This study examined the effects of low temperature conditions on the expansion of choux when mixing the dough with egg fluid. The egg fluid was tested at 5 and 17oC, and the dough temperature was 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 or 70oC. The expansion decreased with decreasing temperature of the egg fluid and dough, with the concomitant formation of membranes in the cavities of choux because of the poor emulsion stability of the choux paste. In addition, the structure of the choux pastry was not dense and the cracks in the surface were partial and narrow. The shape, expansion and cracks of choux were the best at a dough temperature of 60 and 70oC added with egg fluid at 17oC. The temperature of the choux paste in these two samples was higher than the melting point of the butter used to produce the paste. Therefore, the practical limit temperature when mixing the egg fluid and dough is 20 and 60oC, respectively, and care should ve taken to maintain a low temperature when making choux in confectionary.
The objective of this study was to develop a simultaneous method of 8 penicillin antibiotics including amoxicillin, ampicillin, cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, penicillin G and penicillin V in meat using LC-MS/MS. The procedure involves solid phase extraction with HLB cartridge and subsequent analysis by LC-MS/ MS. To optimize MS analytical condition of 8 compounds, each parameter was established by multiple reaction monitoring in positive ion mode. The chromatographic separation was achieved on a C18 column with a mobile phase of 0.05% formic acid and 0.05% formic acid in acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min for 20 min with a gradient elution. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy and precision in beef, pork and chicken. The recoveries were 71.0~106%, and relative standard deviations (RSD) were 4.0~11.2%. The limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.003~0.008 mg/kg and 0.01~0.03 mg/kg, respectively, that are below maximum residue limit (MRL) of the penicillins. This study also performed survey of residual penicillin antibiotics for 193 samples of beef, pork and chicken collected from 9 cities in Korea. Penicillins were not found in all the samples except a sample of pork which contained cloxacillin (concentration of 0.08 mg/kg) below the MRL (0.3 mg/kg).
A simultaneous determination was developed for 9 aminoglycoside antibiotics (amikacin, apramycin, dihydrostreptomycin, gentamicin, hygromycin B, kanamycin, neomycin, spectinomycin, and streptomycin) in meat by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Each parameter was established by multiple reaction monitoring in positive ion mode. The developed method was validated for specificity, linearity, accuracy, and precision based on CODEX validation guideline. Linearity was over 0.98 with calibration curves of the mixed standards. Recovery of 9 aminoglycosides ranged on 60.5~114% for beef, 60.1~112% for pork and 63.8~131% for chicken. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.001~0.009 mg/kg and 0.006~ 0.03 mg/kg, respectively in livestock products including beef, pork and chicken. This study also performed survey of residual aminoglycoside antibiotics for 193 samples of beef, pork and chicken collected from 9 cities in Korea. Aminoglycosides were not found in any of the samples.
The Korean National Residue Program consists of three sampling plans for domestic and imported foods of animal origin : monitoring, surveillance/enforcement and exploratory testing. Monitoring and surveillance/enforcement testing programs are routinely implemented by 17 Provincial Veterinary Services for domestic products and two regional offices of Animal, Plant and Fisheries Quarantine and Inspection Agency (QIA) for imported products, respectively. The exploratory testing is designed to test substances which are not included in the list of monitoring and enforcement testing programs controlled by headquarter of QIA. In 2010, the exploratory testing was carried out in domestic and imported foods of animal origin for 24 veterinary drugs including florfenicol, clavulanic acid, four quinolones (nalidixic acid, difloxacin, marbofloxacin, orbifloxacin), two anthelmintics (closantel, levamisole), two sedatives (azaperone, carazolol), six glucocorticoids (dexamethasone, betamethasone, flumethasone, prednisone, prednisolone, methylprednisolone), eight non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (phenylbutazone, paracetamol, carprofen, flunixin, ketoprofen, meloxicam, tolfenamic acid, acetylsalicylic acid). In the total of 1,153 domestic samples, only florfenicol was detected from 17 pig muscles at levels of 0.2～614 ng/g. Of 17 positive pig muscles, 16 samples were non-violative and one sample was violative. In the total of 1,065 imported samples, florfenicol was detected at 0.4 ng/g in one pork. Also, flunixin was detected at 22 ng/g in one beef.
