The purpose of this research was to reveal how Korean food is currently perceived by the “foodies” of New York City and to determine what social status Korean food has in the city that is deemed the “Restaurant Capital of the World.” In-depth personal interviews were performed to provide a deeper insight into the comments and subject matters. Most foodies selected kimchi and Korean barbecue as the most distinctive foods in Korean dining. Korean food's distinguishing traits were extracted in four areas: specific ingredients and tools, preparation procedures, and rules. Sensory characteristics, local adaptation, service, side dishes, and the main strengths and short-comings of Korean foods were investigated. Perception toward the taste of Korean food was generally positive, but poor quality of service and lack of organization in establishments were found to be negative factors.
When globalizing Korean food, it is important to conduct regional consumer research before entering the market so that an effective market strategy can be developed. This study was conducted to compare the perceptions regarding Thai, Chinese, Japanese and Korean food between Swedish and Yugoslavian university students in Växjo, Sweden, where regional market research is lacking. As immigration increases worldwide, comparison of consumer perceptions of immigrants and domestic individuals will provide meaningful insight for use in the development of marketing strategies for areas where immigrant populations are increasing rapidly. In this study, six attributes of Asian food, fresh vegetables, low fat, chicken and sea food, exotic ingredient, value for money and unknown food, were compared. The perception of fresh vegetables and low fat of Chinese food differed significantly among the two groups. Because both of these attributes are health related, these findings indicate that recipe modification may be necessary to adapt to the preferred taste of target customers in this prospective market.
For globalization of Korean food, It is essential to research and analyze target markets in advance. However until recently, there has been a lack of food research in regions of select countries in order to create systematic plans for marketing Korean foods. Therefore this study aimed to investigate the recognition of Korean foods as compared to other Asian foods in young adults living in Vaxjo, Sweden. Over 90 percent of the Swedish students had experienced Thai and Chinese cuisines, indicating their popularity as Asian foods in Sweden. The participants were attracted to six positive attributes of Asian food: 'fresh vegetables', 'low fat', 'chicken and sea food', 'exotic ingredients', 'good value for the money' and 'unknown foods'. The favorite type of Asian food was Thai food and Korean food was the least tried, as over 50% of respondents linked it to 'unknown food' attributes. Based on these results, in order to introduce Korean food more successfully, focus should be placed on the unique and unknown attributes of Korean food, as well as emphasis placed on its healthfulness, to stimulate the curiosity of target markets such as young Swedish adults.
어육장과 시중 판매되는 소스의 휘발성 향기 성분들을 GC-SAW 전자코를 이용하여 분석하였다. 어육장은 담그고 1년 동안 발효·숙성 하면서 2개월 간격으로 액체부분만 취해서 분석하였고 숙성 1년이 지난 후에는 가열을 하였다. 소스는 주 원료가 다른 6종을 구입하여 시료로 이용하였다. 발효·숙성이 진행됨에 따라 어육장의 휘발성 향기 성분은 감소하였으며 숙성 후 가열 처리 한 결과 초기 머무름 시간에서 새로운 peak가 여러 개 생성 또는 증가함을 보였다. 쇠고기 추출물, 가쓰오부시, 멸치액젓이 주원료인 소스는 전자코 분석 결과 주 원료에 따라 peak의 분포와 면적의 크기가 서로 다른 패턴을 보였으며, 이는 어육장의 최종 시료와도 달랐다. 어육장과 소스의 향기 성분을 머무름 시간에 따라 주성분 분석을 하여 원료에 따른 향기 패턴에 차이가 있음을 나타내었으며 어육장은 제조 시 사용된 재료로 인하여 쇠고기와 멸치액젓이 주 원료인 소스 사이에 제 1주성분값이 나타났다. 이는 식품의 복잡하고 미묘한 향만을 객관적으로 관찰 한 것으로 향후 맛의 차이에 대한 연구도 병행되어야 할 듯 하다.
