This study is performed to examine the meal management attitudes of housewives who had elementary schoolchildren in the remote rural areas(RA: n = 318, 37.2±0.3 years of age) in comparison to those in their vicinity urban area(UA: n = 349, 36.9±0.2 years of age) in the Chungnam province in Korea. The subjects were asked to fill out the questionnaire on their attitudes of meal management for their families. The results obtained in this study were as followings: (1) Most husbands of the subjects had a farming job in the RA while they had salaried workers in the UA(p〈0.001). Education levels of both subjects and their husbands were lower in the RA than in the UA. Nuclear families were dominated by both groups, however single parent-family and step parent-family were more prevalent in the RA than in the UA. (2) in terms of ways of getting foods such as grains, meats, eggs, vegetables and fruits, the RA housewives relied more often on self-production than did the UA housewives(p〈0.001). (3) The frequency of purchasing unprocessed foods was lower in the RA than in the UA(p〈0.001). The RA housewives purchased the convenient foods such as instant noodles(p〈0.05), ready to eatsoups(p〈0.001), retort pouch foods(p〈0.05) and instant teas(p〈0.05) more frequently than did the UA housewives, while tuna, canned in oil(p〈0.01), milk and their products(p〈0.001), soybean products(p〈0.001) and snacks(p〈0.01) were purchased less often by the RA housewives. (4) Family members except housewives engaged more often in meal preparation in the RA than did those in the UA(p〈0.001), which was more strongly observed for dinner. The time spent in preparing the dinner was shorter in the RA than in the UA(p〈0.001). (5) The degrees of endeavor to provide the subjects' offspring with balanced meal(p〈0.001) and nutrition education(p〈0.01) were lower in the RA than in the UA. The RA housewives had more difficulty for performing meal management because of 'over work-related fatigue', 'insufficient money to purchase foods' and 'far distance from grocery' than the UA housewives(p〈0.001). The RA housewives had lower score on nutritional knowledge(p〈0.001) and wanted more strongly nutritional knowledge to improve the quality of family's meal than did the UA housewives(p〈0.01). Therefore, the RA housewives had various problems regarding meal management such as 'over work related to fatigue', 'food-purchasing inconvenience', 'low economic status of family' and 'lack of nutritional knowledge'. As a consequence the RA housewives relied on cheap convenient foods more often in order to prepare the meal easily than did the UA housewives. These findings emphasize the need in the RA for nutrition education for housewives and a range of nutrition policies that focus upon the social and economic determinants of food choice within families to improve the nutritional status of the RA residents.
This study examined food culture appearing in Giroyeon paintings in the late Chosun Dynasty (early 17th~l9th century), a period under political and economical difficulties in overcoming frustrations and looking for self-restoration methods after Imjinweran(1592~1598) and Byungjahoran(1636~1637). Paintings related to Giroyeon include Lee Gi-ryong's (1600~?) 〈Namjiginohoedo〉 painted in 1629 under the reign of King Injo (1623~1649), 〈Gisasayeondo〉 painted jointly by Kim Jin-yeo et al. in 1720, the first year of King Gyeongjong (1720~1724) and Kim Hong-do's 〈Giroseryeongyedo〉 painted in 1804 under the reign of King Sunjo (1800~1834) in the early 19th century. These paintings over three centuries of the late Chosun show changes in the character of Giroyeon, food culture and tableware culture, etc. According to these paintings, the character of Giroyeon was expanded from a feast held for high civil officials to a banquet comprehending general civil servants. These paintings show Hyangeumjueui, which means the decorum of respecting and sowing the aged men of virtue with alcohol beverage, table manner, seated culture represented by cushions and mats and individual-table culture. In addition, the expansion of demand for sunbaikja and chungwhabaikja and the diversification of vessels and dishes are demonstrated in Giroyeon paintings after Imjinweran in 1592. in this way, Giroyeon paintings show the historical characteristics of the late Chosun Dynasty, such as the collapse of Yangban-centered political system, the disintegration of the medieval system due to the emergence of the Silhak and the diversification of food culture.
This study was to investigate the perception of Korean traditional festival/holiday foods among the housewives in their 20's, 30's, 40's, and 50's residing in Seoul. Out of 350 questionnaires, 282 respondents were results The results were summarized as fellows: The most familial traditional holiday was Seollal on the New Year's Day(100%), and the most favored foods for respective traditional holidays are as fellows: tteokguk, rice paste soup, (98.23%) for Seollal on the New Year's Day; ogokbap, cooked rice mixed with five cereals (98.23%) for Daeboreum on the New Moon's Day of January 15; neuttitteok, zelkova ricecake, (20.64%) for Chopail on Buddha's Birthday; charyunbyeong cake (20.21%) for Dano on May 5; gyesamttang, chicken broth with ginseng, (89.72%) for Sambok, the hottest period of summer; songpyeon, pine cake, (96.45%) for Chuseok on August Moon Festival; patjuk, redbean stew, (98.94%) for Dongji on the winter solstice; and mandu, bun, (16.37%) for Seotdalgeumeum on the year-end day. Most of the respondents said that they ate traditional festival foods in compliance with the traditional manners and customs and that they made such traditional foods at home. They added that they wanted to team more about various recipes of the traditional foods and pointed out that traditional holiday foods had to be modernized in some way.
