The endothelium, a continuous monolayer of cells that surrounds blood vessels, has a variety of physiological roles. Chronic exposure to psychological and physical stress, oxidative stress, and inflammation activates the endothelial signaling cascade, resulting in vascular dysfunction such as vasospasm, thrombosis, and abnormal vascular proliferation. Aging is also a significant factor in vascular dysfunction, mainly developing structural and functional changes in the endothelium. The molecules involved in endothelial dysfunction are typically angiopoietin-1 (Ang-1), Tie2, and tight junction proteins. Ang-1, an oligomeric-secreted glycoprotein, is required for the correct organization and maturation of newly-formed vessels. Ang-1 binding to tyrosine kinase receptors Tie-2 leads to the phosphorylation and activation of multiple signaling pathways related to vascular permeability. Endothelial junctions are another vital target of Tie-2 activation. Nutrition and food are closely connected with vascular dysfunction and permeability. The caloric restriction prevents age-related declines in endothelial function. Dietary patterns that prioritize moderate intake of fruits and vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, and lean meats improve endothelial function in the elderly. Natural products such as Centella asiatica, Pueraria montana, and Piper retrofractum have also been shown to help inhibit endothelial dysfunction. This review provides an update on aging-related vascular dysfunction and the role of food and nutrition.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of manufacturing temperature on curcuminoid contents and the antioxidant activity of turmeric (Curcuma aromatica Salab.) powder-enhanced nurungji. Two different processes employed turmeric powder (2%): AR (added after rice cooked) and BR (added before rice cooked). AR and BR nurungji samples were prepared by heating cooked rice at 180oC, 200oC, and 220oC for 3 minutes. As a result of the HPLC analysis, the contents of curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin decreased as the heating temperature increased. Moreover, AR samples showed higher curcuminoids than BR samples. The total polyphenol contents, DPPH, and ABTS radical scavenging ability proportionally increased with the increase of the manufacturing temperature. On the other hand, flavonoid contents were decreased with increasing temperature. These results suggest that the preparation of turmeric powder-enhanced nurungji by AR process at 200oC is preferable to preserving curcuminoid contents and antioxidative activity.
Corni Fructus (CF) is a fruit of Cornus officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. and has been used as traditional oriental medicine. It has various functional qualities such as being antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihyperglycemic, and immunity-regulating. In the current study, CF was extracted from two conventional extract solvents (distilled water (DW) and 70% ethanol) with/without high-speed homogenization (HSH) treatments. The extract was characterized by measuring the total polyphenol contents and antioxidant activities. The HSH treatment significantly improved the total polyphenol content (from 28.4±0.9 mg/mL to 35.5±0.9 mg/mL), ABTS (from 59.8±0.4% to 78.4±2.7%), and DPPH radical scavenging activities (from 50.8±1.4% to 59.7±2.8%) of the DW extract and showed a level similar to that of 70% ethanol extract. The CF extracts were further used to prepare functional jelly with gelatin and other components such as pectin, fructooligosaccharide, and citric acid. The jelly’s hardness, springiness, gumminess, and cohesiveness were characterized using a texture profile analysis (TPA).
The physicochemical properties of the emulsions prepared with four different proteins (pea protein isolate, whey protein isolate, soy protein concentrate, and soy protein isolate) were characterized in terms of particle size, rheological property, and freeze-thaw stability, while the feasibility of the protein-stabilized emulsions as a fat replacer was evaluated. Confocal laser scanning microscopic analysis showed that O/W emulsions were successfully prepared with all the proteins; however, the smallest particle size and excellent syneresis were observed in the WPI-stabilized emulsions. The use of WPI-stabilized emulsions as an alternative for shortening up to 50% level did not lead to differences in the muffin batters’ specific gravity and viscoelastic properties. After baking, the substitution of shortening with the WPI emulsions at up to 50% by weight did not significantly affect the muffins’ specific volume and texture characteristics.
