This study evaluates the gastroprotective effect of cabbage extract with sulforaphane content of 5.19 mg/L and Smethylmethionine content of 469.28 μg/L. In vitro, the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated group had an increased NO activity compared to the normal group, and the concentration of NO was reduced when the cabbage extract was treated in the dose manner. The level of IL-6 induced by LPS was dose-dependently reduced when the extract was treated. The cabbage extract concentration was orally administered in rats at 5.75 mg/kg, 11.5 mg/kg, and 23 mg/ kg, and the inhibitory effect on gastric damage by HCl-ethanol was observed. Histological analysis exhibited mucosal erosion in the gastritis model compared to the normal group, while the ameliorating effect of the generated erosion was observed in the cabbage-treated group. The histamine concentration was significantly increased in the gastritis-induced animal model, and the histamine concentration was decreased in the 23 mg/L-treated group of cabbage extract. In conclusion, the results of this study suggest that cabbage extract not only down-regulates cytokines in vitro, but is also directly involved in histamine secretion in an animal model of gastritis; therefore, cabbage extract can help inhibit gastrointestinal disorders by improving the protective barrier.
This study analyzed the quality characteristics and antioxidant activity of a mixture of apple and carrot juices with different amounts of beet. The pH of the mixed juice sample group increased as the beet amount increased, and the acidity and soluble solid content tended to decrease. As for the L value, the control group was the highest, the beet addition rate decreased, and the a value and b value showed a decreasing trend. As for dietary fiber, B0.1 was found to have the highest dietary fiber content at 0.20 mg/L. As for the mineral, Zn, Fe, and Ca had the highest control group, Mn, Mg, and K had the highest B0.5, and Na and P had the highest B0.1 and B0.3 juices, respectively. Compared to the control group, free sugars increased sucrose as the beet juice added increased. DPPH radical scavenging and total phenol content significantly increased DPPH scavenging as the beet added increased. Therefore, it was found that B0.3 was the most suitable when manufacturing apple and carrot mixed juice with different amounts of beet added, and it is considered as a manufacturing optimization method to improve the marketability and functionality of the product.
This study investigated the effect of bactocease, as a natural preservative, on the microbial growth and quality of fried fish paste during storage. To select the optimal concentration of bactocease, the inhibition effect of its different treatment concentrations (0.2, 0.4, and 0.8%) on total aerobic bacteria in fish paste dough during 5 days of storage was examined. The sample treated with 0.4% bactocease showed a 1.21 log reduction in microorganisms compared with that of the control. This result was higher than that with 0.2% bactocease and potassium sorbate and similar to that with 0.8% bactocease. Consequently, 0.4% bactocease was chosen as the best concentration for preparing the fried fish paste. Microbial growth on fried samples treated with preservatives was more inhibited by adding preservatives regardless of their type than that of the control after 15 days of storage. In addition, there were no significant differences in the quality between the samples treated with 0.4% bactocease and 0.2% potassium sorbate, such as volatile basic nitrogen contents, TBARS values, pH, and acidity. Therefore, these results indicate that food preservatives should be added into fried fish paste for controlling microbial growth, and bactocease can have a high potential to replace potassium sorbate in processed marine foods, including fried fish paste.
The purpose of this study is to compare the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of the tagatose yogurt with different contents (6, 8, 10%) of cold brew liquid coffee. Tagatose is a low-calorie food ingredient with putative health-promoting benefits. The tagatose yogurt was fermented with Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus at 37±1oC for 20 h. The changes in acid production (pH and titratable acidity), viscosity, and lactic acid bacteria were determined every 5 h during fermentation. Color value was determined before and after fermentation, and antioxidant activities were performed after fermentation in triplicate. The yogurts containing cold brew liquid coffee had lower pH, higher acidity, and viscosity than the control, regardless of the liquid coffee contents. All samples had increasing levels of lactic acid bacteria over the fermentation period, but lactic acid bacteria of yogurts with the addition of cold brew liquid coffee increased further than the control. The total polyphenol/flavonoid content, DPPH/ ABTS/H2O2 radical scavenging activities, and reducing power increased when the liquid coffee content of the yogurt rose. Consequently, the optimal quality of tagatose yogurt was found when 6-8% of cold brew liquid coffee was added according to the overall results of quality properties and antioxidant activity.
This research aims to investigate pudding with grain-added yogurt for its quality characteristics and viability during cold storage. The yogurt was fermented until its pH was 5.10±0.05 after inoculating the probiotic strain (Bifidobacterium lactis, BB-12) into the milk base containing grains. The yogurt was added to prepare probiotic puddings. During cold storage of the puddings at 4±1oC for 4 week, the quality characteristics (pH, acidity, texture) and the viability of BB-12 in pudding were determined and compared to control (only milk base). As a result, MR had a significantly lower pH and higher acidity than those of other samples. In texture properties, including hardness, gumminess, and chewiness, MSIR showed the significantly highest value, and the pudding with inulin was significantly higher than rice flour in all textures. For the viability of BB-12, pudding with milk was significantly lower than pudding containing milk and soymilk, suggesting that soymilk helps maintain viability. MR showed significantly higher viability than MI in the milk-based pudding, indicating that rice flour is more effective than inulin. Therefore, the addition of soymilk, inulin, and rice can maintain quality characteristics and viability of BB-12 in the pudding.
This study aimed to prepare 50% sugar substitute strawberry jam with different neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) addition levels (0.0136%, 0.054%, 0.072%, and 0.090%) and investigate their quality characteristics. NHDC is an artificial sweetener 1,500-1,800 times sweeter than sugar. There was no significant difference in the moisture c ontent a nd s ugar c ontent o f strawberry j am w ith NHDC except for Sugar. T he t otal p olyphenol content and total anthocyanin content did not significantly differ between all samples. Therefore, NHDC does not appear to have any effect on antioxidant activity. The brightness, redness, and yellowness were generally increased as NHDC increased. This result seems to be due to the difference in the color of NHDC and the concentration and moisture content due to heating during the jam manufacturing process. The overall acceptability and sweetness were highest in Sugar, followed by NH3. It seems desirable to add 0.072% of NHDC to replace 50% of sugar content. However, it was found that NHDC could not wholly replace sugar because of its distinct sweetness from sugar. Therefore, it is necessary to study high-sweetener materials with sweetness similar to sugar by changing the chemical structure of NHDC.
Various jellies were produced depending on the type and concentration of gelling agent (nine types), which added a single or double agent in jelly production. Firstly, jelly was manufactured using nine different single gelling agents and characterized. Secondly, six suitable gelling agents were selected to combine double gelling agents among nine gelling agents. To find the optimum gelling agent condition, jelly was intentionally made around 3.6-3.7 pH and 4- 5 N fracturability. A total of 1.2% gelling agent (both single and double agents) was suitable for making jelly (3.6- 3.7 pH, 4-5 N fracturability). According to the analytical result, the optimum single gelling agent was κ-carrageenan and gellan gum, while a suitable combination of double gelling agents was κ-carrageenan and gellan gum at ratios of 1.0:0.2, 0.8:0.4, and 0.6:0.6 and agar and locust bean gum at ratios of 0.8:0.4, 0.6:0.6.