The present research was designed to collect recipe of set up a standard recipe and analyze the nutrients of broiled black goat meat (a kind of native local foods in Busan and south province). The results of the study are summarized as follows. The recipe for goat(lamb) meat was recorded in Sanlimkyounggae and Jungbosanlimkyounggae between 1715 and 1827. The goat meat was explained as food for health, rejuvenation and recuperation Since late 1800, it has been utilized for such use. The flavor of broiled black goat meat is influenced by seasonings, fruit juice, heating treatment and cooker. And it also could be affected by the method of slaughter and the sex of the goat. There are lot of element in seasoning. Red pepper paste, garlic and ginger holdback the bad smell and make the taste better. Onion help to retain the water and improve the flavor. Starch syrup, sugar and sesame oil make the meat smoother, glossier and more tasty. The meat is usually roasted on grill over charcoal. It helps to remove or suppress the bad smell and make the taste better. Softness and scent of the meat depend largely on the way to butcher. Female goat meat tastes smoother and smells better. Fruit juice also improve the softness of the meat. Energy per 100g of the 'broiled black goat meat' is 170kcal. There are protein (23g), fat(2.4g), Ca(159mg), Fe(1.1mg) and so on. Amino acid is mainly comprised of essential amino acid such as cystine, lysine, leucine, and arginine. Fatty acid consists primarily of unsaturated fatty acid like oleic acid, linoleic acid.
In this paper, Korean's dining-out behaviors were compared and investigated according to gender and age. The change and the problem of dietary pattern in Korea were understood and we intend to provide the basic information for guidelines of Korean's dietary habits. The subjects are composed of 46.5% male and 53.5% female. According to age, groups aged 10~19 are 26.3%, 20's are 24.6%, 30's are 16.8%, 40's are 18.7%, and 50 and over age group is 13.6%. All of the age groups ate out for celebration of a special day or for social purposes. When dining-out, the most important criteria for selecting a restaurant was the taste of food. All age groups liked Korean-style restaurants the most. All age group eat a house meal at breakfast. At lunch, age groups 40 and below go to a restaurant in school or company and 50 and over age group eats house meal. In general, all age groups ate a house meal at dinner. At breakfast, all the age groups do not eat out. For lunch, they eat out four or five times a week. For dinner, the most of age groups except the 20's eat out two or three times a month and for the 20's age group, two or three times a week. The reason for selecting a Korean-style restaurant is that the food is 'well matched with one's appetite'. According to the above results, the dietary habits of 30 and over age groups are relatively good. On the other hand, in 10's and 20's age groups, they have an irregular meal and the ratio of skipping a meal is high. And they frequently use fast-food restaurants. In the future, the unbalance of nutrition in these age groups is expected. Therefore, the correct nutritional facts should be educated so that these age groups have a healthy dietary habit.
This study was conducted to investigate the consumers' recognition and information need for food safety, especially focused on pesticide residues, foodborne illness, and food additives. The data were collected from 350 adults living in Taegu and Pusan by the self-administered questionnaire. Frequencies and chi-square tests were conducted by SPSS. The results of the survey were as follows: (1) the consumers' concerns about food safety were high, (2) many respondents worried about eating vegetables, fruits and grains in turn because of pesticide residues, and did not trust the results from food-safety tests, (3) the major factor for foodborne illness was regarded as unfreshed or contaminated food stuffs, (4) many consumers concerned highly about preservatives among food additives, and tried to consume food containing less food additives, and (5) many respondents wanted to get the information about harmfulness of pesticide residues in foods, method to choose fresh food, and safety of food additives.