This study was carried out to investigate the information concerning dietary patterns and analysis of the various factors that influence obesity. The subjects of this study were 1,020 middle and high school students in Seoul. Subjects were classified into under weight, normal weight and over weight group by body mass index. We investigated eating habits, life habits, food behavior and food consumption. Data were collected by questionnair and analysed with the SAS program. The results of this study way are summarized and concluded as fellows; In the case of dietary pattern, over weight group showed significantly higher in skipping a meal than the other group. Also over weight group tend to eat fast. There were significant differences of food intake frequency score by body mass index. From the results of factor analysis of variable related to obesity, 4 factors were generated and the factors were named 'Food behavior related to obesity', 'Snack consumption pattern', 'Life habit', 'Family environment related to food habit'. These factors were associated with obesity. To maintain nutritional balance and health, we should implement to ensure good dietary patterns.
본 연구결과 호부추(LL), 재래종 부추(LM) 및 약부추(LS)의 총 폴리페놀함량은 286~437mg%이었으며 LS〉 LM〉 LL순인 것으로 나타났다. 이들 3품종의 부추 에탄올 추출물의 전자공여능 및 아질산염 소거능도 확인되었으며 그 중에서 LSEx 가 가장 높은 수치를 보였다. 또한 유지에 대한 항산화력을 과산화물가(POV)와 공액이중결합산량으로 측정 비교한 결과 3종의 부추 에탄올추출물 모두 0.02% 첨가 종도에서 항산화 효과를 보였으며 그 정도는 α-tocopherol 보다 높고 BHT보다는 낮은 경향이었다. 이러한 효과는 첨가 농도가 높을수록 컸으며 품종 별로 보면 LSEx가 가장 높았다. 따라서 약부추와 그 에탄올추출물이 총 폴리페놀함량과 전자공여능 및 아질산 소거능과 마찬가지로 옥배유에 대한 항산화력이 가장 높은 것을 알 수 있었다. 한편 부추 3품종의 에탄올추출물 모두 항균성이 확인되었으며 특히 이들 모두 Pseudomonas에 대하여 높은 저해성을 보였으며 위의 각종 이화학적 성질이 떨어지는 것으로 나타난 재래종 부추의 에탄올추출물은 모든 균주에 고른 항균성을 나타내었다. 이러한 결과에서 3가지 품종의 부추 에탄올추출물들 중 항산화력은 소립종인 약부추가, 항균력은 중립종인 재래종 부추가 가장 높은 효과를 나타내었지만 모든 추출물들에서 항산화력과 항균력을 확인할 수 있어서 이들 3종 부추 모두 항산화와 항균성에 대한 기능성 식품으로 충분한 이용가치가 있을 것으로 사료된다.
This study was peformed to investigate effect of feeding experimental mixture containing chitosan, hibiscus extract and L-carnitine on body weight and lipid metabolism in rats. Forty-eight male rats(Charles River CD) of eight weeks old and weighing 336.5±2.3g were raised for five weeks with high fat diet(40% fat as calorie) to induce obesity. After induction of obesity, rats weighing 560.4±5.6g were blocked into four groups according to body weight and raised for eight weeks with diet containing either 0.09%(+1D group), 0.9%(+10D group) or 4.5%(+50D group) of experimental mixture. Aspartate aminotransferase(AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT), total protein and albumin were normal levels in plasma. Body weight gain and epididymal fat pad weight were lower in experimental mixture groups than control group However, weights of perirenal fat pad and brown adipose tissue were not significantly different among all groups. There was no significant difference in plasma and hepatic lipid levels among all groups. Liver citrate lyase and camitine acyltransferase activities were not significantly different among all groups, however, citrate lyase activity was tended to be decreased with increasing experimental mixture level in diet. Fecal total lipid and total cholesterol excretions were highest in +50D group, and triglyceride excretion was highest in +1D group. in conclusion, intake of experimental mixture containing chitosan, hibiscus extract and L-camitine was effective in reducing body weight and body fat, and its inhibitory effects might lead to obesity improvement.
