The conditions of blanching, freezing, and thawing for Shepherd’s purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris [L.]) were studied to improve its quality attributes during frozen storage. The washed samples were blanched with water at 100oC for 10, 20, 30, and 40 s. They were then soaked in cold water. The quality characteristics of the samples such as pH, texture, hardness, color value, and total viable cell were analyzed. The samples blanched for 30 s were frozen and thawed under several conditions and their physicochemical characteristics were analyzed. The pH value of raw samples was higher than that of the blanched sample. The values of brightness (L*), redness (a*), and yellowness (b*) decreased after blanching except the L* value of root at the condition of blanching for 40 s. Upon considering the bacterial cell counts, the proper condition was determined to be 30 s of blanching time. Blanching for 30 s was the optimal pre-treatment for minimizing the quality deterioration of the shepherd’s purse for freezing. Regarding its color change and microbial safety, faster freezing and thawing methods made less changes on the quality of frozen samples. Consequently, immersion freezing and radio-frequency thawing were the most effective in minimizing the quality change.
Asparagus cochinchinensis is known to ameliorate respiratory disease. We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of non-fermented and fermented A. cochinchinensis using lactic acid bacteria and investigated the physicochemical characteristics of the fermented A.cochinchinensis. Non-fermented A.cochinchinensis showed lower levels of antimicrobial activity than the fermented A.cochinchinensis. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of the fermented A. cochinchinensis showed antimicrobial activities against the indicator strains at lower minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The MIC of the EtOAc extract of non-fermented A. cochinchinensis against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Stphylococcus aureus were 100, 75, and 100 mg/ml. In contrast, the MIC of the EtOAc extract of ACLM was 25 mg/mL against E. coli. The MIC of the EtOAc extract of ACLS was 12.5 mg/mL against S.epidermidis, and the MIC of the EtOAc extract ofACLP was 12.5 mg/mL against S.aureus. The viable cell number, pH, and acidity of A. cochinchinensis fermented by Lactobacillussakei 383 were similar to those of A. cochinchinensis fermented by Leuconostocmesenteroides 4395, but were different from those of A. cochinchinensis fermented by Lactobacillus.plantarum KCCM 11322. These results suggested that the fermented A. cochinchinensis by lactic acid bacteria may be a good candidate for application to ameliorate respiratory disease.
The objective of this study was to develop a microcapsule by the entrapment of Ainsliaeaacerifolia extract (AAE) in native starch and citrate starch matrices through spray-drying and dry heating reaction. AAE microcapsules were assessed based on recovery, encapsulation capacity, FT-IR, FE-SEM, swelling power, solubility, releasing pattern of AAE from microcapsules, and antioxidant activity. Upon increasing the addition levels of AAE and adding citric acid in the pre-emulsion mixtures, the spray-drying recovery and encapsulation capacity of AAE microcapsules increased. AAE microcapsules exhibited irregular shapes due to excessive shrinkage of their spheres. FT-IR spectra implied the formation of ester groups between starch molecules and either citric acid or phenolic compounds in AAE. Swelling powers and solubility of AAE microcapsules were significantly higher for citrate starch matrix (relative to native starch). The effects of temperature and enzyme hydrolysis on AAE releasing patterns were similar over AAE microcapsules prepared in this study. AAE microcapsules facilitated the free radical scavenging in an aqueous (relative to alcoholic) reaction system. Overall, the entrapment of AAE into the matrices from native starch and citrate starch would be one of the possible ways to expand the utilization of raw materials, by-product, and extract from Ainsliaeaacerifolia in food industries.