Camellia sinensis L. (green tea) seed oils were prepared by roasting at 213℃ and pressing (RP), pressing (P), and nhexane extraction (H). The physico-chemical properties of the RP, P, and H samples, including fatty acid composition, color, and sensory characteristics were analyzed. RP, P and H samples were thermally oxidized at 180℃, and oxidative stability was determined by DPPH, CDA, and p-AV at 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80 min. Compared to the P and H samples, RP resulted in significantly higher thermal oxidative stability according to the DPPH, CDA, and p-AV results (p〈0.05). The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids to saturated fatty acids among RP, P, and H samples were significantly different (p〈0.05). The oleic acid and linoleic acid contents in green tea seed oils were 58 and 23%, respectively. Hunter's color value of lightness (L) for the RP, P, and H samples was not significant. Redness (a) of RP was 3.47±0.119 and yellowness (b) of H was 60.10±2.483, which were significantly different. Compared to RP samples, H and P samples had the highest color and off-odor values in the sensory evaluation. RP samples showed the highest taste value and were significant overall (p〈0.05). The thermal stability of RP extraction was more stable than any other method. Camellia sinensis L. seed oil extracted by RP had better sensory characteristics than other edible oils, including soybean oil, grape seed oil, and extra virgin olive oil.
약과 반죽시 참기름 대용으로 쇼트닝을 이용할 목적으로 쇼트닝의 혼합비율을 달리하여(참기름 100%, 참기름 75%+쇼트닝 25%, 참기름 50%+쇼트닝 50%, 쇼트닝 100%) 약과를 제조하고, 약과 유지의 지방산 조성, 유지함량, 원료유지의 잔존율, 저장 중의 유지산패도(산가, 과산화물가, 카르보닐가)를 측정하여 쇼트닝 약과의 유지안정성을 비교 분석한 결과 다음과 같았다. 1. 약과 반죽의 유지 함량은 9.33%였으나, 튀김 후 시료 구별 약과의 유지함량은 25.20-29.12%로서 아주 높았다. 이들 약과의 유지 구성은 반죽에 첨가되었던 원료유지와 튀김에 사용된 튀김유(대두유)의 비율이 각각 16-10%와 84-90%로서 튀김유가 대부분을 차지하였다. 2. 모든 약과의 지방산 조성은 쇼트닝의 첨가수준에 관계 없이 시료구간에 거의 유사하여 linoleic acid 49.71-51.27%, oleic acid 26.05-26.77%, palmitic acid 10.07-11.71%, linolenic acid 5.51-5.72% stearic acid 4.51-4.68%였으며, 이것은 튀김유(대두유)의 지방산 조성과 유사하였다. 3. 쇼트닝 첨가에 따른 약과의 저장중 산가, 과산화물가, 카르보닐가의 변화는 쇼트닝 첨가가 산가의 증가를 다소 지연시켰으나 과산화물가와 카르보닐가는 시료구간에 차이를 나타내지 않았다. 약과 제조시에 반죽에 첨가되는 유지의 지방산 조성이 크게 다르더라도 약과의 유지 산패도는 큰 차이를 보이지 않았다. 이것은 튀김 과정 중 튀김유가 약과내로 다량 흡유되어 약과반죽의 원료유지보다도 큰 영향을 준 것으로 생각된다. 따라서 쇼트닝은 약과 반죽에 참기름 대용으로 사용될경우 약과의 유지 산패 면에서는 참기름 100% 약과와 차이가 없어 약과 제조시 참기름 대체효과가 있을 것으로 기대된다.
: In this experiment, three samples of oils were used. These oils were hydrated soybean oil, pure soybean oil and regular soybean oil. Oil was used after heating at 235-240℃ every four hours term and total heating hours was 16 hours. The physio-chemical analysis and sensory evaluation were performed on these oils. The hydrated soybean oil showed lower acid, peroxide and carbonyl value than the other two oils (p〈0.05 or p〈0.001). The other two oils were more affected in rancidity than the hydrated soybean oil. In color test, whereas L value lowed during the heating time, a and b value increased during the heating time. The tendency of high L value and low b value in a long-time heating was more apparant on the pure soybean oil and the regular soybean oil than on the hydrated soybean oil (p〈0.05). In sensory evaluation, color and rancidity order increased during the heating time. The hydrated soybean oil showed color and rancidity order than the other two oils. In overall quality test, the pure and regular soybean oil that had been used for 12 and 16 hour were not preferable. The hydrated soybean oil that had been used for 16 hour were not preferable. In sensory evaluation, the hydrated soybean oil, the pure and regular soybean oil did not show a apparent difference, although the hydrated soybean oil had a little better scores on the overall quality.
