Todarodes pacificus is an important marine resource commercialized in South Korea, Japan, and China. The objective of this work is to investigate the effectiveness of different mathematical models (diffusive model, Newton's model, Henderson-pabis's model, Page's model, and Weibull's model) in precisely explaining the moisture gain/loss and salt gain of the squid slices immersed in saline solutions. Brine concentrations of immersion used were 2.5, 5, 10, and 15% (w/w) for various durations (0-360 min). The effective diffusion coefficients of salt ranged from 0.549×10−9 to 0.841×10−9 m2/s, while the moisture values ranged from -0.077×10−9 to 0.374×10−9 m2/s. The experimental results of moisture and salt transfer fitted well into the Henderson-Pabis and Page models, respectively. The results presented in this study support the potential to predict the mass transfer of squid using mathematical modeling.
Temperature distribution studies were performed in steam-air retort to investigate the influence of various processing conditions (come-up time, sterilization temperature, and internal pressure throughout the steam-air retort). Retort temperature data were analyzed for temperature deviations during holding phase, maximum temperature difference between test locations at the beginning and after 1, 3, and 5 min of the holding phase, and box-and-whiskers plots for each location during the holding phase. The results showed that high sterilization temperature led to a more uniform temperature distribution than low sterilization temperature (pasteurization). In pasteurization condition, the temperature stability was slightly increased by increasing pressure during the holding phase. On the other hand, the temperature stability was slightly decreased in high sterilization temperature condition. Programming of the comeup phase did not affect the temperature uniformity. In addition, the slowest cold spot was found at the bottom floor during the holding phase in all conditions. This study determined that the temperature distribution is affected by retort processing conditions, but the steam-air retort needs more validation tests for temperature stability.
The impregnation of solid foods into the surrounding hypotonic or hypertonic solution was explored as a method to infuse NaCl in pork loin cube without altering its matrix. Mass transfer kinetics using a diffusive model as the mathematical model for moisture gain/loss and salt gain and the resulting textural properties were studied for the surrounding solutions of NaCl 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 15% (w/w). It was possible to access the effects of brine concentration on the direction of the resulting water flow, quantify water and salt transfer, and confirm tenderization effect by salt infusion. For brine concentrations up to 10% it was verified that meat samples gained water, while for processes with 15% concentration, pork loin cubes lost water. The effective diffusion coefficients of salt ranged from 2.43×10-9 to 3.53×10-9 m2/s, while for the values of water ranged from 1.22×10-9 to 1.88×10-9 m2/s. The diffusive model was able to represent well salt gain rates using a single parameter, i.e. an effective diffusion coefficient of salt through the meat. However, it was not possible to find a characteristic effective diffusion coefficient for water transfer. Within the range of experimental conditions studied, salt-impregnated samples by 5% (w/w) brine were shown with minimum hardness, chewiness and shear force.
Medium pressure and mixed enzyme were used to hydrolyze raw anchovy under controlled conditions at a batchpilot plant-scale process for the production of anchovy protein hydrolysates (APH). Mass balance calculations were carried out so that the degree of protein solubilization and yields could be estimated. Almost complete hydrolysis could be achieved in 12 h, at 50oC and 75 MPa, with no pH adjustment, at 1% (10 g/kg) mixed enzyme using raw anchovy. This was achieved with the addition of water (1/2 raw anchovy/water). The degrees of protein solubilization and yield were 63.50% and 55.61%, respectively. Fractionation using UF/NF pilot scale systems was carried out for producing four different fractions on the APH. Successive fractionation on UF and NF membranes allowed the concentration of the peptides of selected sizes without, however, carrying out sharp separations, and with some MW classes being found in several fractions. Spray drying processes for 10 kDa permeate were described to increase their usability. The free amino acid profile of the fractions was identical to that of the APH.