식품의 향기를 포접하여 향기성분을 순화시키는 성질을 지닌 β-cyclodextrin을 청국장에 0%, 10%, 20% 및 30%씩 첨가하여 청국장의 냄새에 대한 포접효과를 살펴보면, β-cyclodextrin을 20% 대체한 시료의 단백질과 회분양은 control 시료보다 유의적으로 감소하였다. 지방량과 탄수화물량은 대체시료가 control 시료보다 유의적으로 증가하였다. 시료의 L값은 β-cydodextrin을 30%대체한 시료가 53.99로 가장 밝게 평가되었고, 대체수준이 10%일 때 L값은 51.81으로 유의적으로 가장 낮은 수치를 보이며 색이 더 진하게 평가 되었다. 시료의 a값은 대체 수준이 증가할수록 감소하여 붉은 정도가 옅어지었다. 시료의 b값은 대체량이 증가할수록 시료의 노란정도가 점점 옅어짐을 나타내었다. 시료 입자의 내부구조 조직을 주사전자 현미경으로 관찰한 결과, control 시료의 내부구조는 점질물질이 불규칙 한 모양으로 뭉쳐져 있거나 거칠게 퍼져 있음을 볼 수 있었으며, 첨가수준이 증가할수록 불규칙하고 거친 내부조직이 점차 감소하여 30% 대체 시료에서는 매끈하고 안정된 조직감과 내부구조를 보여 주었다. 관능적 특성에 대한 결과, 청국장 시료의 구수한 냄새는 시료의 대체수준이 20% 이상으로 될 때 구수한 냄새는 6.65에서 6.78의 수치를 보이며 유의적으로 다소 감소하여 구수한 냄새가 약하게 나타났다. 시료의 이취는 β-cyclodextrin을 대체량을 20%로 증가한 시료에서 control 시료의 이취보다 유의적인 감소를 보여 주었다. (p〈0.05). 시료의 짠맛은 20% 대체시료군이 control 시료의 짠맛보다 유의적으로 현저히 감소하였으며, 쓴맛은 control 시료에 비하여 모든 대체시료군이 낮은 수치로 쓴맛이 약해지는 경향을 나타내었다. 이상으로 β-cyclodextrin으로 청국장을 포접시엔 특히, 구수한 냄새 이취 및 짠맛을 순화하는 경향이 있는 것을 알 수 있었다.
This study was performed to investigate flavor modification effects of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) inclusion complex on the flavor of Doenjang (Korean traditional fermented soy paste) with various substitution levels of 10, 20, and 30%. Water and protein contents of the substituted samples showed significantly lower values compared to those of control(p〈0.05). Results of DSC(Differential Scanning Calorimetry) showed that significantly higher δH values (386.03 and 304.23) in the 20 and 30% substituted samples represented the stabilized internal cell structures(p〈0.05). Internal structures observed with the scanning electronic microscope tended to be less rough and organized making even and ordered internal cell structures as the substitution levels were increased. Results of sensory evaluation showed significantly higher savory flavor and significantly lower bitter and astringent flavors with the substituted samples compared to those of control(p〈0.05). Results from this study showed the substitutions of β-CD could possibly modify unfavored flavors of Doenjang while keeping the unique, nutritional and functional properties when β-CD was used as a flavor modifier.
쌀엿강정은 쌀을 호화 건조하여 유탕처리하거나 가압 등으로 팽화시켜서 제조한다. 이때 호화과정에서 가열기구나 호화의 정도가 쌀의 팽화에 영향을 미칠 것으로 판단되어 이들 처리에 따라 팽화량(크기, 비중), 사진촬영, 주사형 전자현미경(SEM)으로 관찰 비교하였다. 1. 전기밥솥이나 압력솥, 혹은 증기로 찌는 등 밥의 형태로 쌀을 호화시킨 것은 팽화쌀이 서로 부착된 것이 많아 좋지 않았다. 전기밥솥이나 압력솥의 경우는 팽화쌀의 표면에 파괴된 부분이 나타났다. 압력솥이나 증기고 찌는 경우는 쌀의 팽화량이 작았다. 2. 쌀을 세정하여 바로 많은 양의 물로 끓이는 방법이 좋았으며, 쌀을 불려서 끓이는 방법과 팽화량에 차이를 보이지 않았다. 쌀을 불리더라도 익을 정도로만 단시간에 끓일 경우에는 오히려 팽화량이 작았다. 3. 쌀을 끓이는 시간이 길수록 팽화는 컸으나 너무 지나칠 정도로 끓일 경우에는 쌀의 표면이 파괴되거나 균열이 생겨서 외관이 좋지 않고 팽화량도 작았다.