This study was focused on the analysis of questionnaire that surveyed the uses, preference and recognition on apple. The subjects of this study consisted of 452 female(married 238, unmarried 214) in Daegu area. Among those respondents, 49.1% answered that they ate apple after dinner. Respondents preferred as purchase place fruits store(34.5%), traditional market(22.6%), and big discount store(21.7%), in order. Taste(46.0%) was the most important as purchase criterion. 49.1% of respondents preferred small amount below 2-3kg every one purchase. In preference survey on apples, 80.5% of total subjects responded 'like' or 'very like', and 73.6% of those subjects who favorably responded liked the 'taste' of apples. The preference survey study on apple foods revealed that respondents preferred the most apple juice(M=3.47), fellowed by apple jam(M=3.35) and apple vinegar(M=3.21). On the other hand, apple bab(M=2.29) and apple jook(M=2.23) had the most low preference score. The recognition survey study on apple revealed that respondents knew relatively well the followings: apple is natural food(M=4.25), apple is good for body and apple is good for beauty(M=4.20). Respondents required apple to be fresher(41.0%) and taster(37.4%). 89.4% of respondents expected that consumption of apples would be increased or maintain at the present level.
Methionine과 xylose를 이용한 Maillard 반응생성물을 첨가하고 autoclaving mothod로 중화요리용 향미유를 제조하였다. 이 향미유와 서울 시내 중국 음식점에서 자장면용 양념자장 3종을 구하여 이들의 휘발성 물질을 GC, GC-MSD로 측정하였다. 향미유에서는 61종, 404.92ppm의 휘발성 물질이 분리 정량 되었고, 양념자장 3종에서는 각각 39종, 42종, 42종이 확인 되었으며, 그 양은 각각 333.52ppm, 330.01ppm, 393.18ppm이었다. 중화요리용 향미유의 주요 휘발성 성분은 diallyl disulfde, pentane, diallyl trisulfide, t, t-2, 4-decadienal 및 zinngiberene이었으며, 이들의 함량은 각각 40.15ppm, 32.32ppm, 19.57ppm, 15.06ppm 및 13.23ppm이었다. 시중 자장시중 3종에서는 pentane, propenal, hexanal, t-2-heptanal, 2, 4-heptadienal, t, t-2, 4-decadienal 및 미확인 물질이었다. 본 실험에서 제조한 향미유는 3종류의 sample과 유사한 향미 물질을 포함하고 있었으며 aldehyde, ethane, alcohol 등의 함량은 낮은 편이었다.
김치에 첨가되는 고추를 건조하지 않고 세척, 마쇄한 다음 냉동 저장한 고추를 김치에 사용하여 이화학적 및 관능적 특성을 알아보았다. 김치의 pH는 제조당일에는 고춧가루를 사용한 김치 마쇄액의 pH가 가장 높았으며 마쇄고추로 담근 김치의 마쇄액과 김치액에서는 그보다 더 낮게 나왔고 숙성 2주까지 동일한 경향을 보이며 감소하다 숙성 3주이후에는 시료간에 pH 차이가 거의 나타나지 않았다. 한편 산도는 담근 초기에 마쇄고추를 사용한 김치가 고춧가루를 사용한 김치보다 높은 산도를 보였으나 숙성 2주째에는 동일하였고 숙성 3주부터는 고춧가루를 사용한 김치의 김치액과 마쇄액에서 모두 마쇄고추를 사용한 김치보다 높은 값을 나타냈다. 숙성 전 기간을 통해 김치의 L값과 a값은 마쇄고추를 사용한 김치액이 가장 높았고 b값은 가장 낮았다. 유기산 함량에서는 acetic acid와 lactic acid는 숙성이 진행될수록 마쇄고추를 사용한 김치에서 더 증가하는 경향을 보였고 citric acid는 숙성 2주까지는 동일하게 마쇄고추를 첨가한 김치가 더 높았으나 숙성 3주부터는 마쇄고추 및 고춧가루를 사용한 김치 모두에서 검출되지 않았다. 김치의 QDA 결과 담근 직후와 숙성 2주일째 김치에서는 적색도, 매운맛, 상큼한 맛이, 숙성 5주째 김치에서는 적색도와 상큼한 맛에서 마쇄고추를 사용한 김치가 고춧가루를 사용한 김치보다 유의적으로 높은 값을 나타냈다. 소비자 기호도 검사에서는 담금 직후, 숙성 2주째 및 숙성 5주째에서 모두 마쇄고추를 사용한 김치가 고춧가루를 사용한 김치보다 외관과 종합적인 기호도가 월등히 높았다. 따라서 마쇄고추를 김치에 사용할 경우 기존의 고춧가루를 사용할 경우에 비해 김치의 L값과 a값 및 citric acid함량을 증진시켜 관능검사시 적색도와 상큼한 맛을 높여 소비자의 종합적인 기호도를 높일 수 있음을 알 수 있었다.