The purpose of this study is to examine the Americans' perception on Korean food by analyzing the articles of the New York Times which is the best quality newspaper in America. The number of articles of the New York Times on Korean food were 111 from 1980 to 2005. The average yearly articles was 1.3 form 1980 to 1989, 4.1 from 1990 to 1999, and 9.5 from 2000 to 2005. A large number of articles(54.1%) concerning Korean foods were restaurant reviews based on the experiences in dining at Korean restaurant in America. Main authors of restaurant reviews were Eric Asimo(14), Florence Fabricant(11), and Mark Bittman(8). The kinds of Korean foods reported in the New York Times were 111 which included staple food(21), subsidiary food(82) dessert(4) and Japanese Food(4). There were 15 recipes on Korean food reported in the New York Times including 3 items on Kimchi and 3 items on Bulgogi. The New York Times said Kimchi, Buigogi, Galbi, Pajeon, and Bibimbop were popular among Americans. The New York Times described Korean foods as exhilarating, robust, bold, rustic, healthful, incendiary, assertive, lusty, and exuberant. There were many favorable comments on Korean foods in the New York Times.
본 연구는 나박김치를 초기 발효시킨 후 김치 냉장고에 저장하면서 먹을 경우 가장 적합한 초기 발효 조건을 결정하기 위하여 수행되었다. 이를 위하여 발효 온도는 4℃, 15˚C, 25˚C로, 발효 시간은 12시간, 24시간으로 달리하여 초기 발효시킨 나박김치를 4℃에서 저장하면서 이화학적, 미생물학적 및 관능적 특성 변화를 조사하였다. 저장 24일 동안 SF25, LF25, LF15의 pH는 감소하는 경향을 나타내었고, SF4, LF4, SF15의 pH는 초기에 상승하다가 저장 기간이 길어짐에 따라 감소하는 경향을 나타내었다. 적숙기의 pH 4.3~4.5 부근에 도달하는데 SF25는 저장 6일, LF15는 저장 21일 정도 소요되었다. 총산도는 초기 발효 직후 SF4, LF4, SF15의 세 처리군 간에 유의적인 차이는 없었고, 다른 처리군인 LF25의 총산도가 처리군 중에 유의적으로 가장 높았으며 SF25, LF15 순으로 유의적으로 높았다. 환원당 함량은 모든 처리군에서 저장 기간에 따라 유의적으로 증가하다가 최대치를 보이고 감소하였다. LF15, SF25 LF25의 용존 CO2함량은 SF4, LF4, SF15의 용존 CO2함량에 비하여 더 빠른 기간에 최대치에 달해 시원한 맛을 빠른 기일 내에 제공할 수 있는 것으로 생각된다. 명도와 적색도는 모든 처리군에서 저장 기간이 길어짐에 따라 감소하고, 황색도는 증가하는 경향을 나타내었다. 총균수와 젖산균수은 초기 발효 직후 LF25가 유의적으로 가장 많았으며 SF4와 LF4는 두 처리군 간에 유의적인 차이를 나타내지 않았고, SF4와 LF4는 처리군 중에 유의적으로 가장 낮은 값을 나타내었다. 총균수와 젖산균수의 변화는 용존 CO2함량 변화와 유사한 경향을 나타내었다. SF4, LF4, SF15는 관능검사 결과 발효가 지연되어 풋내와 짠맛이 높게 평가되었고 탄산미는 낮게 평가되었다. LF25는 관능검사 결과 다른 처리군에 비해 신맛과 이취가 유의적으로 높게 평가되었다. 15℃에서 24시간 발효시킨 나박김치 (LF15)와 25℃에서 12시간 발효시킨 나박김치(SF25)는 탄산미와 관계가 있는 용존 CO2함량이 저장 12일까지 지속적으로 증가하였으며, 관능검사 결과 저장 기간 동안 다른 처리군에 비해 풋내와 이취가 적으면서 탄산미가 높게 평가되어 15℃에서 24시간 발효(LF15)와 25℃에서 12시간 발효(SF25)가 적합한 초기 발효 조건으로 생각된다. 이러한 연구 결과를 통해 물김치류인 동치미나 열무 물김치도 초기 발효 조건에 따라 이화학적, 미생물학적 및 관능적 특성에 많은 차이가 있을 것이므로 이에 대한 연구가 필요하다고 사료된다.