A Taguchi robust design method with an L9 orthogonal array and larger-the-better characteristics was implemented to optimize experimental conditions for the hydrolysis of raw anchovy using a pressure-assisted enzymatic reaction method. The degree of hydrolysis (DH), nitrogen recovery (NR) and yield were considered as the response parameters. Pressure, reaction temperature, reaction time, and mixed enzyme amount were chosen as control parameters. As a result of the Taguchi analysis in this study, the pressure was found to be the most influential parameter on DH and NR. The amount of mixed enzyme in the reaction also had a significant effect on DH and NR. Meanwhile, the optimum values were confirmed to be similar at 95% confidence and 5% significance level through analysis of variance (ANOVA). Furthermore, new hydrolysates at optimum conditions and control hydrolysates at atmospheric pressure were compared in terms of the DH, resulting in the improvement of DH by more than 52.6%.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the possibility of the use of enzymatically hydrolyzed anchovy protein (eHAP) to enhancing of salty taste in dried pollack soup and mungbean sprout when it was applied in cooking. The salty taste enhancing effect was evaluated by comparing the dried pollack soup samples with eHAP added and the control sample containing 0.6% NaCl, and the result showed that the salty taste enhancing effect was 15%, 25%, 42%, and 46% in the samples with 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% eHAP added, respectively. The overall acceptability was decreased as the eHAP addition was increased. In case of a bean sprout containing 0.7% NaCl, the salty taste enhancing effect was 29%, 18%, 16%, and 31% in the 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% eHAP added, respectively. The lightness and yellowness were decreased as the eHAP addition was increased in both the dried pollack soup and the bean sprout. The pH of the dried pollack soup was decreased but the pH of the bean sprout dish was increased as the addition of eHAP was increased. The application of eHAP to food showed a significant salty taste enhancing effect, but the effect was dependent on the type of foods.
The reduction of the content of sodium chloride in noodle was studied to prevent the problems related to excessive sodium intake, such as high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. This study investigated the effect of hydrolyzed anchovy products (HAP) on the salty taste of cooked noodle. The experiment was set up to determine the general properties of dough in dried and cooked noodles, with a sensory test used while increasing the concentration of HAP at same salt contents. There was no significant difference in water binding capacity, solubility, swelling power, lightness, and cooking properties. The redness, yellowness, and hardness were increased upon increasing the contents of HAP. From the sensory evaluation, cooked noodle with added HAP had a high score in appearance, color, texture, and flavor. Moreover, 50% and 75% HAP showed higher values than the control item in saltiness, preference of saltiness, and overall acceptance. Consequently, the HAP could have an effect on dried noodles or cooked noodles as a salty taste enhancer without changing the noodle’s properties.
High pressure and enzymatic hydrolysis was applied to anchovy in order to produce a natural seasoning salt enhancer. The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between the sensory characteristics and protein concentration of enzymatic hydrolysates with anchovy. According to the results of QDA, 24 attribute descriptors were developed. Based on the flavor profile, the strengths of most tastes, except sourness, color flavor, and odor were evaluated before activated carbon treatment. Principal components analysis (PCA) was performed to summarize the relationship between attributes and samples. The result of PCA was F1 72.13% and F2 22.01%, having explained 94.13% in total variability, as F1 was shown according to the correlation about activated carbon treatment before or after samples. The characteristics of color, flavor/odor, and saltiness or bitter taste had higher correlation before activated carbon treatment samples. Also, F2 was shown to have no correlation to the samples.
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of liposome-coated salt (LCS) on the salty taste intensity of noodle. Dough, dried noodle, and boiled noodle with LCS were evaluated physico-chemically for water content, water binding capacity, solubility, swelling power, color, texture, cooking properties, and sensory test. There were no significant differences in water content, water binding capacity, lightness, yellowness, and texture of noodle between the noodles with liposome-coated salt and non-coated salt. For the sensory analysis, the panel did detect more salty taste at 1.0% and 2.0% of LCS compared to the control. From these results, this study demonstrates that liposome coated salt can enhance salty taste, maintaining the same salt concentration without the physical property changes of noodle.