It is the aim of this study to identify and develop improved management practice and competitive edge through co-branding which has been adopted extensively in the States. There is no universally accepted definition of co-branding. The term has been used interchangeably with labels such as brand alliance and composite branding. This study is exploratory in nature and at best a pilot study as few academic research are found dealing with actual cases between hotels and restaurant companies in Korea. Through related literatures reviews and research findings, this study will provide valuable insight as to the methods and activities of co-branding and a framework to help industry professions identify co-branding opportunities to enhance the productivity.
This study identified how family restaurant customers' attitude toward yield management strategies, which include reservation, time, menu, and service factors. Generally, yield management explains how price and dining duration maximize the revenue of family restaurants. There are three ways to improve family restaurant yield; improving table turns, upgrading seat occupancy, increasing price per customer. The 45 items of yield management strategies are developed by literature reviews, web sites analysis, and interviews with family restaurant employers. Factor analysis and reliability analysis from present study found out 11 important factors, which represent the study's dependent variables. Regression analysis may be helpful to test whether demographic and socio-economic factors have relationships with family restaurant customers' attitude toward yield management strategies. As a regression result, gender, family size, age in demographic factors and education and occupation in socio-economic factors have relationships with family restaurant customers' attitude toward yield management strategies significantly.
This study was conducted to investigate performance of methods for cooking and thawing frozen cooked rice to retard retro-gradation of cooked rice. For this research, That was executed rice's physicochemical and sensory characteristics test through the way of boiling rice or thawing, and found out best way for retro-gradation and taste. This study showed the rice cooked by pressure rice pot has less dehydration during freezing and thawing, and thawed rice by micro wave has less dehydration. Repetition of freezing and thawing resulted increasing of hardness and chewiness, and decreasing of adhesiveness and cohesiveness. The rice cooked by convotherm oven or pressure rice pot has less increased hardness while freezing and thawing. Adhesiveness was superior when rice was cooked by pressure rice pot. The rice thawed by microwave had more hardness than thawed in room temperature.
The color and its coordination should intensify the customer's memory and awareness in a brand website, through the consistent communication strategy by which a variety of brand identification in the offline could be expressed efficiently. We evaluated top 5 brand-valuable family restaurants in this study, how they made the best use of the website as a new communication channel, and how they constructed the brand identification by the coloring of a website. We found out that they employed colors with a dynamic and lilting feelings matching the concept of a family restaurant. In addition, A color scheme was well designed for the specific character of a brand, though web-safe colors were seldom employed. This report can be a guide to a corporation for the color and its coordination in the website, when existing brand images need to be intensified and enhanced, or when a new brand image need to be constructed.
The purpose of this study was to nut a survey on the seasonal menu and consumer's acceptance test of free meals for the elderly facility in Sungnam Region. The elderly meals of the free lunch meal service were mainly composed of staple food, hot soup, and three kinds of side dishes. Questionare for accentance test was developed based on the seasonal menu including 13 kinds of cooked rices, 43 kinds of soups and 94 kinds of side dishes. The test was run for 104 elderly living and receving the service in the area. Average age of the subjects was 75.9 and 43% was male 57% was female. The 81% and 88% of the subject answered 'yes' on the intake of breakfast and dinner respectively representing high percentages of regular meal habits of the elderly. The cooked rice with black beans had significantly the highest acceptance score among the rice group and soups prepared with chunggukjang and cabbage had higher accentance scores(P<0.05). In the side dish groups, broiled eed, croakers, and various kinds of namuls had relatively higher scores than the others with significant difference at P<0.05.
This study was peformed by questionnaire to investigate satisfaction for the menu qualify of Korean traditional food of Japanese tourists. The subjects of this study consisted of 280 Japanese tourists using the Gyeongju and Busan hotel. The results were summarized as follows: 63.9% of the subjects responded that frequency of visiting was 1-2 times a year and 42.1% responded that motivation of visiting was for tour and understanding of korea. Companion with friend scored high as 40.4%, and intention of revisiting was high on 'normal'. On overall satisfaction on korean traditional foods, 'satisfy' scored high as 43.2%. 61.1% of the subjects responded that the taste was the most important factor of food. On frequency of eating, 'over 8 times' scored high as 27.9%, and on motivation of eating, 'with visiting Korea' scored high as 48.2%. On satisfaction for the menu quality of korean traditional food, the highest item was 'taste(3.82 point)' and 'nutrition(3.82 point)', and but 'Japanese mark on menu(2.47 point)', 'Japanese mark on ingredient(2.61 point)' scored low. Overall satisfaction for korean traditional food had an effect on intention of revisiting, and therefore, improving the quality of the traditional food and the strategy for the classification of desires are earnestly requested.