In this study, kombucha was prepared by adding 0%, 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of Orostachys japonicus as a natural functional source to broaden its usage and obtain valuable data for fermented beverage research. The kombucha’s pH and sugar content decreased during the fermentation period, but its acidity level increased during the same period. Additionally, its L value increased after decreasing, its a value decreased after increasing, its b value continued to increase, and its sugar reduction increased and then decreased. In the sensory characteristic strength evaluation, its color, fermented odor, and sour taste became stronger, but its sweetness became less. As a result of preference evaluation, fragrance and swallowing capability stood the highest in the 25% addition group, color and taste were the highest in the 50% addition group, and overall preference was highest in the 50% addition group. Total flavonoids, total polyphenols, DPPH, ABTS radical scavenging ability, and reducing power increased until the third day of the experiment and decreased afterward. Therefore, the study determined that fermenting kombucha with 50% Orostachys japonicus extract for 9 days would increase its quality characteristics and provide the most palatability.
In this study, the authors investigated the quality characteristics of convenient rice porridge made from powder (PR) and half-rice (HR) sized freeze-dried cooked rice using Samgwang and Jinsumi rice. The hydration properties of the freeze-dried cooked rice and the color, viscosity, spreadability, and sensory evaluation of porridge were measured. PR showed significantly higher water-binding capacity, solubility, and swelling power than HR for both varieties (p<0.05). As a result of the quality characteristic of the porridge, PR showed significantly higher lightness, redness, yellowness, viscosity, and spreadability than HR (p<0.05). Acceptance testing showed that HR had significantly better results for all acceptance attributes than PR (p<0.05). Jinsumi HR showed better consumer acceptance for taste, texture, and overall acceptability than Samgwang HR (p<0.05). Intensity evaluations of sensory properties revealed that the Samgwang PR was more spreadable but was less chewy than Samgwang HR. Furthermore, Jinsumi HR had higher transparency, greater spreadability, and a better cooked-rice odor and savory taste than Samgwang HR (p<0.05). These results confirm that convenient porridges can be produced using freezedried cooked rice.
This study aims to investigate the effect of drying temperatures on the quality characteristics and physicochemical properties of vegetables. Lettuce and napa cabbage were dried at 40, 50, and 60oC and analyzed for various quality indexes. Higher drying temperature induced the lower L* and higher a* and b* values of samples. Also, it resulted in lowering the rehydration ratio, pH, and total free amino acid content of dried vegetables. The outcome might be due to the damage to the internal structure of vegetables and the decomposition of free amino acids during thermal treatment. Higher drying temperatures led to higher soluble solid and total polyphenol contents due to the conversion of phenolic compounds from combined to free form during the drying process, which changed phenolic compounds from combined to free form. Consequently, samples dried at higher temperatures had higher DPPH radical scavenging ability. The final moisture content and drying time decreased as the drying temperature increased; moreover, the antioxidant activity increased. A lower drying temperature is beneficial to maintaining the chemical characteristics of crops.
This study aimed to evaluate the germination characteristics, -glucan and antioxidant contents, and antioxidant activity of naked oat according to germination temperature (20, 25, and 30oC) and time (24, 48, and 72 h). Sprout length was highest at 25oC, and the rotten degree was increased as the germination temperature and time increased. The -glucan content of naked oat increased after 24 h of germination at all temperatures and then decreased by 72 h of germination. Total polyphenol content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity increased as the germination temperature and time increased.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of heat-killed lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produced under different temperature conditions. Regarding probiotic properties, Limosilactobacillus fermentum SMF743 and Lactiplantibacillus plantarum SMF796 isolated from kimchi showed strong acid and bile salt resistance, adhesion activity onto HT-29 cells, and antimicrobial activity against pathogenic bacteria. Based on the results of thermal death time and temperature, heat-killed LAB cells (1 mg/mL) were prepared by heating at 70oC (180 min), 80oC (120 min), 100oC (30 min), and 121oC (15 min). The heat-killed SMF743 and SMF796 showed significantly higher DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities than live cells (p<0.05). The heat-killed SMF743 and SMF796 at 70oC or 121oC revealed stronger DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activities and inhibition of nitric oxide production than those at 80oC or 100oC. Furthermore, heat-killed SMF743 and SMF796 at 121oC significantly reduced the gene expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase- 2 up to 53.33%, 58.67%, and 83.67%, respectively, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 cells (p<0.05). These results suggest that heat-killed L. fermentum SMF743 and L. plantarum SMF796 can be used as natural antioxidants and anti-inflammatory agents.
