This study was performed to analyze the degree in the reduction of retrogradation in Garaetteok during 3 days at4oC with the addition of 0.8% wheat flour. The water holding capacity of the control (CO) and Garaetteok with0.8% wheat flour added (TR) after storage for 3 days was 45.8% and 76.0% respectively compared with that inthe initial storage stage. The water solubility of TR showed higher values than that of CO throughout the storageperiod, and the difference between CO and TR increased as the storage period increased. For the X-ray diffraction(XRD) pattern, CO showed an A-type pattern and the peak was sharp with the peak size increasing as the storageperiod increased, whereas TR showed a single peak throughout the storage period. Enthalpy changes (∆E) by dif-ferential scanning calorimeter (DSC) of CO and TR after storage for 3 days were 851.8 and 16.1J/kg respectivelywith hardness of 96.3 and 4.0N respectively, which were significantly different at the 0.1% level.
In this study the effect of rice type and cooking methods on the quality of cooked rice during cold storage wereinvestigated to develop home meal replacement (HMR) products. The chemical and physical properties and sensoryquality of rice were studied by rice type (Oh-dae-mi, Baek-jin-ju S., and Indica) and cooking methods (electric ricecooker and super heated steamer). Cooked rice was stored at 5oC for 3 days and the moisture content, color, reduc-ing sugar content, texture profile, and sensory evaluation were analyzed. The results show that rice type Baek-jin-ju S. has the highest moisture content and that color and textural properties are maintained during storage. Ricecooked with an electric rice cooker has higher moisture content and better color properties; however, rice cookedwith a super heated steamer shows higher reduced sugar content with a softer texture. The selection of Baek-jin-juS. and cooking with a super heated steamer have a positive effect on the quality of rice during cold storage.
This study aimed to investigate the effects of process conditions on the quality characteristics of beef-bone broth inan attempt to improve the quality of ready-to-eat Gom-Tang. Cow soup bone (500g) was heated in water(1,500mL) at 121oC for 3 h to 15 h using an autoclave. In an examination of the physical characteristics of thebeef-bone broth, samples extracted after 3 h and 5 h were able to form a weak gel, whereas samples extracted atlater times appeared to lose their gel forming capability. Regardless of physical characteristics, crude protein andtotal amino acid content increased as the extraction time increased. The content ratio of glycine to crude protein of3.9 appears to be the limit for gel formation. The size distribution of microparticles and turbidity from floc forma-tion in the beef-bone broth were affected by the kind of salt present. Refined-salt produced smaller particle sizesand better turbidity compared with sea salt. Also, the particle size and the formation of aggregates increased withcalcium concentration. The optimum concentration of calcium was found to be less than 0.04%. Our results indicatethat control of extraction time and additives can enhance the quality of beef-bone broth.
Cookie samples were prepared with pomegranate powder (PP) substituted for 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% of thewheat flour. The effect of increased levels of PP on the physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance ofcookies was investigated. With the addition of PP, the pH and moisture content of both cookie dough and cookiesdecreased while the soluble solids content increased significantly (p<0.05). Also lightness (L*) decreased and red-ness (a*) increased significantly with increasing amounts of PP in the cookies (p<0.05). Hardness increased from14.05N for the control to 22.44N for 20% PP (p<0.05). In general, the total polyphenol content (TPC) of thecookies increased significantly with the addition of PP (p<0.05). Acceptability ratings indicated that 10% PP con-tent provided the optimum supplementation level for the highest consumer acceptability of the fortified cookies.
This study was performed to determine the purification yield, color value, and total anthocyanin content of purifiedanthocyanins from Bokbunja byproducts for analyzing the optimal conditions of purification processing by responsesurface methodology (RSM) based on HCl or trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) concentration as an acidulent and ethanolconcentration as an eluent. From the results of purification yield, color value, and total anthocyanin content of thepurified anthocyanins, it was shown that HCl was better than TFA for purification processing from Bokbunjabyproducts and the optimal concentration range of ethanol was 60-75%. The optimal purification conditions for HClor TFA, ethanol concentration, and overall desirability by analysis of multiple response surface methodology withthe same weighed value for each dependent variable were 0.84%, 73.12% and 0.77 for HCl acidulent and 1.00%,60.75%, and 0.96 for TFA acidulent, respectively.
Physicochemical and sensory properties of puffed rice snack containing various levels (0%, 50%, 100%) of alkali-cooked brown rice were examined. To prepare alkali-cooked rice, brown rice was cooked in boiling 2% Ca(OH)2solution for 5 min, steeped for 3 h, and dried at 50oC for 18 h. Alkali-cooked rice showed a higher degree ofexpansion than that of untreated rice after puffing. Although moisture content, enzyme susceptible starch (ESS), anddensity of puffed rice snack decreased with increasing amounts of the alkali-cooked rice replacement, calcium con-tent increased because of the absorption of calcium during alkaline processing. The puffed rice snack had a darkercolor as the level of replacement with alkali-cooked rice increased. A sensory test revealed that puffed rice snackreplaced with 50% of alkali-cooked rice had no significant differences in color and sensory attributes from those ofthe control. These results indicate that fortification of calcium could be achieved by partial replacement of alkali-cooked rice without any detrimental effects on the quality of puffed rice snack.
