of 0, 4, 6, 8, and 10% (w/w), and they were treated with aqueous malt extract to extend storage. The Jeolpyun was stored at 20℃ for 72 hr, and the physical and sensory characteristics were evaluated. As a result, the crude fat, crude protein, moisture, crude ash and total dietary fiber contents in bamboo leaf powder were 4.36, 11.29, 3.37, 7.33, and 65.57%, respectively. The Hunters L, a, and b values decreased significantly as the amount of bamboo leaf powder increased; however, the a and b values increased during storage. The paste property setback values decreased with the malt extract treatment and with increasing amounts of bamboo leaf powder. In a sensory analysis, hard texture strength in the malt extract and bamboo leaf powder treatment groups was less than that in the control during storage. The Jeolpyun prepared with malt extract and no bamboo leaf powder was the most accepted by consumers. Although adding bamboo leaf powder resulted in less consumer acceptance except for the flavor attribute, adding 4% and 8% bamboo leaf powder resulted in better consumer acceptance for texture, taste, and overall acceptance than that of the control. In a microbial analysis, adding bamboo leaf powder resulted in fewer mold colonies. In conclusion, adding 4% bamboo leaf powder and malt extract to Jeolpyun improved its storage properties.
The principal objective of this study was to determine the optimal mixing conditions for three amounts of onion powder, sugar, and butter to prepare onion powder cookies. The experimental design was based on the central composite design methodology of response surface, which included 16 experimental points including two replicates for onion powder, sugar, and butter. The mechanical and sensory properties of the cookies were measured, and these values were applied to the mathematical models. A canonical form and perturbation plot showed the influence of each ingredient on the mixed final product. The results of the spread ratio did not show significant results, but hardness increased with increasing quantities of onion powder and sugar but decreased with butter (p<0.01). The color lightness "L" value increased with increasing quantities of sugar and butter but decreased with added onion powder. In contrast, the redness color "a" value increased with increasing quantities of onion powder and sugar. Sugar did not affect the yellowness color "b" value, but the color b value increased with increasing onion powder and sugar. The results of a sensory evaluation using the predicted model showed significant values for flavor (p<0.01), texture (p<0.05), taste (p<0.05), and overall quality (p<0.01). As a result, the optimum formulation by numerical and graphical methods was calculated as 12.58 g onion powder, 35 g sugar, and 52.38 g butter.
Camellia sinensis L. (green tea) seed oils were prepared by roasting at 213℃ and pressing (RP), pressing (P), and nhexane extraction (H). The physico-chemical properties of the RP, P, and H samples, including fatty acid composition, color, and sensory characteristics were analyzed. RP, P and H samples were thermally oxidized at 180℃, and oxidative stability was determined by DPPH, CDA, and p-AV at 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 min. Compared to the P and H samples, RP resulted in significantly higher thermal oxidative stability according to the DPPH, CDA, and p-AV results (p〈0.05). The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids among RP, P, and H samples were significantly different (p〈0.05). The oleic acid and linoleic acid contents in green tea seed oils were 58 and 23%, respectively. Hunter's color value of lightness (L) for the RP, P, and H samples was not significant. Redness (a) of RP was 3.47±0.119 and yellowness (b) of H was 60.10±2.483, which were significantly different. Compared to RP samples, H and P samples had the highest color and off-odor values in the sensory evaluation. RP samples showed the highest taste value and were significant overall (p〈0.05). The thermal stability of RP extraction was more stable than any other method. Camellia sinensis L. seed oil extracted by RP had better sensory characteristics than other edible oils, including soybean oil, grape seed oil, and extra virgin olive oil.
The objective of this study was to develop high quality Riceyeotgangjung (RYG) with high antioxidant activity and a longer shelf-life. Spirulina (1, 2, and 3%) with added RYG was prepared, and antioxidant activities were examined under storage at 60℃ for 15 days. The total phenol content remaining in the spirulina with added RYG at 15 days of storage was much higher than that of fresh RYG without spirulina. The IC50 values for DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging activities decreased with increasing amounts of spirulina, whereas these values increased with storage time. TBA and peroxide values decreased with increasing amounts of spirulina. From these results, adding spirulina to RYG delayed lipid rancidity and prolonged shelf-life. Adding spirulina powder to RYG, which is a healthy functional food material, improved antioxidant activity and delayed deterioration during storage.
This study investigated the quality characteristics of Sulgidduk with different levels (0, 4, 8, 12, 16%) of added yam powder by measuring water content, color value, texture, and sensory quality. The water content of Sulgidduk decreased significantly (p<0.05) by increasing the amount of yam powder. The Hunter's L value of Sulgidduk decreased, and the a and b values increased significantly. Mechanical texture parameters, such as hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, adhesiveness, and chewiness decreased significantly (p<0.05) as the amount of added yam powder increased. The springiness of the 0, 4, 8 and 12% yam Sulgidduk was not different significantly, but springiness decreased significantly in the 16% yam Sulgidduk. Hardness increased significantly during storage, whereas cohesiveness, gumminess, and adhesiveness decreased. Springiness of the control sample increased significantly, but the Sulgidduk with added yam powder had the highest springiness levels during the first and second days. Chewiness was highest during the first day in all Sulgidduk preparations. The 12% yam Sulgidduk was the best in color, flavor, taste, moistness, chewiness, and overall acceptability from the sensory evaluation. These results indicate that Sulgidduk with 12% added yam powder had the best quality in sensory and texture analyses.
The objective of this study was to produce muffins with added dukeum ramie leaf powder and to compare them to a control. We used two different optimal composition ratios to produce muffins. The physical and sensory characters were varied by changing the ratio of dukeum ramie leaf powder, butter, and sugar to identify a critical value using response surface regression analysis. The ranges for the added dukeum ramie leaf powder, sugar, and butter were 15-35, 60-100, and 60-100 g, respectively. Muffins with added dukeum ramie leaves had comparable mineral and antioxidant vitamin compositions to those of dried ramie leaves. Muffins with added dukeum ramie leaf powder satisfied the suitability of the model, showing a p-value within 5% of significance level (p<0.05) for every aspect Volume and height differed without any association to ingredients. Lightness increased when less dukeum ramie leaf powder was added with more butter and sugar, redness increased when more dukeum ramie leaf powder and sugar were added with 70-80 g of butter, whereas yellowness increased when less dukeum ramie powder was added. Texture and toughness increased when less dukeum ramie leaf powder was added. The degree of gumminess and chewiness depended hugely on the amount of sugar. Cohesiveness, decreased with more dukeum ramie leaf powder and butter, whereas hardness increased with a medium range of ingredients. Sensory character increased with less dukeum ramie powder, and overall quality increased with more butter and sugar, but depended on the amount of added dukeum ramie power. The critical values from the sensory characteristics showed that 27 g of dukeum ramie powder, 72 g of sugar, and 86 g of butter was optimum.
This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between long naming of beverages and its effect on people's perception by gender. The survey was conducted in the Seoul area from March 10 to May 10, 2010. Approximately 59% of male and 41.8% of the female respondents were randomly selected from university students aged 20 to 29-years. Most (79.8%) of the students responding to the survey showed a preference for beverages. "Long-named beverages with ingredients listed" were considered the most reliable and ranked highest at 3.74, A significant difference was observed between males and females. "Long-named beverage that were made from domestic agricultural products" were regarded as the most healthful and ranked highest at 4.01. A significant difference between males and females was also observed. Long-naming influences a customer's purchasing tendency. In particular, women were more influenced by a sense of wellbeing when they purchase, because they are more interested in losing weight and being healthy.