본 연구는 식생활의 향상 및 건강식품에 대한 관심을 반영하여 2%의 저염도 통배추 김치에 미삼추출분말을 단독 또는 미삼추출물과 오미자즙을 병용하여 첨가하였다. 김치는 25℃에서 24시간 발효 한 뒤, 4℃에서 40일간 저장하며 5일마다 김치의 이화학적, 미생물학적 특성과 함께 관능적 특성을 조사하여 상관관계를 분석하였다. pH와 환원당은 저장 초기에는 미삼추출분말 및 오미자즙 첨가군이 유의적으로 가장 높게 나타났지만, 저장 11일부터는 미삼추출분말 첨가군이 가장 높게 나타났다. 산도와 용존 CO2 함량은 저장기간 내내 전반적으로 미삼추출분말 및 오미자즙 첨가군이 가장 높게 나타났으며, 용존 CO2 함량은 미삼추출분말 및 오미자즙 첨가군, 미삼추출분말 첨가군, 대조군의 순서로 유의적으로 높게 나타났다. 경도는 저장기간 내내 미삼추출분말 첨가군이 유의적으로 가장 단단하게 나타났다. 미생물 중 총균수 및 젖산균수는 저장 6일부터 미삼추출분말 및 오미자즙 첨가군이 가장 많이 나타났다. 관능특성검사 결과, 미삼추출분말 첨가군은 신맛이 약하고, 경도가 단단하게 평가되어 대조군에 비해 저장성이 증가되었음을 알 수 있었다. 미삼추출분말 및 오미자즙 첨가군은 미삼추출 분말 첨가군과 인삼향미는 유의적인 차이가 없으며, 쓴맛은 유의적으로 약하게 평가되어 소비자 검사 결과 대조군과 유의적인 차이 없이 미삼추출분말 첨가군보다 높게 평가되었다. 이화학적 특성과 관능검사의 특성검사의 상관관계는, 용출된 국물양은 산도와 양의 상관관계, pH 및 경도와 음의 상관관계가 있었고, 용존 CO2함량과 용출된 국물양은 양의 상관관계가 있었다. 탄산미는 신맛과 매우 높은 양의 상관관계가 있었으며, 경도 및 아삭거림과 음의 상관관계가 있었다. 신맛과 탄산미는 pH와 음의 상관관계, 산도와 양의 상관관계가 있었다. 이상의 결과로 저염도 배추김치에 미삼추출분말과 오미자즙을 첨가함으로써 기능성 증진과 더불어, 인삼의 쓴맛을 완화시켜 기호도를 상승시키는 효과가 있었다. 그러나 미삼추출분말 첨가군의 저장성이 향상되었던 것과는 달리 미삼추출분말과 오미자즙을 함께 넣은 처리구에서는 대조군과 비슷한 발효 양상을 보이는 결과가 나타났는데 이는 미삼과 오미자즙의 상호작용에 의한 결과라고 생각되며, 이에 관한 더 많은 연구가 필요하다고 생각한다.
This study was conducted to investigate performance of methods for cooking and thawing frozen cooked rice to retard retro-gradation of cooked rice. For this research, That was executed rice's physicochemical and sensory characteristics test through the way of boiling rice or thawing, and found out best way for retro-gradation and taste. This study showed the rice cooked by pressure rice pot has less dehydration during freezing and thawing, and thawed rice by micro wave has less dehydration. Repetition of freezing and thawing resulted increasing of hardness and chewiness, and decreasing of adhesiveness and cohesiveness. The rice cooked by convotherm oven or pressure rice pot has less increased hardness while freezing and thawing. Adhesiveness was superior when rice was cooked by pressure rice pot. The rice thawed by microwave had more hardness than thawed in room temperature.
