In this study, kombucha was prepared by adding 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of Orostachys japonicus as a natural functional source to broaden its usage and obtain valuable data for fermented beverage research. The kombucha’s pH and sugar content decreased during the fermentation period, but its acidity level increased during the same period. Additionally, its L value increased after decreasing, its a value decreased after increasing, its b value continued to increase, and its sugar reduction increased and then decreased. In the sensory characteristic strength evaluation, its color, fermented odor, and sour taste became stronger, but its sweetness became less. As a result of preference evaluation, fragrance and swallowing capability stood the highest in the 25% addition group, color and taste were the highest in the 50% addition group, and overall preference was highest in the 50% addition group. Total flavonoids, total polyphenols, DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging ability, and reducing power increased until the third day of the experiment and decreased afterward. Therefore, the study determined that fermenting kombucha with 50% Orostachys japonicus extract for 9 days would increase its quality characteristics and provide the most palatability.
The purpose of this study was to confirm the possibility of using Korean purple yam (Dioscorea alata) as proximate composition, material, and antioxidant activity. In the proximate composition of the freeze-dried purple yam powder, the carbohydrate content was the highest at 86.67%, and in minerals, potassium showed the highest content at 1,765.69 mg/100 g. To study the antioxidant activity of purple yam, distilled water and 70% ethanol were used as extraction solvents. The total polyphenol, total flavonoid, and total anthocyanin contents were 1.3~1.6 times higher in 70% ethanol extract, than in the distilled water extract. As a result of ORAC, DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, SOD activity, and reducing power, the 70% ethanol extract showed higher antioxidant activity than the distilled water extract in all results. As a result of freeze-drying purple yam and measuring antioxidant activity by extraction solvents, it is concluded that purple yam can contribute to the food industry as a natural antioxidant and health functional material.
The study investigated the chemical components, antioxidant activities, and glucose-regulating enzyme activities of red chicory (Cichorium intybus L.). On a dry weight the contents of moisture, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, crude fiber, and carbohydrate were 7.36, 28.0, 4.33, 19.63, 10.84 and 40.52%. The contents of mineral were Na (772.39 mg/100 g), K (5,686.03 mg/100 g), Mg (307.48 mg/100 g), Ca (804.94 mg/100 g), Fe (8.61 mg/100 g), and P (1,145.24 mg/100 g). Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll (793.80, 363.06, 1,156.86 mg/100 g,), total carotenoid (171.82 mg/100 g), and anthocyanin (79.49 mg/100 g) contents were measured. Antioxidant activities were analyzed for water and 70% ethanol extract. The polyphenol contents 23.67, 32.58 GAE mg/g, and flavonoid contents were 18.15, 28.76 RE mg/g, respectively. The DPPH scavenging activity IC50 was 694.48, 76.12, μg/mL, and the ABTS scavenging activity IC50 1,154.90, 566.00 μg/mL, respectively. In reducing power, the 70% ethanol extract showed a higher reducing power. In α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibition activity IC50, the 70% ethanol extract (5.87, 17.91 mg/mL, respectively) showed a higher than water extract (8.87, 100 < mg/mL, respectively). This study is expected to provide basic data for developing functional food ingredients for red chicory.
This study evaluate the antioxidant activity and quality characteristics of muffins prepared with the addition of Cirsium nipponicum powder in the ratio of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% and confirm the possibility of using Cirsium nipponicum as a functional food. As the proportion of Cirsium nipponicum powder increased, the specific gravity of the muffins increased while their height, specific volume, moisture content and pH decreased. The baking loss rate of the samples prepared with the addition of Cirsium nipponicum powder was higher than in the control group. The ‘L’ and ‘b’ values decreased with the increase in the Cirsium nipponicum powder content, while the ‘a’ value increased. The evaluation of texture showed that hardness, chewiness, and gumminess increased with an increase in the Cirsium nipponicum powder content. As per the results of the consumer acceptability test, the 4-6% Cirsium nipponicum powder group showed higher scores than the other groups in the characteristics of color, flavor, taste, and texture, and the 4% group secured the highest score for overall acceptance. Also, with the increasing addition of Cirsium nipponicum powder, the antioxidant activity levels increased, as indicated by the total phenolic content, DPPH, and ABTS radical scavenging activities and reducing power. Based on these study results, muffins prepared with the addition of 4% of Cirsium nipponicum powder showed the best functional and sensory qualities.
