Dyslipidemia, defined as elevated triglyceride (TG), total- and LDL-C, and/or decreased HDL-C levels, is considered a principal risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family has been considered a key player in the prevention of dyslipidemia. The LDLR family consists of cytoplasmic membrane proteins and plays an important role not only in ligand–receptor binding and uptake, but also in various cell signaling pathways. Emerging reports state that various functional ingredients dynamically modulate the function of the LDLR family. For instance, oats stimulated the LDLR function in vivo, resulting in decreased body weight and improved serum lipid profiles. The stimulation of LRP6 by functional ingredients in vitro activated the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, subsequently suppressing the intracellular TG via inhibition of SREBP1, PPARγ, and C/EBPα. Furthermore, the extract of Cistanchetubulosa enhanced the expression of the mRNA of VLDLR, followed by a reduction in the serum cholesterol level. In addition, fermented soy milk diminished TG and total cholesterol levels while increasing HDL-C levels via activation of LRP1. To summarize, modulating the function of the LDLR family by diverse functional ingredients may be a potent therapeutic remedy for the treatment of dyslipidemia and cardiovascular diseases.
Foods are becoming more customized and consumers demand food that provides great taste and appearance and that improves health. Food three-dimensional (3D)-printing technology has a great potential to manufacture food products with customized shape, texture, color, flavor, and even nutrition. Food materials for 3D-printing do not rely on the concentration of the manufacturing processes of a product in a single step, but it is associated with the design of food with textures and potentially enhanced nutritional value. The potential uses of food 3D-printing can be forecasted through the three following levels of industry: consumer-produced foods, small-scale food production, and industrial scale food production. Consumer-produced foods would be made in the kitchen, a traditional setting using a nontraditional tool. Small-scale food production would include shops, restaurants, bakeries, and other institutions which produce food for tens to thousands of individuals. Industrial scale production would be for the mass consumer market of hundreds of thousands of consumers. For this reason, food 3D-printing could make an impact on food for personalized nutrition, on-demand food fabrication, food processing technologies, and process design in food industry in the future. This article review on food materials for 3D-printing, rheology control of food, 3D-printing system for food fabrication, 3D-printing based on molecular cuisine, 3D-printing mobile platform for customized food, and future trends in the food market.
Ginger was steamed at 121 o C and 1.5 lb/in 2 for 30 min, dried at 60 o C for 12 h, and each step was repeated nine times. During processing, the lightness (L* value) and yellowness (b* value) decreased from 85.65±0.33 and 26.99±0.20 in the non-treated ginger to 56.91±0.25 and 16.69±0.06 in ginger treated for the ninth treatment. On the other hand, redness (a* value) increased from -1.51±0.03 to 7.34±0.08 on the eight treatment and then decreased to 7.21±0.04 on the ninth theatment. The contents of 6-gingerol decreased from 3.257±0.067 mg/g in the non-treated ginger to 0.567±0.036 mg/g on the theatment, whereas the contents of 6-shogaol increased from 1.299±0.050 mg/g to 2.999±0.089 mg/g on the sixth treatment and decreased to 2.099±0.039 on the ninth treatment. The contents of 10-gingerol decreased slightly from 1.106±0.125 mg/g to 0.806±0.026 mg/g. Unlike the 6- and 10-gingerol, the contents of 8-gingerol did not change greatly, with values between 0.916±0.005 mg/g and 1.106±0.005 mg/g being observed during processing. The tyrosinase inhibitory activities were increased from 43.42±11.45% in the non-treated ginger to 100% on the sixth treatment and then decreased to 51.98±7.36% on the theatment. The antioxidative activity was retained during processing.
Quality changes of dried sea cucumber (Stichopusjaponicus) after applying a cyclic rehydration and retorting process were investigated during 4 weeks of storage. The length, volume, and weight of dried sea cucumber increased significantly as the number of rehydration cycles increased. Sea cucumber (SC) was bottled in the glass jar and a retort thermal process (121.1oC, 0.15 MPa) was applied. The total thermal processing time (TTT) was 24 min based on the temperature at the cold point. The size and texture of retorted SC were significantly changed until the first week of storage. However, regardless of the number of rehydration cycles, the size and texture of samples at different rehydration cycles showed no significant difference during the whole storage. The length, volume, weight, rehydration ratio (RR), hardness, and chewiness at the maximum degree of swelling during rehydration of dried SC were estimated as 100.86 mm, 38.62 mL, 41.05 g, 6.39 of RR, 249.19 gf, and 4.05 mJ, respectively.