In this experiment, I used three samples of oils. The oils that I used were hydrated soybean oil, pure soybean oil and regular soybean oil. The group of rice was fried in the each sample of oil that had not been used for a few seconds. Rice was used after frying at 230-235℃ every four hours terms and total frying hours was 12 hours. The hydrated soybean oils was least affected in rancidity. The other two oils were more affected in rancidity than the hydrated soybean oil. However, the trans fatty acid in hydrated soybean oil was 36.5%. The diameter of the poped rice that was fried in pure soybean oil and regular soybean oil that had been used 12 for hours was reduced while the diameter of the popped rice fried in the hydrated soybean oil was not reduced. Also, the groups of rice fried in the pure and the regular soybean oil that had been used for 12 hours reduced the hardness in rice while the group that fried in the hydrated soybean oil at the 12th hour kept the hardness well. In sensory evaluation, rancidity order was found apparently in the pure soybean oil that had been used for 12 hour and in the regular soybean oil that have been used for eight hours and 12 hours. Only the hydrated soybean oil did not have distinctive rancidity order at all. The degree of the crispiness was reduced in the pure soybean oil and in the regular soybean oil at 12th hour frying. However, the hydrated soybean oil preserved the crispiness well until the end of 12 hours of frying. In overall preference test, the pure and regular soybean oil that had been used for 12 hour were not preferable. In conclusion, I found that the group fried in the hydrated soybean oil was better in every evaluation than the groups fried in the pure soybean oil and in regular soybean oil. The hydrated Soybean oil may be better to be used in food manufacturing if the trans fatty acid in the hydrated soybean oil can be reduced.
This study was to investigate the effect of the addition of red ginseng powder in Dasik. The addition of red ginseng powder in Dasik that we used with was in the ratio of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8% of red ginseng powder to Dasik in weight. Also, we used two different kinds of Dasik. One was made of starch and the other was made of flour. The physic-chemical analysis and sensory test were performed on the Dasik. The red ginseng powder added flour and starch Dasik showed lower moisture content and higher ash content compared with the non-added control group. In color analysis, whereas L value lowed at the addition of red ginseng powder, a and b value increased at the addition of red ginseng powder. In mechanical texture test, addition of red ginseng powder starch Dasik showed high hardness, cohesiveness and brittleness. Addition of red ginseng powder flour Dasik showed high springiness and gumminess. In the sensory test, the addition of the red ginseng powder reduced the sweetness and increased the surface color and the flavor. There was no difference in preference between the Dasik with up to 4% of red ginseng powder added and the control group, but the Dasik with 6% or more red ginseng was found undesirable (p<0.05). In conclusion, the Dasik with up to 4% addition of red ginseng powder would be the useful method to fulfill the traditional quality of Dasik. It was also found that the flour Dasik was to be more preferable than the starch Dasik.
대두유에 율피의 용매분획별(에테르, 부탄올, 물) 추출물과 tocopherol, BHA를 각각 0.02% 첨가한 후 자동산화 및 가열 산화시 항산화효과를 비교하였다. 1. 자동산화시 과산화물가를 통한 항산화력 비교에서 45℃에서 42일간 저장한 경우 부탄올추출물 〉 에테르추출물 〉 무첨가구 〉 BHA 〉 토코페롤 순으로 항산화력이 있었고, 60℃에서 32일간 저장한 경우에도 부탄올 추출물이 강한 항산화력을 보였으며, 에테르추출물은 무첨가구와 큰 차이가 없었다. 2. 가열산화의 경우 에테르추출물이 우수한 항산화력을 나타내었다. 3. 추출물의 용매별 항산화성분의 분석결과 에테르추출물에는 ellagic acid, quercetin, morin, naringenin, flavanol로서 주요성분은 ellagic acid이었다. 이들 성분의 총량은 에테르추출물 49.09%(w/w), 부탄올추출물 76.26%(w/w)로서 부탄올 추출물에 폴리페놀성분이 다량 함유되어있어 우수한 항산화효과에 영향을 미친 것으로 판단된다. 부탄올추출물에는 ellagic acid, naringenin, gallic acid, flavanol이 있었으며, 주요성분은 naringenin, gallic acid로서 이들 성분들이 항산화 효과에 영향을 미친 것으로 사료된다.