This study evaluated the quality and antioxidant activities of pork patties after adding Cirsium nipponicum powder in a ratio of 0%, 1%, 2%, 3%, and 4%, and the potential of Cirsium nipponicum as a functional food. The moisture content increased with an increase in the Cirsium nipponicum powder content while the pH, cooking loss rate, diameter loss rate decreased. The L and b values decreased with increase in the Cirsium nipponicum powder content while the a value increased; this trend was observed before and after heating the patties. The hardness, chewiness, and gumminess increased with increase in the Cirsium nipponicum powder content. Consumer acceptability test revealed that the 2% Cirsium nipponicum powder group had a higher score than the other groups in respect to color, flavor, taste, texture, and overall acceptance. Notably, as the Cirsium nipponicum powder content increased, there was an increase in the antioxidant activities; increased total pheonlic, flavonoid, DPPH radical scavenging activity and ABTS radical scavenging activity. Based on the present study results, adding 2% of Cirsium nipponicum powder into pork patties achieved the best functionality and sensory qualities.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate of black carrot on the antioxidant activity and quality characteristics of Sulgidduk. Sulgidduk was prepared with different amounts (0, 1, 2, 3, 4%) of black carrot. As the amount of added black carrot increased, the moisture content (p<0.05) and pH were decreased (p<0.001). Sugar content results showed the increase with the addition of black carrot (p<0.01). L (lightness) values and b (yellowness) values decreased whereas a (redness) values increased with an increased concentration of black carrot powder (p<0.001). The mechanical texture of Sulgidduk was decreased by the addition of black carrot considering hardness, chewiness and gumminess (p<0.001) while those of springiness, cohesiveness increased. Consumer acceptability test revealed that the 2% black carrot groups had a higher score than the other groups in respect to color, flavor, taste, texture, overall palatability. To examine antioxidant activities of Sulgidduk, total phenolic, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and total anthocyanin were tested. Total phenolic, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and total anthocyanin showed good vitality as amounts of black carrot powder increased (p<0.001). Based on the various aspects of results, 2% of black carrot added into Sulgidduk showed the best functionality and sensory qualities.
본 연구는 감태 분말을 0(S1), 2(S2), 4(S3), 6(S4), 8(S5)% 비율로 첨가한 크래커를 제조한 뒤 항산화 활성과 품질 특성을 측정하였다. 색도 측정 결과, L값과 b값은 감태 첨가량이 증가할수록 감소하였다(p<0.001). a값은 음(－)의 값을 보였는데, S4가 －8.03으로 가장 낮은 값을 보였고, 경향성은 나타나지 않았다. pH는 첨가량이 증가할수록 값이 감소하였고, 퍼짐성은 첨가량에 따른 유의성이 나타나지 않았다. 텍스쳐 측정 결과, 첨가량이 증가함에 따라 값이 증가하는 경향을 보였다(p<0.001). 관능검사는 색, 향, 맛, 외관, 조직감, 전반적인 기호도 항목을 평가하였다. 그 결과, 대조군보다 감태를 첨가한 샘플에서 더 높은 기호도 값을 보였고, S4(6% 첨가)가 기호도가 가장 좋았다. 감태 크래커는 분말 첨가량이 증가할수록 DPPH radical 소거능과 환원력이 유의적으로 높게 나타났다(p<0.001). 또한, 총 페놀 함량은 분말 첨가량이 증가할수록 높아졌다(p<0.05). 이를 통해 감태 크래커의 항산화 활성은 감태 첨가량이 증가할수록 높아진다는 것을 알 수 있다.