To prepare the dried Cirsium setidens Nakai appropriate to the gondre-namul, this study investigated the effects of steaming and blanching on its color characteristic, degree of browning, peroxidase activity, rehydration, and preference test. Cirsium setidens Nakai (gondre) was steamed for 5-15 min and blanched in different blanching solutions for 1-5 min, followed by drying at 50oC. The blanching solutions used in this study were water, and 0.5% (w/v) solutions of NaCl, CaCl2, and sodium polyphosphate (SPP). The control was dried without pre-treatment. Relative to the control, the lightness of dried Korean thistle decreased, except for that blanched with NaCl solution, whereas its redness decreased except for that steamed. All treatments exhibited lower yellowness than the control. Also, all treatments revealed a lower degree of browning and peroxidase activity than the control. Rehydration was reduced by pre-treatments of Korean thistle relative to the control. Korean thistle blanched for 1 min with CaCl2 solution exhibited higher points for color, flavor, taste, and overall acceptability than those of the control. Overall, blanching with CaCl2 solution would be an appropriate way of preparing the gondre-namul using dried Korean thistle, accompanying the common way by blanching with NaCl solution.
A Taguchi robust design method with an L9 orthogonal array and larger-the-better characteristics was implemented to optimize experimental conditions for the hydrolysis of raw anchovy using a pressure-assisted enzymatic reaction method. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), nitrogen recovery (NR) and yield were considered as the response parameters. Pressure, reaction temperature, reaction time, and mixed enzyme amount were chosen as control parameters. As a result of the Taguchi analysis in this study, the pressure was found to be the most influential parameter on DH and NR. The amount of mixed enzyme in the reaction also had a significant effect on DH and NR. Meanwhile, the optimum values were confirmed to be similar at 95% confidence and 5% significance level through analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, new hydrolysates at optimum conditions and control hydrolysates at atmospheric pressure were compared in terms of the DH, resulting in the improvement of DH by more than 52.6%.
The physiochemical properties of dried yam (Dioscorea batatas) by freeze dryer, cold-air dryer or hot-air dryer were examined for chromaticity, water absorption index (WAI), water soluble index (WSI), rehydration, viscosity properties and pasting properties. Freeze dried yam was maintained higher degree of lightness and higher WAI and WSI than those of cold-air or hot air dried one. In the case of rehydration, freeze dried yam was restored within one hour. The viscosity properties of freeze dried yam were the highest viscosity in all shear rates. Freeze dried yam was milled by roll mill (RM), pin mill (PM) or jet mill (JM) to evaluate for particle size, starch damage, pasting property and microstructure. Particle size was JM < PM < RM as 13.85~112.50 μm. In the result of starch damage, it was the highest value as 8.83 in JM, was the lowest value as 7.47 in RM. In pasting property, JM had relatively low viscosity at all shear rates. In the Microstructure by measuring scanning electron microscope, JM particle surfaces were rough with high starch damage, and particle size was confirmed fine particles in JM.
Medium pressure and mixed enzyme were used to hydrolyze raw anchovy under controlled conditions at a batchpilot plant-scale process for the production of anchovy protein hydrolysates (APH). Mass balance calculations were carried out so that the degree of protein solubilization and yields could be estimated. Almost complete hydrolysis could be achieved in 12 h, at 50oC and 75 MPa, with no pH adjustment, at 1% (10 g/kg) mixed enzyme using raw anchovy. This was achieved with the addition of water (1/2 raw anchovy/water). The degrees of protein solubilization and yield were 63.50% and 55.61%, respectively. Fractionation using UF/NF pilot scale systems was carried out for producing four different fractions on the APH. Successive fractionation on UF and NF membranes allowed the concentration of the peptides of selected sizes without, however, carrying out sharp separations, and with some MW classes being found in several fractions. Spray drying processes for 10 kDa permeate were described to increase their usability. The free amino acid profile of the fractions was identical to that of the APH.
Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic phytochemical, which has a number of potential benefits in biological activities. However, curcumin has extremely low water solubility and low bioavailability, which makes it difficult to incorporate into many food products. In this study, we investigated the effects of biopolymer emulsifier type and environmental stress on the physical stability of nanoemulsions containing curcumin. Nanoemulsion containing curcumin stabilized by sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein isolate (WPI), modified starch (MS), and gum arabic (GA) were prepared using microfludizer. The droplet size of nanoemulsions decreased significantly from 1028 nm to 169 nm as emulsifier concentration increased (p<0.05). The optimum concentration of emulsifiers for stable curcumin nanoemulsions were determined to be 1% of SC and 1% of WPI, respectively. The storage study showed that the nanoemulsions were physically stable for 5 weeks at 25oC. In addition, nanoemulsions were physically stable against heat, freeze-thaw, pH, and NaCl solution. However, extensive droplet aggregation occurred in protein-stabilized nanoemulsions at CaCl2 solution, which was attributed to hydrophobic interaction between droplets.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the appropriate amount of oats to add to rice and the merits of oat meal. We analyzed the physicochemical characteristics, cooking properties, functional components, and sensory evaluation according to the amount of oats added in the cooked rice. Compared with rice, the oat showed higher level in protein, fat, total β-glucan and total polyphenol, but not for starch. Therefore, the amount of chemical and functional components was increased significantly with the increase in the amount of oats added. Water absorption and expansion were decreased with the increase in the amount of oat added. Oleic acid content was increased and linoleic acid content was decreased slightly. Unsaturated fatty acid content was greatly increased. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity were increased significantly according to the amount of oats added. As a result of sensory evaluation, the most appropriate amount of oat added was 20% and 30%. By the addition of oat, the β- glucan content of the cooked rice and the antioxidant activity could increase.
Quality changes of carrots thermally processed in a large size (5 kg) retort pouch during 52 weeks of storage were investigated under different packaging methods and package shapes. To improve the efficiency of thermal processing (121.1oC, 0.15 MPa), the carrot (i.e., solid) and the broth (i.e., liquid) of the carrot soup were separately packed and sterilized. The quality changes of carrot packed without liquid were compared with those with liquid. Two different package shapes such as rectangular parallelepiped and cube were also evaluated to figure out the efficiency of the heat penetration rate for a large-sized pouch. The TTT (F0-values = 6) were 27, 54, and 114 min from the rectangular parallelepiped, cube, and solid/liquid mixed groups, respectively. In the mixed groups, the hardness and chewiness of solids (carrot) were significantly smaller than those measured in the other groups as TTT increased. Carrots treated in the rectangular parallelepiped shape showed a significantly higher texture than the cube shape. The CV of hardness and chewiness in the rectangular parallelepiped and the cube shape were calculated as 7.56 and 47.19, and 29.16 and 65.28, respectively. This demonstrated that a more uniform quality can be obtained from the rectangular parallelepiped shape.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a representative inflammation-associated cancer and known to be the most frequent tumor. However, the preventive agents for hepatocarcinogenesis are unsatisfactorily identified. We investigated the protective effect of steamed and freeze-dried mature silkworm larval powder (SMSP) on diethylnitrosamine (DEN)-induced hepatotoxicity in mice and compared the effect of three silkworm varieties: white-jade, golden-silk, and light-green strains. The mice were fed with diet containing 0.1, 1, and 10 g/kg of three types of SMSP for two weeks while DEN (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was injected 18 h before the end of this experiment. Liver toxicity was determined as serum indicator, histopathological examination, and expression of inflammatory enzyme. Pretreatment with SMSP reduced necrotic and histopathological changes induced by DEN in the liver. The measurement of serum biochemical indicators showed that pretreatment with SMSP also decreased DEN-induced hepatotoxicity, the levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). In addition, SMSP inhibited the expressions of inflammatory enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. White-jade SMSP showed the most effective hepatoprotective results against hepatotoxicity among the three silkworm strains used in this study. SMSP may have a protective effect against acute liver injury by inhibiting necrosis and inflammatory response in DEN-treated mice.
The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of bear, pig, and cow biles to determine their authenticities for safe food distribution. The main bile acids of bear bile were tauroursodeoxycholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid, while glycochenodeoxycholic acid and taurochenodeoxycholic acid for pig bile and taurocholic acid and glycocholic acid for cow bile were majorly detected by HPLC analysis. HPLC analysis was effective in monitoring of several samples imported as bear bile if employed to determine the authenticity of each bile. After the analysis of fatty acid composition by GC analysis, the ratio of the oleic acid of bear bile was relatively low compared to pig and cow biles. The ratio of the linoleic acid of bear bile was also similar to pig bile, whereas it had a tendency to be high compared to cow bear. The genetic analysis of the imported bile samples was mostly in agreement with the results of HPLC and GC analysis to identify the origin of imported biles. Finally, this study on the identification of bile origin by physicochemical analysis can give basic information to monitor the origin of biles and further to establish a reliable system for bear bile distribution.