Proteolytic enzymes were screened to obtain anchovy protein hydrolysates (APH) with low-bitterness under pressurization. First, the residual proteolytic activity (%) and SDS-PAGE of commercially available food-grade protease (Alcalase® 2.4 L, FlavourzymeTM 500 MG, Neutrase®, ProtamexTM) and mixed enzyme (ME, Alcalase® : FlavourzymeTM = 1 : 5) after treatments of ambient pressure and 100 MPa at 50oC were investigated. The proteolytic activity of enzymes was still largely retained after pressure treatment. The SDS-PAGE on tested enzymes showed that the electrophoretic mobility maps (EMMs) after pressure treatment were similar to those at ambient pressure. With these results, it seemed that tested enzymes were stable at 100 MPa and 50oC. Raw anchovy hydrolyzed with various protease at 50oC under ambient pressure and 100 MPa for 1, 2, 6, 12, and 24 h. The degree of hydrolysis (DH, %) of prepared APHs at 100 MPa was increased, which suggests that the medium pressure treatment accelerates protein hydrolysis. The APH by ME exhibited the best suitable characteristics, which had a relatively higher DH (36.2±1.8- 57.5±2.8), a high content of oligopeptides with a molecular mass lower than 1,100 Da, mildly bitter taste as the bitterness value was lower than that of 0.2 g/L tea alkaloid, and the lowest contents of tryptophan. Thus, ME was selected to obtain APH with low-bitterness under pressurization.
The overconsumption of dietary salt is recognized to play a negative effect on human health such as increasing blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hydrolyzed anchovy products (HAP) on the salty taste of dried noodle. The physicochemical properties and sensory test of dried noodle were determined at different concentrations of HAP. The lightness of the noodle samples was decreased with increasing levels of HAP whereas their redness and yellowness were increased. There were no significant changes in hardness and texture properties by HAP concentration, compared to those of the control. From the sensory evaluation, the 25% and 50% HAP samples showed a high score on saltiness, preferredness, and overall taste acceptability. Consequently, the HAP could be utilized in dried noodles or cooked noodles as a salt enhancer without significantly altering the charateristics of noodles.
To investigate the preference of food of the elderly for developing processed elderly food, this study was conducted from February 2014 to March 2014 by questionnaire including dietary behaviors, food preference, and frequency of food intake to 119 elderly (49 males and 70 female) who were more than 65 years old and living in Jeonju. Most subjects ate three meals regularly and most of the subjects’ favorite meal time was lunch. The duration time of one meal was 20 min (48.74%). The most preferred taste was delicate and sweet. The subject preferred cooked rice with multi-grains, kalguksu (hot noodle), and abalone porridge to other staple foods. Almost 50% of the subjects liked soybean paste soup and stew, and the ratio of elderly who liked Chinese cabbage kimchi was 72.3%. Preference for panfried foods leaned toward pan fried fish fillet and mung bean pancake. Most subjects preferred plant foods like vegetables, lettuce, and seaweeds. The elderly in Jeonju liked roasted pork, grilled yellow croaker, and stir-fried octopus. Cooked and seasoned vegetables (namul) were the most preferred type by the elderly. Preferences for dishes and food materials were not affected by sex and ages. Most subjects preferred eating out with Korean food. Preference for eating food was selected in grilled beef ribs, a pork cutlet, sushi·broiled eels, and Chinese noodles. Western Japanese and Chinese food were preferred by an elderly subject, who was male and who liked Japanese food more than female.
The objective is to investigate effect of liposome coated hemicellulose on softening of carrot. To encapsulate hemicellulose in nanoliposome, 2% hemicellulase and 2% lecithin were processed by using high-speed homogenizer (10,000 rpm, 3 min) and ultrasonification (200 W, 54%). The carrot were cut into cylinder type (3×1 cm) and then immersed in distilled water (DW, control), hemicellulase (He) and nanoliposome coated hemicellulose (He/NL) for 48 h at 4oC. The final concentration of hemicellulose is 1% (w/v). The droplets properties of He, NL, He/NL analyzed using zeta-sizer. Moreover, the carrots treated different immersed solutions were characterized by measuring hardness, color, microstructural observation and enzyme activity (glucose contents). For the results, hardness of carrot immersed in He or He/NL solution decreased after 48 h by 47% or 31% (outline of carrot) and 35% or 31% (center of carrot) respectively compared to control (7,240 g). The total color difference value of all samples increased over immersion time. For microstructural observation, cell was destroyed after 24 h at He solution. For the enzyme activity, glucose contents of carrot in He solution increased than it in He/NL at 0 h sample however the enzyme activity was no significant difference with immersion time.