This study is to select food offered with higher frequency at restaurants such as hamburger, pizza, chicken, gimbap(boiled rice rolled in laver with seasonings stuffed), and calgooksu(Korean traditional noodles); identify customers' expectation and satisfaction levels on food and service quality and analyze correlation according to each food. The survey was conducted from March 1 to March 24, 2000, by distributing questionnaires. Statistical data analysis was completed using SPSS for t-test, ANOVA, Pearson's correlation analysis. The results of this study were as follows: 1) It is revealed that overall average satisfaction levels on food quality according to individuals' trait came out significantly low compared to their expectation levels, and that balance in nutrition and reasonable prices had problems in relation to food quality. 2) Customers' expectation levels on food quality came out the highest with calgooksu and gimbap, and their satisfaction levels came out the highest with pizza. 3) Customers' overall average expectation levels on service quality showed a very high point, while their satisfaction levels showed a low point with significance. 4) Hamburger was poor in hygiene; pizza showed the highest satisfaction levels over its quality with significance, and calgooksu and gimbap showed very low satisfaction levels over their service quality. 5) Correlation between customers' expectation and satisfaction levels over the nutritional balance and proper taste of the food quality came out significant. 6) Pizza and chicken showed significant correlation with regard to atmosphere, service, and hygiene variables (p<0.01).
This study was conducted to investigate dietary patterns and assimilation of dietary culture of Korean descendants in Yanbian, China compared to Korean. A dietary survey was conducted using one 24-hour recall method from 730 adults over 30 years of age in Yanbian, China and 695 adults over 25 years of age in Kuri, Korea. The average number of food items consumed per day was 14 in Yanbian and 20 in Kuri and there was a significant difference between the two regions(p<0.001). The foods consumed most frequently were rice, salt, the M.S.G. in Yanbian and rice, green onion and garlic in Kuri. The foods consumed most by amount were rice, cucumber, Soju in Yanbian and rice, Kimchi and grape in Kuri. The average number of dishes consumed per day was 6.4 in Yanbian, 9.4 in Kuri and the difference between the two regions was significant(p<0.001). Total number of dishes appeared in the survey was 253 in Yanbian and 494 in Kuri. The dishes consumed most frequently were cooked-rice, beverages, Kimchi, stir-fried eggplant in Yanbian and cooked-rice, Kimchi, coffee, soybean paste stew, in Kuri. The dish groups appeared most frequently were rice, stir-fried foods, vegetables and Kimchi in Yanbian and rice, Kimchi, beverages and fruits in Kuri. Male subjects in Yanbian Consumed alcohol frequently while adults in Kuri consumed coffee more frequently than Yanbian. The major meal patterns were rice+side dish, rice+soup, rice+side dish+Kimchi in Yanbian and rice+soup+side dish+Kimchi, rice+side dish+Kimchi, rice+soup+Kimchi in Kuri. Stir-fried foods, which were consumed 46.6% of all the meals, were dominant side dish in Yanbian, but stir-fried food, seasoned vegetables and grilled food appeared aver 10% in Kuri. There results show that variety of diet of Korean-Chinese in Yanbian was lower than Kuri. Korean-Chinese tend to keep traditional Korean dietary patterns of consuming rice as staple but were adapted to Chinese dietary patterns of consuming stir-fried side dishes. Efforts should be directed toward preserving Korean traditional patterns of dietary culture among Korean-Chinese population.
A Lactic acid bacterium for barley bread was isolated from barley powder and was identified as Enterococcus sp. It was used as a starter for barley bread and quality of bread was compared with the bread prepared by conventional starter 1. The pH of bread making process using Lactobacillus sanfrancisco starter was the lowest among tested starters. while the titratable acidity(TTA) of the strain was the highest, followed by Enterococcus sp.. 2. In valorimeter value(v/v), control was 70, but dough using all starter was 60. The peak time and stability of dough using Lactobacillus sanfrancisco were the highest among tested starters. 3. Extensibility of dough using Enterococcus sp. was the highest among tested starters, followed by Lactobacillus sanfrancisco. Proper extensibility and maximum resistance were observed in Lactobacillus sanfrancisco.