본 연구에서는 고조리서에 나온 용안육 다식의 제조방법을 토대로 현대인의 입맛에 맞게 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% 비율로 배합비를 변형시켜 다식을 제조한 후에 항산화 활성과 품질 특성을 평가하였다. 용안육 다식의 수분함량과 pH는 용안육을 첨가할수록 감소하였고(p<0.001), 당도는 증가하였다(p<0.001). 색도는 용안육의 첨가량이 증가할수록 명도인 L값은 감소하는 경향을 보이는 반면에 적색도인 a값과 황색도인 b값은 증가하는 경향을 보였다(p<0.001). 기계적 조직감은 용안육 첨가량이 증가함에 따라 경도, 부착성, 응집성, 탄력성, 씹힘성 등이 모두 증가하는 것으로 나타났다(p<0.001). 관능검사에서는 색, 향, 맛, 조직감, 전반적인 기호도에서 용안육을 50% 첨가하는 것이 가장 기호도가 높은 것으로 나타났다(p<0.001). 항산화 활성 결과에서는 총 페놀 함량과 플라보노이드 함량, DPPH 라디칼 소거능, 환원력, superoxide anion 라디칼 소거능 모두 용안육 첨가군이 무첨가군보다 항산화 활성이 높은 것으로 나타났다(p<0.001). 이상의 연구결과를 종합하여 볼 때에 용안육을 50% 첨가하여 다식을 제조하는것이 전반적인 기호도가 가장 높으면서 품질 특성과 항산화 활성이 우수할 것으로 보여진다.
This study was performed in order to examine the functional and quality characteristics of raw noodles with added kale powder. The raw noodles were prepared at a concentration of 4, 8, and 12% (w/w) of the kale, based on flour weight. The antioxidant activity of kale powder, specifically DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing activity, and total phenolic content were found to be 75.16%, 1.24 (O.D.) and 44.47 mg GAE/g, respectively. Using Hunter Lab color values for raw noodle with added kale powder, L (lightness) values decreased with an increased concentration of kale powder, whereas a (redness) values decreased (p<0.001). In a texture analysis, chewiness (p<0.01), gumminess (p<0.001), and cohesiveness (p<0.001) increased significantly as the amount of added kale powder increased. According to sensory evaluations: color, flavor, taste, texture, and overall palatability had the highest score in noodle with 8% kale powder (p<0.001). During periods of storage, moisture contents were decreased when kale powder concentrations increased, but pH did not differ in any of the groups and bacteria cell counts were between 0% and 8%. Kale noodles were observed at 8% then 0%, decreased by 102 log CFU/g. The antioxidant activities of raw noodles with added kale powder were increased by 8%, a 30~50% increase over the control group. These results suggest that kale powder is useful as a functional food resource with antioxidant activities.
본 연구에서는 전통 식품 소재로의 활용성을 높이기 위해 참죽나무 순을 동결건조하여 일반성분과 무기질 함량을 측정하였고, 추출용매를 달리하여 얻은 열수 추출물과 70% 에탄올 추출물로부터 총 폴리페놀 및 플라보노이드 함량과 항산화능을 살펴보았다. 참죽나무 순의 일반성분 및 무기질 분석 결과, 조단백질, 조섬유, 칼슘과 칼륨 함량이 높게 측정되었다. 총 폴리페놀과 플라보노이드는 참죽나무 순 분말 열수 추출물보다 70% 에탄올 추출물에서 함량이 더 높았으며, DPPH 유리 라디칼 소거능과 FRAP 또한 70% 에탄올 추출물에서 더 높은 항산화력을 나타냈다. 이상의 결과로 볼 때 참죽나무 순 분말은 영양성과 식이섬유소의 기능성이 높아 식품의 재료로 이용가능성이 높으며, 참죽나무 순 분말로부터 유용성분 용출 및 기능성 증대를 위해서는 70% 에탄올로 추출하는 것이 바람직하다고 생각된다.