Excessive salt intake in body induces health risks resulting in high blood pressure or heart diseases. Therefore, the low salt concentration and salt-tasted food is needed by means of the modification of the manufacturing process. The purpose of this study is to study the effect of inhomogeneous salt localization in bread to enhance the saltiness of encapsulated salt. 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% of liposome encapsulated salt (LS) was added into the baking of white pan bread. The final salt concentration was adjusted to 2.0% by addition of salt. After baking the bread, moisture content, loaf volume, fermentation rate, color, texture analysis, salt release rate, and sensory test were measured. From this study, moisture content had no significant difference in control and treatments (p>0.05), except for 2.0% LS. The lightness in all treatments was higher than the control’s (p<0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in hardness (p>0.05). From the sensory test, the bread added 2.0% LS showed the highest value from the salty taste. Moreover, it is related to the highest release rate of salt represented at 2.0% LS. In conclusion, the salty intensity of bread can be enhanced by the salt localization using the encapsulation of salt.
Although rice production gradually increased in Korea, rice consumption has been significantly reduced during the last decade. To increase rice consumption, it is necessary to develop a wide range of rice-processed foods and functional rice materials. In association with digestion in rice-functional materials, people are interested in resistant starch (RS). The purpose of this study was to develop the citrated organic rice flour by dry process with different treatments and to investigate its physicochemical properties. Citric acid (0, 20, 30, 40% dry basis) was mixed with organic rice flour and reacted at 105oC and 150oC for 5 h. The degree of substitution increased with increasing citric acid concentration and reaction temperature. In DSC, when reacted at 105oC, onset temperature gradually decreased with increasing citric acid concentration but no DSC thermal characteristics were observed when reacted at 150oC. Relative crystallinity determined by XRD did not greatly change at 105oC but dramatically decreased at 150oC. As citric acid concentration and reaction temperature increased, rapidly digestible starch, slowly digestible starch, and total starch decreased but RS significantly increased. Therefore, RS content in organic rice flour increased with dryprocessed citric acid treatment and this could be applicable to produce functional foods for diabetes.
This study was carried out to indirectly predict the storage time limit, hardness, and acidity of Fuji apples in controlled atmosphere (CA) storage. A sensor installed inside the CA storage measured temperature, relative humidity, and gas composition data in real time. The respiration rate from five tons of apples in CA storage was calculated to predict the weight loss rate. As a result, the predicted and actual weight loss rate induced a predictable residual storage time equation that showed a significantly high correlation. The apple storage period showed a high reliability (R2=0.9322) because the predicted equation using respiration rate and number of days stored was about nine months for five tons of apples. Furthermore, the hardness and acidity prediction equation were derived from the quality analysis. However, there was not enough analysis sample correlation (the coefficient was as low as 0.3506 and 0.3144, respectively), but the tendency could be confirmed by reduced hardness and acidity. As a result, these quality prediction equations could encourage CA container distribution, effective for agricultural shipment regulation and increasing the ease of operations.
This study investigated the physicochemical characteristics and antioxidant activities of buckwheat soksungjang and commercial doenjang. We analyzed moisture, total sugar, color, salinity, amino type nitrogen, amino acids, and antioxidant activities. Buckwheat soksungjang had lower salinity content (7.44±0.10%) than commercial doenjang (8.82-9.81%). The quercetin content of buckwheat soksungjang was 0.78±0.01 mg% while commercial doenjang’s was 0.29-1.16 mg%. The DPPH and content of the total polyphenol of buckwheat soksungjang (DPPH radical scavenging activity 62.21±0.45% and total polyphenol content 447.51±14.61 mg%) and commercial doenjang (DPPH radical scavenging activities: 44.07-68.50%; total polyphenol contents: 328.26-407.51 mg%) were both significant.