Excessive nitrate content in drinking groundwater is one of the sources of nitrate-nitrogen that threatens humanhealth all over the world. Nitrate-nitrogen reduction technology is categorized into membrane filtration, electro-dial-ysis, ion exchange, adsorption, chemical methods, and biological methods according to the principle of eliminationfrom water. In particular, an adsorption technique is the most popular and common process because of its cost effec-tiveness, convenience, and effective adsorption. In this review, the application of conventional adsorbents used toreduce nitrate-nitrogen from drinking water is discussed and novel technologies on nitrate-nitrogen removal are intro-duced. Furthermore, the recent development of novel nitrate-nitrogen adsorbents from biopolymers such as chitosanand agricultural and industrial byproducts is reviewed.
Grape seed tea (GST) was prepared by roasting grape seed at 150-190oC for 10-60 minutes and then soaking inwater at 100oC for 20 minutes. GSTs made with grape seed with an L value of 19.5-20.5 were the best in termsof color, flavor, and sensory test. GSTs prepared using roasted grape seeds had higher total phenolics and antioxi-dant activity than GST prepared from raw grape seed. Roasting times to reach an L value of 19.5-20.5 were over60 minutes at 160oC, 40-50 minutes at 170oC, 30-40 minutes at 180oC, and below 10 minutes at 190oC. In a sensorytest, the total preference increased depending on the degree of roasting. GSTs with the highest preference used grapeseed roasted at 170oC and 180oC for 30 minutes.
This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation profile, organic acid composition, and volatile flavor components inthe meshes of Sul-dut prepared using different pre-treatment methods of rice (Godubap, Baeksulgi, and Ikbanjuk)and different fermentation agents (Nuruk and Ipguk). Among the three pre-treatment methods used, Ikbanjuk pro-duced the lowest alcohol content (12.2% for Nuruk and 12.6% for Ipguk) and the titratable acidity of the differentfermentation profiles seemed to be related to the degree of gelatinization during the pre-treatment of rice. Thedegree of gelatinizaion for Godubab and Baeksulgi was 100%, while that for Ikbanjuk was only 62.5%. Generally,titratable acidity was higher in the Ipguk group compared with the Nuruk group regardless of the pre-treatmentmethod. Citric acid was the major organic acid in the Ipguk group, while lactic acid was the major organic acid inthe Nuruk group. In particular, Ikbanjuk produced the largest amount of lactic acid in Nuruk. Volatile flavor com-ponents of Sul-dut were largely dependent on the fermentation agents and were less affected by the pre-treatmentmethod.
This study was to investigate the effects of differences in the temperature of steamed rice powder at the additionof wheat flour on the quality characteristics of Injeolmi after storage for 7 days at 4℃. The L values in color ofthe control and with 75℃ and 95℃ treatments decreased after storage whereas that of the 55℃ treatment increasedfrom 94.24 to 96.07. The amylose content of the control increased from 4.13% to 12.43%, while that of the 55℃,75℃, and 95℃ treatments increased from 5.10%, 5.28%, and 5.14% to 20.43%, 19.8%, and 19.34% respectively.Hardness of the 55℃, 75℃, and 95℃ treatments after storage increased by 109.2%, 2,023.2%, and 2,886.5%respectively compared with that at the initial storage stage. Hardness of the 55℃ treatment after storage was 3.17%compared with that of the control, which shows that the 55℃ treatment significantly reduced retrogradation inInjeolmi during storage. Total aerobic bacteria content of the control and the 55℃ treatment was 3.55 and 3.98 logCFU/g respectively, which were slightly higher numbers than those of the 75℃ (3.62log CFU/g) and 95℃ (3.30logCFU/g) treatments after storage for 7 days at 4℃.
The feasibility of incorporating jujube concentrate (JC) as a value-added food ingredient in convenience food prod-ucts was investigated using a model system of gelatin jelly. With an increasing level of JC added, the pH, moisturecontent, and lightness gradually decreased while the soluble solids content increased (p<0.05). Hardness and totalpolyphenol content also increased significantly with a higher amount of JC in the formulation (p<0.05). A con-sumer acceptance test indicated that the addition of JC had a favorable effect on consumer preferences in allattributes. Jelly with 20% JC is recommended (with respect to the overall preference score) for taking advantage ofthe functional properties of JC without sacrificing consumer acceptability.
The effects of incorporating yacon powder on the physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance of cookieswere investigated. With increased yacon powder content, the pH and density of cookies decreased significantly(p<0.05) while moisture content increased (p<0.05). Also the spread factor decreased with the addition of yaconpowder (p<0.05). Control showed the maximum value of hardness, but no significant differences were foundamong the 10-40% samples (p>0.05). Lightness and yellowness decreased significantly while redness increased sig-nificantly with a high content of yacon powder in the formulation (p<0.05). A consumer acceptance test indicatedthat the 10% sample received significantly higher scores in all attributes including overall acceptance (p<0.05).Cookies with 10% yacon powder are recommended to take advantage of the functional properties of yacon powderwithout sacrificing consumer acceptability.