Korea depends almost entirely on imports for malt, the main ingredient in beer. However, the consumer market for domestic malt has not developed in Korea because of the prejudice that the quality of domestic malt is inferior to that of imported malt. This study aimed to analyze the quality of malt from Gwangmaeg (GM) and Hopum (HP), representative domestic beer barley varieties cultivated under varying nitrogen fertilizer application rates (standard fertilizer application, 50% increase in application, and 50% decrease in application), and use the findings as primary data to promote domestic malt consumption. GM’s crude protein and starch contents were significantly (Ρ<0.05) higher and lower, respectively, than those in HP. With decreased fertilizer application (GM: 14.0±0.8% and HP: 11.4±0.4%), the protein content was significantly lower than that with increased fertilizer application (GM: 15.5± 0.3% and HP: 13.1±1.3%). Although there was no difference in -glucan content, starch content tended to increase, indicating quality improvement. Acrospire length, yield, and enzyme titer, quality indicators of malt, increased with further fertilizer application, whereas friability and Kolbach index increased with decreased fertilizer application. For wort qualities, filtration time decreased from 36 to 34 minutes in GM and 55 to 42 minutes in HP, with the wort extraction rate increasing with decreased fertilizer application. These findings showed that decreased nitrogen fertilizer application improves the qualities of malt and wort.
To predict the quality of Fuji apples, this study investigated the characteristics and correlations of their fruit quality according to storage method and storage period. Fuji apples were stored in cold storage at 0oC for 250 days with no treatment, with 1-MCP treatment, and under controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. According to the storage method, the weight loss was the lowest in the CA-treated group (3.43%) until 250 days, and the change in fruit firmness was the least in the 1-MCP group. The titratable acidity remained above 0.2% for 1-MCP and CA storage until 250 days and decreased to 0.1% for cold storage. The principal component analysis showed a difference in quality between the 1-MCP group, CA group, and cold storage group after 200 days of storage. Six types of volatile components were commonly detected in all storage methods, while three types of independent components with a low threshold were detected in 1-MCP. Weight loss, titrable acidity, and firmness were highly correlated with physicochemical quality, and CA storage was judged to be a long-term storage technology that satisfies consumers’ tastes by maintaining excellent flavor and quality.
Consumer demand for imported and craft beer is increasing. Almost all the malt used by craft beer companies is imported. This study sought to develop a malting technology to expand the use of domestic barley, the main raw material for beer, and to examine its influence on the quality of domestic malt. The Hopum cultivar of beer barley was purchased and used at the Jeollanam-do Seed Management Center. A pilot-scale malting facility built by the National Institute of Crop Science was used. One sack (40 kg) of barley was sieved through screening sieves, and the barley was classified according to size (3.1, 2.8, 2.5, 2.2, and 2.2 mm), with the size-related composition being 18.1, 48.9, 23.3, 6.4, and 1.0%, respectively. The malt yields were 89.0, 87.6, 86.6, 82.2, and 76.1%, respectively. The coleoptiles elongation decreased as the barley size decreased. The protein content of malt tended to be high at small particle sizes of 2.2 mm. The soluble solid content of wort prepared from malt revealed good values of 17.4-17.5oBx, except for 15.3oBx for particles <2.2 mm in size. According to barley size in the malting process, these findings should be valuable quality indicators of malt.