This study aimed to examine the quality and sensory properties of yackwa using baking soda (BS), baking powder (BP), and yeast (YE) instead of alcohol in order to make a Halal standard product. The moisture content of yackwa was the highest when BP was used, while the fat content of yackwa was the lowest at 1.5% BP, and the highest at 1.5% YE. The chromaticity values (L, a, b) were the most similar to those of the control when BP was used. The L and b values increased when BP was used, and decreased when YE was used. The swelling ratio was the highest at 257.3±2.7% in comparison with the control when 0.9% YE was used. The leavening ratio was similar regardless of the type and content of leavening agents. Hardness was 1,179.16±184.45 kg at 0.3% BP, generally decreasing as leavening agent content increased. The resilience was 0.19±0.01% at 1.2% BP and lowest in the control, but its difference by leavening agents was not significant. The taste and preference were at 6.07±2.22 and 5.96±2.07, respectively, when 1.2% BP was used.
Quality assessment of sweet persimmon or “Fuyu” was evaluated over room temperature distribution periods after 40-day storage at 0oC cold room. All Hunter’s values (L, a, and b) of sweet persimmon were significantly decreased after 4-day room temperature distribution while the flesh firmness was drastically decreased after 3-day room temperature distribution. Glucose and fructose contents were significantly increased by the degradation of sucrose after 3-day room temperature distribution. The highest extraction yield was obtained in the flesh of persimmon. Extraction yields of each part of “Fuyu” persimmon were 15.53% for flesh, 10.53 for seed, and 13.83 for flower bud. However, the total phenolic content of flesh was 4.8 μg/mg which was extremely lower than that of the seed (175.5 μg/ mg) and flower bud (178.2 μg/mg) of sweet persimmon. With high phenolic content, both the flower bud and seed of sweet persimmon showed excellent antioxidant activities by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2'-azinobis( 3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) free radical scavenging test. The results showed a great potential for byproducts (seed and flower bud) of long-term, cold-stored sweet persimmon “Fuyu” as a good antioxidant material for novel functional foods.
Physicochemical properties of potato chip treated with superheated steam (SHS) at various temperatures (120, 150, 180, and 220oC) and durations (2, 5, 8, and 10 min) were measured to assess the potential application of SHS in the production of unfried chips. A faster drying rate was obtained at a higher SHS temperature due to a lower degree of water condensation on the surface of the potato chip. A higher temperature of SHS resulted in higher volume shrinkage, indicating the dependency of shrinkage on the volume of water loss. SHS treatment did not cause any significant defects in the appearance of potato chips although pillowing and burnt spots were observed on the surface of the sample processed at 220oC for 10 min. Damaged starch content and Rapid Visco Analyzer profiles showed that partial gelatinization occurred during SHS treatment. Potato chips treated with SHS showed the shrinkage of parenchyma cells, resulting to compressed cell layers at the surface and inside. As treatment proceeded, air cells were formed internally. These results suggested that SHS combined with post drying process would be appropriate in the production of unfried potato chips by reducing drying time without causing any deterioration in quality.
To determine sugars content of agricultural products and foods, simultaneous quantitative analysis was carried out on fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and lactose by HPLC-RI. Analysis conditions were set as column ZORBAX carbohydrate (4.6 mm ID×250 mm, 5 μm), the mobile phase of 75% ACN, the column temperature of 35oC, sample injection amount of 10 μL and the flow rate of 1 mL/min. Five standard solutions were isolated without interfering peak within 30 minutes and the calibration curves of standard were confirmed excellent linearity from 0.10% to 1.00% with R2≥0.999. Based on the chromatogram of the standard solution, the limit of quantification (LOQ) and the limit of detection (LOD) values were calculated. The accuracy of the analytical values were highest at 100% water extraction method to the fructose 95.7%, sucrose 98.7%, lactose 102.7% respectively, compared with reference value of a certified reference material (BCR644), by applying the four solvent extraction methods. Using an in-house quality control material (infant formula), repeatability and reproducibility values of this experiment were verified on the basis of AOAC guideline and reference values were set up at 1.17 g/100g of glucose, 0.85 g/100g of maltose, and 45.54 g/100g of lactose. Quality control charts were drawn up and used for sugars analysis of agricultural products.