20℃에서 15일 동안 저장기간별 사과의 변화를 살펴본 결과는 다음과 같다. 사과의 중량과 수분은 저장기간 경과에 따라 점차적으로 감소하는 결과를 보였으며, 사과의 저장 중 가용성 고형물 함량은 저장 4일차까지 최고치로 증가하였다가 서서히 낮아지는 경향을 나타냈다. 사과의 저장 중 유기산 산도는 저장 5일차에 급격히 감소하다가 완만히 감소하였으며, pH는 저장기간에 따라 완만히 증가하는 경향을 나타내었다. 저장 중 사과 껍질의 색상을 측정한 결과, L값은 저장기간에 따라 서서히 증가하였으며, a값은 저장 3일까지 감소하였고, 저장 5일에 증가되었다가 그 이후 점진적으로 감소하였다. b값은 저장 6일에 최저치를 보인 후 서서히 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 사과의 조직감을 측정한 결과, 저장기간이 증가됨에 따라 사과의 경도는 전반적으로 감소하였다. 저장 기간에 따른 사과의 총 페놀과 총 플라보노이드 함량을 측정한 결과, 총 페놀 함량은 저장 기간이 길어질수록 감소하는 경향이 나타났으며, 저장 3일차에서 저장 4일차에 큰 폭 감소하였다. 총 플라보노이드의 변화 결과, 1일차에 비교적 크게 감소하였고, 실험 7일차에서 8일차 사이에 급격히 감소하였다. 저장 기간에 따른 사과의 DPPH 전자공여능 측정결과, 저장기간이 증가할수록 DPPH 전자공여능은 감소하였으며, Vit. C 함량의 경우 저장 기간이 길어질수록 감소하였는데, 특히 저장 4일차에 비교적 크게 감소하였다. 사과의 관능평가 수행 결과, 저장기간이 경과함에 따라 외관의 좋은 정도는 0일차에 6.75에서 15일차 2.83으로 크게 감소하였으며, 신맛의 좋은 정도는 저장 기간에 따라 유의적인 차이를 보이지 않았으나, 전반적으로 감소하는 경향이었다. 단맛의 좋은 정도와 아삭함의 좋은 정도에서는 0일차에 각 6.25, 5.33으로 가장 높았으며, 15일차에 각 3.92, 2.83으로 유의적으로 감소하였다. 종합적인 기호도에서는 7일차와 8일차 사이에 5.00에서 3.50으로 비교적 큰 폭 감소하였으며, 15일차에 2.00으로 저장 기간에 지남에 따라 유의적으로 감소하였다. 이상의 실험결과, 사과 저장 시 3~4일차에 유의적인 차이를 보였으며, 저장 8일 이후에는 모든 항목에 있어 측정감이 크게 변화하는 경향을 나타내었다. 따라서 0∼1℃에서 장기 저장한 사과를 20℃ 전후에서 저장 및 판매할 경우, 최고의 품질을 위해서는 3일 내에 판매할 것을 권장하며, 8일 이내에 재고를 소진할 수 있도록 유통 기간을 조정하는 것이 바람직할 것으로 사료된다.
This study is conducted to investigate the effects of Chinese artichoke powder on the antioxidant activities and the quality characteristics of tofu. Tofus are being prepared with different amounts of Chinese artichoke powder in ratios of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8% according to the soy milk quantity. According to the increasing contents of Chinese artichoke powder, the yield and turbidity of tofus are significantly increased (p<0.001) whereas the pH levels of tofus are significantly decreased (p<0.001). In terms of color, the L, a and b values are significantly decreased with increasing Chinese artichoke powder concentrations (p<0.001). From the texture profile analysis of the tofus, the chewiness, gumminess and cohesiveness of tofus are significantly decreased (p>0.01) according to the levels of added Chinese artichoke powder content. The contents of isoflavones such as daidzin and genistin are significantly increased with increasing concentrations of Chinese artichoke powder (p<0.001). The microstructure of tofus is being examined by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope). In the sensory test, the sample which contains 0.4% of Chinese artichoke powder is ranked significantly higher (p>0.001) than the other groups according to several sensory parameters such as appearance, color, flavor, taste, texture and the overall preferences.
This study is performed to examine the functional and quality characteristics of glutinous barley Jeung-pyun added with beet powder. Jeung-pyun is being prepared with concentration of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% (w/w) of the beet according to nonglutinous rice powder weight. The pH level of Jeung-pyun batters decrease along with fermentation time. However, the pH level of Jeung-pyun is higher than that of the Jeung-pyun batter. For hunter’s color value of glutinous barley Jeung-pyun added with beet powder, the L (lightness) values decrease with increasing concentrations of beet powder, whereas a (redness) values increase (p<0.001). In the texture analysis, the hardness, chewiness and gumminess are significantly increased with the amount of glutinous barley Jeung-pyun with added beet powder. According to sensory evaluations, the appearance, color, flavor, taste, texture and overall quality are considered very good in the 4% of added beer powder in glutinous barley Jeung-pyun (p<0.001). The antioxidant activities of beet powder by DPPH free radical scavenging activity, ferric reducing antioxidant power and total phenolic contents are being recorded at 259.52 ㎕/㎎, 0.44±0.01, 15.29±0.04 ㎎ GAE/g respectively. The antioxidant activities of glutinous barley Jeung-pyun added with beet powder increase with increasing concentrations of beet powder. These results suggest that beet powder are useful as functional food resources within antioxidant activities.