본 연구에서는 영·유아용 주스의 유동 특성과 과채류의 색소 성분이 지니고 있는 생리활성이 강화된 혼합과채주스 의 생산가능성을 조사하기 위하여, 생과일과 채소를 혼합 하여 착즙한 적색, 황색 및 녹색의 혼합과채주스를 조제한 후 영양균형과 유통 특성을 부여하기 위하여 물리적으로 변성된 현미 가루를 4% (w/w) 첨가한 후에 품질변화를 최소화하고 유통 중 저장 안전성과 점증 효과를 좀 더 부 여하기 위하여 초고압 처리(20oC, 500 MPa for 3 min)를 한 후 4oC에서 4주간 저장하면서 품질 및 총균수의 변화 를 측정하였다. 착즙된 FV juice에 물리적으로 변성된 현미 분말을 첨가 함으로서 기대하였던 바와 같이 시중에 유통되고 있는 영 ·유아용 과일주스에 비하여 단백질 및 지방이 약 10배 정도 증가되고 섬유질이 검출되어 영양학적으로 강화되고, 색도가 선명하여 소비자의 기호도를 충족시킬 수 있으며 항산화 활성이 검출되어 생리활성 또한 강화된 제품을 제 조할 수 있었다. 뿐만 아니라 영·유아용 주스의 유동 특 성에 적합한 물성인 spoonful 특성과 아주 작은 점성 증가 에 의해서 야기되는 spreadability의 감소를 물리적으로 변 성된 현미 분말 첨가와 초고압 처리(500MPa for 3 min)에 의해서 확보할 수 있었다. 4oC에서 4주간 저장 중에 품질 변화(pH, 당도, 색도, 및 항산화 활성)와 총균수를 측정한 결과, pH와 당도는 초고압 처리에 관계없이 저장 중에 변 화가 매우 미미하였고 색도, 항산화 활성은 저장 시간에 따라 제조된 주스 별로 약간의 차이는 있지만 감소하는 경 향을 나타내었다. 총균수의 경우에는 저장 기간 내내 과채 류 주스의 국내 기준·규격인 1.00×105 CFU/mL 보다 적 게 유지되었다. 다만 HPP-GB juice의 경우에는 104 CFU/ mL로 제어되어 초고압 처리 이전 공정에서 102내지 103 CFU/mL로 제어되어야 하는 위생관리의 중요성이 확인되 어, Bacillus spp.의 제어를 분명하게 실시하여야 한다. 종 합하여 판단하면, 영·유아용 과채혼합주스의 유동 특성과 과채류의 색소 성분이 지니고 있는 생리활성이 강화된 초 고압 처리 과채혼합주스의 생산 및 냉장 유통 가능성을 확 인할 수 있었다.