The purpose of this study is to develope a HACCP model for Korean traditional cookies. Prerequisite program and HACCP plan were proposed and analyzed for Yugwa. After analysing hazards of raw material and manufactnring processes, CCP, CL and control methods were presented. Pathogenic microorganisms were detected at the Korean traditional cookies plant. It gave a clue that general sanitation control procedures should be implemented for safe traditional cookie products. Hazard analysis of raw materials and processing of Korean traditional cookies. determination of critical control points and critical limits at the plant lead to present a model of HACCP plan. Implementation of HACCP can he carried out using a HACCP model. Critical control point of Yugwa production were determined as frying process. Biological and chemical hazards ere presented for CCP determination.
The aim of this thesis is to study how tableware china has developed, on the basis of social and cultural changes, during the latter period of Chosun Dynasty. First, general sociological background of Chosun Dynasty has been reviewed. To examine the kinds of tableware china and their use during this period, this thesis is based on Asakawa Dakumis 'A ceramic ware of Chosun Dynasty' one of the most thorough references available in the field. Various antiques and remains of different periods were compared to study the changes in tableware china types and uses In conclusion, the development in food culture brought the changes in tableware china. Tableware china and food has developed together complementarily throughout the latter period of Chosun Dynasty.
This study was performed to investigate the change of biologically functional compounds and antioxidant activities in Ecklonia cava with blanching times. As biologically functional compounds, the contents of minerals(K, Ca, Na, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn), vitamins(vitamin C, β-carotene and α-tocopherol) and total polyphenol were analyzed. And antioxidant activity was determined through free radicals(DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide) scavenging activity and linoleic acid peroxidation inhibitory activity. As the blanching time increased, the contents of minerals, vitamin C, β-carotene and total polyphenol were decreased however α-tocopherol was not affected by blanching time, and antioxidant activities were decreased with blanching time.
This study was performed to investigate the change of biologically functional compounds and antioxidant activities in Hizikia fusiformis with drying methods. As biologically functional compounds, the contents of minerals(K, Ca, Ma, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn), vitamins(vitamin C, β-carotene and α-tocopherol) and total polyphenol were analyzed. And antioxidant activity was determined through free radicals(DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, hydroxyl radical and hydrogen peroxide) scavenging activity and linoleic acid peroxidation inhibitory activity. The contents of minerals were not affected by drying methods however vitamins and total polyphenol were lost more by sun-drying than other drying methods studies. Total polyphenol was preserved by freezing-drying than other drying methods studies, resulting in high antioxidant activities.
The objective of this study is to develope natural and economical Naengmyun broth using stock prepared with chicken heads. Proper mixing ratio of chicken head stock and chicken breast broth was determined through the sensory evaluation. In order to find out the attributes of chicken head-chicken breast broth(CH-CB broth), chicken breast broth and beef brisket(BB) broth were mixed to the chicken head stock and compared the preference and chemical elements between the broths were compared. The appropriate mixing ratio for reinforcing the meat broth and savory flavor, of was determined to 3:7(w:w). The comparison of CH-CB broth's and CH-BB broth's elements showed that the amount of crude protein and ash was the same and, in the case of crude lipid, CH-BB broth had 0.01% more than CH-CB broth. In the case of the total amount of free amino acids, CH-CB broth had 1.6 times more than CH-BB broth. A survey with 50 consumers showed that was prefered between CH-CB broth and CH-BB broth. CH-CB broth with significance.
This study was performed to study the removal efficiency of residual organophosphorus pesticides with process for making Perilla Jangachi. Two organophosphorus pesticides(chlorpyrifos-methyl and fenitrothion) were artificially attached to Perilla leaves. Then Perilla leaves were washed with detergent solution for 1minute and rinsed 2 times each for 1 minutes. After washing with neutral detergent solution, Perilla Jangachi was made with 2 steps of optimal condition. As a pretreatment, when soaked with 2% salt concentration solution for 42hours, the removal rate of residual pesticides was 81.75% of chlorpyrifos-methyl and 76.82% of fenitrothion. When Perilla leaves were steamed for 72 seconds after soaking, it became 88.94% and 82.19%, respectively. Finally, after making optimal Perilla Jangachi with 27% onion contents, removal rate was 89.12% of chlorpyrifos-methyl and 82.76% of fenitrothion. Consequently, it appeared that the process for making Perilla Jangachi effectively removed the residual pesticides of Perilla leaves.