The release profiles of nisin from nisin-incorporating gel foods and the antimicrobial activities of the gels on the growth of Brochothrix thermosphacta in an aqueous system containing the gels have been investigated. A linear regression model was applied to determine the diffusion coefficient (D) for the diffusion of nisin in the gel. The antimicrobial activities of nisin released from 1, 2 and 3% (w/v) agar gels on the growth of B. thermosphacta in a broth medium with and without nisin were investigated. The D decreased from 1.2×10 -2 to 8.2×10 -3 and 6.4×10 -3 cm 2 /s as the agar concentration in the gel increased from 1 to 2 and 3% (w/v), demonstrating the diffusion rate in the gels can be controlled by the agar concentration in gel. The agar gel incorporating nisin inhibited the B. thermosphacta growth in the broth medium by prolonging the lag phase. The growth inhibition was enhanced by the addition of nisin in the medium. The results of this study exhibited that the gel food is a feasible nisin delivery system with a controlled release achieved by the adjustment of agar concentration in the system, demonstrating the potential of nisin-incorporating gel for preserving particulate-containing drinks.
The purpose of this study was to verify the drying characteristics of steamed sweet potato and to establish optimal drying conditions for far-infrared drying of steamed sweet potato. 4 kg of steamed sweet potato was sliced to thicknesses of 8 and 10 mm, and dried by a far-infrared dryer until a final moisture content of 25±0.5%. The far-infrared dryer conditions were an air velocity of 0.6, 0.8 m/s and drying temperature of 60, 70, and 80oC. The results can be summarized as follows. The drying time tended to be reduced as temperature and air velocity for drying increased. The Lewis and Modified Wang and Singh models were found to be suitable for drying of steamed sweet potato by a far-infrared dryer. The color difference was 35.09 on the following conditions: Thickness of 8 mm, temperature of 80oC, and air velocity of 0.8 m/s. The highest sugar content (59.11 oBrix) was observed on the conditions of a thickness of 8 mm, temperature of 80, and air velocity of 0.8 m/s. Energy consumption decreased on the conditions of higher temperature, slower air velocity, and thinner steamed sweet potato.
Vegetable seed oils (VSOs) have been extracted and used not only as ingredients in food and as sources of dietary lipids, but also as sources of nutraceuticals used to overcome the various oxidative stresses that contribute to the development of diseases, including cancer and other chronic conditions. The chemical compositions and oxidative stabilities of various VSOs were therefore investigated; samples were stored for 35 d, with each oil having been tested under O2 exposure, sealed from O2 exposure and sealed from O2 exposure while containing O2 scavengers. Oxidative stability was evaluated by peroxide value (POV), p-anisidine value (p-AnV), iodine value (IV), and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value. Perilla seed and flaxseed oil were mostly composed of linolenic acid (45.5% and 59.7%, respectively), whereas pine seed oil was mostly composed of linoleic acid (48.3%). Meanwhile, camellia seed and olive oils contained 80% oleic acid, which correlated strongly with oxidative stability. The POV, p-AnV, and TBA values were the highest under O2 exposure, and the lowest in the presence of O2 scavengers. These results indicate that VOS oxidative stability depends not only on storage conditions, but on unsaturated fatty acid profiles as well.
This study investigated the effects of 27.12 MHz radio frequency (RF) heating on heat transfer phenomena during the thawing process of frozen food. To determine the velocity of the RF thawing machine, samples were frozen at -80oC and subjected to different power treatments. The phase change times (-5 to 0oC) of frozen radish were 30, 26, 13, and 8 min; those of pork sirloin were 38, 25, 11, and 5 min; those of rump were 23, 17, 11, and 6 min; those of chicken breast were 42, 29, 13, and 9 min; and those of tuna were 25, 23, 10, and 5 min at 50, 100, 200, and 400 W, respectively. The heating limit temperatures of the radish, pork sirloin, rump, chicken breast, and tuna samples were 19.5, 9.2, 21.8, 8.8, and 16.8oC at 50 W; 23.5, 15.5, 27.3, 12.3, and 19oC at 100 W; 42, 26.9, 45.7, 22.1, and 39.4oC at 200 W; and 48.5, 54.7, 63.6, 57.3, and 44.9oC at 400 W. These results suggest that high-power RF improves thawing velocity and heating limit temperatures, and that an improvement on the operation of the RF thawing machine, according to food temperatures, is needed.
This study investigated the effects of the mixing ratio of tofu paste and normal corn starch on the characteristics of gluten-free (GF) muffins. Soft wheat flour for wheat flour-based muffins (control) was replaced with the mixture of tofu paste and normal corn starch (NCS). The mixing ratios of tofu paste and NCS were 1:6.4 (S100), 1:5.1 (S80), 1:3.8 (S60), 1:2.6 (S40), 1:1.3 (S20), and 1:0 (S00), based on their total solid contents. GF muffins of S40- S100 developed the porous, sponge-like structure without crumb collapse. The weight and baking loss did not significantly differ in the control and GF muffins. By decreasing NCS in GF muffin batters, the moisture content, firmness, and crumb redness/yellowness of GF muffins increased, while their volume, specific volume, and crumb lightness decreased. Nevertheless, these characteristics (except for firmness) of S100 were much closer to those of the control. In the preference test, however, S60 (possessing lower attributes than S100 and S80) was most favored among GF muffins, and was very similar in all evaluations (except for appearance) to the control. Overall, the mixture of tofu paste and NCS would be a potential material to replace soft wheat flour in muffins.