This study was carried out to clarify the effect of addition of green tea powder on Dasik quality. The green tea powder was added as the ratio of 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%, respectively. The physio-chemical analysis and sensory test on the Dasik were performed. The flour and starch Dasik added to green tea powder showed lower moisture content compared to the non-added treatment, but the ash content was higher in the added Dasik. At the color test, Dasik of green tea powder showed lower L, a, and b value than the non-added treatment, respectively. These values were greatly decreased as the amount of green tea powder was increased. Addition of green tea powder had a tendency to show high hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, and gumminess but brittleness was low in the non-added treatment. Therefore, addition of green tea powder made Dasik texture more dense, and this tendency of texture was distinct at the flour Dasik compared to the starch Dasik. At the sensory test, surface color and green tea flavor were strong as the adding amount of green tea was increased, but sweetness was weak. There were not significant differences in the overall preference among 0%, 2% and 4% treatments, but the preference was greatly decreased from the above 6%. In conclusion, 4% addition of green tea powder would be the useful method to enhance quality of Dasik, and the flour Dasik showed better result than the starch Dasik.
The red ginseng powder was added to Yackwa dough as ratio to 0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%, respectively to know effect of red ginseng powder on Yackwa quality and preservation. The expansion, color, texture and preference characters were investigated at 0,2 and 4 weeks, respectively. The peroxide and acid value were also measured. The 4% addition increased greatly expansion rate. In color test, L value lowed at addition of red ginseng powder and at long storage period. the b value lowed as the addition was increased, but a value was not affected by the addition of red ginseng powder. In mechanical texture test, addition of red ginseng powder had a tendency to show low cohessivness, springness, gumminess while hardness increased. The springness, brittleness and cohessivness decreased while hardness increased at long storage period. In sensory test, surface color, bitterness and red ginseng flavor were recognized strong by addition of red ginseng powder but oily taste, crispness, softness and overall preference were weak. The surface color and red ginseng flavor were strong at long storage period but sweetness, softness and overall preference decreased, respectively. The peroxide value increased at long storage period and decreased after 6 week. The 2% and 4% addition showed lower peroxide value compared to other treatment. The acid value increased at early storage period, but did not change after 4 weeks.
The objective of this study was to clarify the effect of addition of green tea powder(0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%) to Yackwa on quality and preservation. Addition of 4% green tea powder turned out to give positive effect on expansion. In test of physical characters, addition of green tea powder had a tendency to lower hardness, cohesiveness, springness and gumminess but to enhance brittleness. Considering the rancidity of oil within Yackwa, addition of green tea powder tended to show lower acid value and peroxide value than non-added treatment but its difference was slight. At the sensory test, surface color, bitterness and green tea flavor were strong but sweet and savory taste weak when green team powder was added(p<0.05). Overall quality appeared to have improved to 5.55 points which is compared to non-addition when the powder was added 4%(p<0.05). In conclusion, 4% addition of green tea powder would be the usefull method to enhance preference and quality of Yackwa.
율피, 솔잎, 호프로부터 70% 아세톤 추출물을 획득하여 대두유, 돈지, 대두유 유탁액, 돈지 유탁액에 대한 항산화력을 토코페롤과 비교하였다. Rancimat의 유도기간에 따른 항산화력 비교에서는, 대두유에서는 솔잎〉율피〉호프〉토코페롤〉무첨가구, 돈지에서는 토코페롤〉율피〉솔잎〉호프〉무첨가구로서 항산화력이 있었다. Peroxide value의 측정을 통한 항산화력 비교에서는, 대두유나 대두유 유탁액, 돈지나 돈지 유탁액에서 이들 세 추출물은 같거나 우수한 항산화력을 나타내었으며, 율피가 가장 좋은 것으로 판단되었다. 폴리페놀화합물의 분석결과, 율피 추출물에는 ellagic acid가 솔잎 추출물에는 flavanol이 항산화력에 큰 영향을 미친 것으로 보인다.
This study was conducted to confirm the effect of drying method on quality of popped rice for making salyeotgangjung(popped rice lump with malt syrup) in process of drying gelatinized rice. The drying were performed at dry oven or convection oven, at 30℃, 50℃ and 105℃, respectively. There were not significant differences in the hardness of popped rice among the drying methods. The dry at 30℃ constant in dry oven showed higher popping rate, good external surface, uniformed and well developed internal cell size. The dry at 30℃ in convection oven and 50℃ constant temperature in dry oven showed low expansion and poor external surface, respectively. In conclusion, the drying at 30℃ in non-convection oven had the highest quality of popped rice for salyeotgangjung.