This study was conducted to investigate eating behaviors of preschool children for development their snack. Eating habit, preference and nutritional state were investigated using a questionnaire answered by teachers of day-care centers, 548 preschool children(aged 4 to 6 years old) and their mothers. It was found that 93.6% of subjects thought children need to eat snacks not only at day-care center but also at home. For children, snacks clearly played an important role in dietary nutritional intake The frequency and rate of consuming Milk as snack were high(1.51 times per a day, 459.8μl), 53.2% of calcium intake from Milk. The most favorite snack foods of children were fresh fruits, milk, yoghurt, juice. The correlation between frequency of eating food as snack and children's preference for food was low; because choosing food as children's snack was not by themselves but by their mothers and teachers, and variety of food(a taste, kinds) as snack was very weak. Subjects showed rather dissatisfactory view about commercial snack, and wanted new development of nutritionally balanced and natural-tasted snack for preschool children; they preferred dducks, biscuits and snacks as the form of newly-developed snack for preschool children.
Korean native Perilla Jangachi (salted and fermented vegetable) is popular and well-known but little study on its composition and most palatable condition has been reported. This study was performed to observe the change in the contents of chemical components and sensory evaluation of Perilla Jangachi which was prepared through two processing. First, as a pretreatment, Perilla leaves were soaked in salt water. The optimal level of salt concentration and soaking time (salt 4%, soaking time 42hours) was determined. Second, soaked Perilla Jangachi was steamed and then fermented in various ingredients like soy sauce, sugar, onion and so on. In this study, Perilla Jangachi was made by 3 levels of steaming time(30 seconds, 60 seconds, 90 seconds) and onion contents (10%, 30%, 50%). The optimal level of onion contents and steaming time was determined with the results of sensory evaluation by response surface methodology and analysis of composition. Sodium contents were decreased as the levels of onion contents were increased. Flavonoids contents weren't increased although contents of onion were increased. But they were influenced on steaming time that as the levels of steaming time were shortened, flavonoids contents were increased. To lengthen the shelf-life of Perilla Jangachi, the activities of enzyme peroxidase - which changes Jangachi's quality bad - by various levels of steaming time were measured. After steaming 50 seconds, peroxidase became inactive. Reducing sugar contents were decreased relying on either increased steaming time and onion contents. While steaming 30 seconds and 10% onion contents, the content of reducing sugar was 0.858% but steaming 90 seconds and 50% onion contents, it became 0.372%. Among the sensory attributes, brownness was increased as onion contents increased and steaming more than 60 seconds. Saltiness, sweetness, perilla flavor were greater relying on decreased onion contents. Toughness was decreased as both the amounts of onion and steaming time were increased. With this results, the most optimal adding level of onion content and steaming time was determined. Steaming 72 seconds and adding onion 27% was established as a optimal condition of Perilla Jangachi.
In this study, we selected supplementary vegetable resources to develpe nutritious supplementary model of korean formula for infants and children, purchased and analyzed it to use with a model. We also referred to an old book about Korean vegetable resources and searched a form of vegetable resources. There are a lot of vegetable resources of various kinds which lied scattered in mountains and fields of our country. As for these, a beyond compare menstruation activity component is becoming clear with a lot of things. It is thought that depth search and study of these vegetable resources and practical application to a infant and child supplemen is desirable. Therefore, we choosed vegetable resources ; a Capsella brusapastoris, a Codonopsis lanceolata, Dandelion, a wild plant, a Tractylis ovata(dried), a Tractylis ovata(native), a Pine plant, a burdock, a JanDae, a Plantain, a HollpDae, which gathered in our country, and we analyzied priximate aomposition of sample (moisture, ash, total carbohydrate, crude fat, crude protein, dietary fiber) and micronutrient contents of sample (calcium, Iron, flavonoids, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin E).