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of combinations of tofu paste and non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) on the oil uptake reduction (OTR) of deep-fat fried cake doughnuts. OTR agents were tofu paste (from grinding tofu with deionized water, followed by passage through a 60 mesh sieve), and five neutral and nine anionic NSPs. A control doughnut (without tofu paste or NSP), tofu doughnut (with tofu paste) and NSP-tofu doughnut (with tofu paste and NSP) were prepared. The moisture and total lipid (TL) content, cross-section image, color characteristic, and specific volume were measured. The tofu and NSP-tofu doughnuts exhibited higher moisture and lower TL content than the control. OTR was 10.8% for the tofu doughnut, and between 13.2% and 41.2% for the NSP-tofu doughnut. The highest OTR (41.2%) was found in the NSP-tofu doughnut with a combination of tofu paste and sodium alginate (NaA). The specific volume of the NSP-tofu doughnuts with combinations of tofu paste with NaA (2.5 mL/g), locust bean gum (2.5 mL/g), and κ-carrageenan (2.4 mL/g) was very close to that of the control (2.6 mL/g). Considering the OTR and specific volume of doughnuts, the combination of tofu paste and NaA would be most effective in reducing the oil uptake of doughnuts during deep-fat frying.
This study was carried out to extract ginsenosides in by-products from honeyed red ginseng. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the extraction conditions. Based on D-optimal design, independent variables were ethanol (extraction solvent) concentration (30-90%, v/v), extraction temperature (25-70oC), and extraction time (5-11 h). Extraction yield (Y1) and total ginsenosides (Y2) in the extract were analyzed as dependent variables. Results found that extraction yield increased with increasing extraction temperature and time, whereas it was decreased with increasing ethanol concentration. Similar trends were found for the content of ginsenosides in the extracts, except for ethanol concentration, which was increased with increasing ethanol concentration. Regression equations derived from RSM were suggested to coincide well with the results from the experiments. The optimal extraction conditions for extraction yield and total ginsenosides were an extraction temperature of 56.94oC, ethanol concentration of 57.90%, and extraction time of 11 h. Under these conditions, extraction yield and total ginsenoside contents were predicted to be 84.52% and 9.54 mg/g, respectively.
We attempted to investigate antibacterial and proteolytic activities of bacteria isolated from three ethnic fermented seafoods in the east coast of South Korea, gajami sikhae, squid jeotgal, and fermented jinuari (Grateloupia filicina). Bacillus cereus ATCC 14579, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Staphylococcus aureus KCTC 1916, Escherichia coli O157:H7 ATCC 43895, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ATCC 4931 were selected to determine the antibacterial activity of the bacterial isolates. Among 233 isolates from the three foods, 36 isolates (15.5%) showed antibacterial activity against B. cereus ATCC 14579, the highest incidence of inhibition, followed by S. aureus KCTC 1916 (7.7%) and L. monocytogenes ATCC 15313 (6.0%). However, only five and three strains among the isolates exhibited inhibitory activity against Gram-negative indicators, E. coli ATCC 43895 and Sal. enterica ATCC 4931, respectively. The proteolytic activity of the isolates was determined via hydrolysis of skim milk after 24, 48, and 72 h incubation. After 72 h incubation, 72 out of 233 isolates (30.9%) showed proteolytic activity, and the isolates of fermented jinuari exhibited the highest incidence of proteolytic activity (60%, 36 isolates). These results suggest that ethnic fermented seafoods in the east coast of South Korea might be a promising source of bacterial strains producing antibacterial and proteolytic compounds.
The feasibility of incorporating cabbage powder (CP) as a value-added food ingredient into convenient food products was investigated using cookie as a model system. CP was incorporated into cookies at amounts of 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% (w/w) based on total weight of wheat flour. pH level and moisture content of cookie dough decreased and increased significantly, respectively, with increasing levels of CP (p<0.05), whereas density was not directly affected by levels of CP incorporation. The spread ratio of cookies and their hardness increased significantly while the loss rate decreased significantly with increasing levels of CP (p<0.05). In terms of color, lightness and yellowness decreased while redness increased significantly (p<0.05) with increasing levels of CP. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities were significantly elevated by CP addition, and they increased significantly as CP concentration increased in the formulation (p<0.05). Finally, consumer acceptance test indicated that the higher than 4% of CP incorporation had an adverse effect on general consumer preferences. In contrast, cookies with moderate levels of CP (2%) were recommended based on overall scores to take advantage of the antioxidant properties of CP without sacrificing consumer acceptability.