To investigate the effect of sourdough on the characteristics of quality of barley bread, sourdough starter with Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfrancisco and Enterococcus sp. were added to baking after 48 hours incubation at 37℃. 1. The pH of bread using Lactobacillus sanfrancisco starter was the lowest among tested starters. while the titratable acidity(TTA) of the strain was the highest, followed by Enterococcus sp.. 2. In bread, moisture contents of control were 38%. It was decreased during 6 days. The moisture contents of bread using Lactobacillus sanfrancisco starter were the highest among tested starters, followed by Enterococcus sp.. 3. Oneset temperature(To), peak temperature(Tp) and enthalphy (δH) were increased during storage of 6 days. The enthalphy of bread using Lactobacillus sanfrancisco starter was the lowest among tested starters, followed by Enterococcus sp..
Li was a sweet beverage containing 2~3 percents ethyl alcohol made from malt by spontaneous fermentation from ancient custom to fifteenth century. Li was changed to the rice wine being a sweet beverage of low alcohol content using nuruk as starter and the sikhae which is non-alcoholic fermented beverage. Li was made for drinking and ceremony in Korea, China and Japan. It disappeared from the beverage items along with its method of manufacture from malt, but in Korean had made Li using nuruk until recent. We made Li according to Book of Imwon-Keongjae Ji (The book of country economy) methods for reappearance of Li. Fermentation characteristics for the production of Li with Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces bayanus and Saccharomyces sake were investigated. Among the yeast strains tested, Li fermented with S. sake showed higher alcohol production. Total sugar decreased considerably during the whole period of fermentation(30 hours), while ethyl alcohol content increased at 2.98~3.52%. As the fermentation progressed, the pH decreased until the 30 hours of fermentation, while total acid increased during the same period. In fermentation of 36 hours, Li consisted of about 2.98~3.52% of alcohol content, 5.3~6.0% of total sugar, 1.45~2.21mg% of reducing sugar and total acidity were reached up to 24.4~29.5mg% for Li manufactured with S. cerevisiea sake, S. bayanus and S. sake.
This study was carried out to investigate breakfast behaviors of female college students. 500 questionnaires were distributed and 417 were used for statistical analysis(SAS program). This survey was conducted from June, 2000 to October, 2000. 44.7% of the respondents considered lunch to be the most important meal. 51.6% students thought that people must eat breakfast. 41.6% of the students always eat breakfast but 22.1% do not eat breakfast. Conventional type of breakfast was found to be the most popular (67.6%). But ￦400,000 monthly allowance group(P<0.05) and self prepared breakfast group preferred Western style breakfast. The main reason for eating breakfast was for health(34.6%). The group of students with less monthly allowance were more likely to skip breakfast due to lack of time (p<0.01). Physical discomforts after skipping breakfast were: lack of strength(42.5%), stomach ache(36.3%), giddiness(9.1%), and recovered temper(12.1%). In conclusion, it is needed that a convenient and nutritional education should be developed for college students' health.
Wild edible plants are consumed as raw and/or processed. Analytical data for raw biologically functional compounds were relatively well established. The changes on functional compounds during processing are, however, not well studied. This study was carried out to investigate the change of the quality of wild edible plants, Pimpinella brachycarpa(Chamnamul) at various conditions. Samples were blanched at the salt concentration of 0%, 1% or 2% for 1, 2, and 3 minutes each. The biologically active compounds, vitamin C, β-carotene, chlorophyll, flavonoids, polyphenols and minerals were analyzed. The concentration of vitamin C in Chamnamul decreased as blanching time increased. Beta-carotene in Chamnamul showed high concentration when Chamnamul was treated under longer blanching time. Higher salt concentration of blanching water, however, resulted in the increased concentration of β-carotene in the blanched Chamnamul. Higher salt concentration of blanching water also reduced the loss of total flavonoids and total polyphenols from the blanched Chamnamul. The change of colors in the blanching water seemed to be corresponding to those of total flavonoids and total polyphenols concentrations in the blanching water.