Mulberry Leaf (Morus-alba) is effective on reducing blood sugar increase and cholesterol in the blood. The objective of this study is to elucidate the sensory and physicochemical attributes of Mulberry Leaf Boogag with different amounts of glutinous rice paste and ginger juice. Mulberry Leaf Boogag, steamed for 90 seconds, was made by puffing the glutinous rice paste and ginger juice. The ratio of glutinous rice paste is made of a double, quintuple, and octuple proportion of water to the weight of the glutinous rice paste. The ratio of ginger juice is at a rate of one, three and five percent. According to the sensory evaluation, hardness and crispiness increased as the glutinous rice paste did, and ginger flavor, bitterness and sourness increased as the ginger juice did. Optimal conditions(p<0.05) were set when the value of hardness was more than five, and the value of bitterness and bitingness, lower than five. The optimal condition of Mulberry Leaf Boogag was established when the ratio of water to glutinous rice paste was 5.5, and in addition, 3.75 percent of ginger juice must be in proportion.
This study was conducted to determine the desirable thawing method and storage time of Nokchaborijook(gruel made of barley, rice powder and Green tea) which made of optimum conditions as the 5.8% Green tea and 15 seconds grinding time. Decision on desirable storage time(10, 20, 30, 40, 50days), thawing method(water bath, microwave oven) of frozen Nokchaborijook were determined by sensory evaluation and physicochemical attributes. As the storage time became longer, moisture and flavonoid contents were decreased. Viscosity, the ratio of water seperation, spreadability of Nokchaborijook which stored at 30 days showed great differences between the two thawing method. Among the sensory characteristics, desirability for overall, flavor, and texture were decreased as the storage time became longer. As a result of consumer test, Nokchaborijook thawed at water bath was more desirable than Nokchaborijook thawed at microwave oven. According to the results, frozen Nokchaborijook can be using as a supplement of dietary fiber and flavonoid for the health and be using convenience food.
Jangachi(salted and fermented vegetable) has been made by Korean traditionally using several kinds of vegetables, which is a good source of variety of nutrients and vitamins. There are many methods for making Jangachi. Generally soy sauce Jangachi is made through two steps. First, as a pretreatment, vegetables are soaked in salt water. Second, soaked vegetables are fermented in various ingredients like soy sauce, sugar, garlic, ginger and so on. This study was performed to observe changes in contents of chemical components and sensory evaluation of pretreated perilla leaf. Perilla leaf was soaked in water with different levels of salt concentration(2, 5 and 8 %) and soaking time(1, 3 and 5 days). The optimal level of salt and soaking time was determined with the results of sensory evaluation by response surface methodology and analysis of composition. The moisture contents decreased as the levels of salt and soaking time increased. The moisture content of untreated sample was 87.5 % and when soaked for 5 days in the water of 8 % salt concentration, it became 78.27 %. pH of Perilla leaf was high in high levels of salt concentration and short soaking time. Total acidity was so opposite to pH that was low in high levels of salt concentration and short soaking time. In the water of 8 % salt concentration, total acidity was 0.14 % when soaked for 1 day, 0.20 % for 3 days and 0.30 % for 5 days. Salt contents became greater as the soaking time increased. As the results of puncture test, soaked Perilla leaf's toughness increased as the levels of salt increased and soaking time decreased. Among the sensory attributes, greenness increased as the levels of salt concentration increased when soaked for more than 3 days. Saltiness and bitterness became greater as the levels of salt concentration increased. Perilla flavor decreased with the short soaking time. Off-flavor increased with the increased levels of soaking time and decreased salt concentration when soaked for more than 3 days. Toughness decreased as the levels of soaking time increased. Crispness increased with the increased levels of salt concentration. The condition of pretreated Perilla was optimum when it soaked for 42 hours in 4 % salt concentration.