본 연구에서는 양조간장만을 사용하여 음식 내에 소금을 대체하고 나트륨의 사용량을 줄여 섭취를 줄일 수 있는지 를 알아보기 위하여 샐러드 드레싱에 소금과 양조간장의 사용량을 달리하여 전반적인 맛과 짠맛의 차이를 비교하고 나트륨 분석을 통해 정량적인 나트륨 감소량에 대해 살펴 보았다. 소금을 사용하였을 경우 가장 선호하는 샐러드 드레싱의 나트륨 함량은 3.85±0.03 g/L이었으며, 양조간장 을 사용하였을 경우에는 0.68±0.02 g/L이었고, 0.53±0.01- 0.68±0.02 g/L의 농도에서는 소금을 사용하였을 때와 전반 적인 맛에 있어서 유의적인 차이를 보이지 않았다(p<0.05). 짠맛의 차이에 대한 평가에 있어서 소금을 사용하였 때와 가장 비슷한 짠맛을 나타낸 실험구의 나트륨의 농도는 0.53±0.01 g/L로 나타났으며, 짠맛 차이에 있어서도 전반적 인 맛의 차이에서와 같은 범위의 나트륨 농도에서 유의적 인 차이를 보이지 않았다(p<0.05). 소금을 대신하여 양조간 장만을 사용할 경우 전반적인 맛에 있어서는 약 82.4%, 짠맛에 있어서는 86.2%의 나트륨 함량을 줄일 수 있었다. 이러한 결과는 양조간장 내에는 짠 맛을 증진하는 것으로 알려진 단백질, 펩타이드, 유기산 및 간장 고유의 향 이외 에도 짠맛을 증진시킬 수 있는 새로운 물질이 존재할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다.
짠맛 증진 물질을 탐색하기 위하여 국내에서 시판 중인 간장, 액젓 및 어간장의 품질특성을 분석한 결과, 모든 제 품이 기준·규격에 적합하였으나 까나리액젓의 경우에 식 염의 농도가 기준규격을 약 3% 정도 초과하는 것으로 조 사되었고 ICP-AES를 사용하여 측정한 나트륨 함량으로부 터 환산된 식염 농도는 약 1% 이상 더 높게 나타났다. 풍 미 및 짠맛에 기여하는 성분인 저분자 펩타이드 및 아미노 산이 존재할 것으로 판단되는 수용성 고형분 및 총질소 함 량은 액젓류가 간장류에 비하여 유의적(p<0.05)으로 높게 나타났으며, 유리아미노산 함량을 탐색한 결과, 짠맛과 우 마미를 나타내는 glutamic acid, lysine 및 arginine의 함량 은 멸치어간장 > 저염간장 > 멸치액젓 > 새우육젓 > 양조 간장 > 복합어간장 > 전통간장 > 까나리액젓 > 전통청장 의 순서로 분석되었고 쓴맛에 관여하는 성분은 저염간장 > 멸치어간장 > 멸치액젓 > 새우육젓 > 양조간장 > 복합 어간장 > 전통간장 > 까나리액젓 > 전통청장의 순서로 분 석되었다. 뿐만 아니라 가수분해도 및 질소분포를 분석한 결과 멸치어간장의 경우에 가수분해도가 가장 높았고, 어 간장류에 존재하는 짠맛 증진 물질로 알려진 arginyl dipeptides와 같은 성분이 존재할 것으로 예측되는 아미노 산성 질소와 lowry N의 분율도 멸치어간장이 가장 높았다. 이러한 사실은 arginyl dipeptides가 존재할 것으로 판단되 는 GPC chromatogram의 분획 II가 멸치어간장에 가장 많 이 존재하는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 짠맛강도 평가결과는 국내 저염 간장을 가장 짜게 느꼈으며, 전통간장 > 창녕 멸치어간장 > 전통청장 > 멸치액젓 > 새우젓 > 까나리 액 젓 > 제주 어간장 > 양조간장 > 소금물 순으로 짠맛을 강 한 것으로 나타나 장기간 숙성이 짠맛을 증진하는데 효과 가 있다고 판단된다. 시판 멸치어간장으로부터 무염의 짠 맛 증진 물질의 분리하기 위하여 MAR을 이용한 흡착 및 탈착 시험으로 탈염처리를 한 결과, 무염의 짠맛 증진 물 질을 분리할 수 있는 가능성은 확인하였으나 짠맛 증진 물 질의 손실이 예상되어 MAR을 이용한 공정은 짠맛증진 물 질의 분리에는 부적합하지만, 멸치어간장 제조방법에서 고 염처리, 장기간 숙성 및 쓴맛 등의 문제를 개선하면 짠맛 증진 물질을 생산할 수 있는 산업적 제조공정을 확립할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다.