This study was performed to know effect of Yackwa quality when sucrose fatty acid esters(S-570, S-970, S-1570) were added as an emulsifier. In mechanical characteristics, the Yackwa of sucrose fatty acid esters did greatly decrease the hardness, cohesiveness, springiness and gumminess, respectively, and increase the brittleness compared to the Yackwa of non-emulsifier and egg yolk. This tendency showed at the above level of 1.0% S-570, and 0.5% S-970 and S-1570, respectively. In sensory evaluation, the Yackwa of sucrose fatty acid esters increased the softness compared to the Yackwa of non-emulsifiers and egg yolk. There were significantly differences in the preference at 0.5% level of S-970 and 1.5% level of S-1570, respectively compared to other treatments. In conclusion, the 0.5% level of S-970 would be mostly useful level of emulsifier for making Yackwa.
광산 주변 경작지의 일부 농산물에 대해 오염 실태를 파악하고 폐광산에 의한 오염방지 및 사후관리 대책 수립에 필요한 기초자료를 제공하기 위하여 전남 지역에 분포한 광산지역 (4개 지역)을 대상으로 주변 경작지에서 7종의 농산물 (상치, 양파, 감자, 무, 고추, 호박, 콩) 28건에 대해 미량금속 함유량을 조사하였다. 수은의 경우 대부분의 검체에서 불검출이었으며, 일부 농산물에서 0.01 ppm이하의 정도로 검출되었다. 비소는 28건의 시료 중 8건에서 0.012 ~ 0.029 ppm이 검출되었으며 나머지 시료는 불검출이었다. 납은 양파를 제외한 다른 시료에서 미량 검출되었고, 함유량은 N. D. ~ 0.114 ppm 있었으며, 카드뮴은 거의 모든 시료에서 검출되었으며 (N.D. ~ 0.124 ppm), 수은, 비소, 납, 카드뮴 등의 함유량은 오염된 수준이 아닌 자연 함유량 수준으로 판단된다. 구리의 경우 두류인 콩에서 3.070 ~ 7.825 ppm으로 다른 시료에 비해 높은 함유량을 나타냈으며, 광산 지역간에는 큰 차이를 보이지 않았다. 망간은 상치 (3.688 ~ 23.935ppm)가 가장 높은 함유량을 보였으며, 아연의 경우 콩과 상치에서 높은 함유량을 나타냈다.
쌀엿강정은 쌀을 호화 건조하여 유탕처리하거나 가압 등으로 팽화시켜서 제조한다. 이때 호화과정에서 가열기구나 호화의 정도가 쌀의 팽화에 영향을 미칠 것으로 판단되어 이들 처리에 따라 팽화량(크기, 비중), 사진촬영, 주사형 전자현미경(SEM)으로 관찰 비교하였다. 1. 전기밥솥이나 압력솥, 혹은 증기로 찌는 등 밥의 형태로 쌀을 호화시킨 것은 팽화쌀이 서로 부착된 것이 많아 좋지 않았다. 전기밥솥이나 압력솥의 경우는 팽화쌀의 표면에 파괴된 부분이 나타났다. 압력솥이나 증기고 찌는 경우는 쌀의 팽화량이 작았다. 2. 쌀을 세정하여 바로 많은 양의 물로 끓이는 방법이 좋았으며, 쌀을 불려서 끓이는 방법과 팽화량에 차이를 보이지 않았다. 쌀을 불리더라도 익을 정도로만 단시간에 끓일 경우에는 오히려 팽화량이 작았다. 3. 쌀을 끓이는 시간이 길수록 팽화는 컸으나 너무 지나칠 정도로 끓일 경우에는 쌀의 표면이 파괴되거나 균열이 생겨서 외관이 좋지 않고 팽화량도 작았다.
땅콩유 제조시 땅콩의 침지시에 NaHCO_3를 첨가하는 것과 분쇄전에 땅콩을 열처리 하는 것이 n-hexanal 함량에 미치는 영향을 조사하기 위하여 headspace gas chromatography 방법을 이용하여 조사하였다. 분쇄전에 땅콩을 열처리한 경우에는 n-hexanal 함량이 현저하게 감소됨을 알 수 있었으며 열처리 시간이 증가함에 따라 n-hexanal 함량도 감소하지만 땅콩유중의 총고형분과 단백질함량도 함께 감소하였다. 이상의 결과로 볼 때 콩비린내의 원인물질 중의 하나인 hexanal 함량의 감소를 위해서는 두유의 경우처럼 분쇄전에 땅콩을 열처리하는 것은 필수적 이지만 지나친 열처리는 땅콩유의 단백질함량을 감소시켜 영양가가 저하시키므로 땅콩을 10분간 가열하는 것이 가장 바람직한 가공조건이라고 판단된다.