In this study, the quality characteristics were compared by substituting allulose with a ratio of 0-40% instead of sugar used in dacquoise. The specific gravity and pH of the dacquoise dough were not significantly different, regardless of the allulose content. The spreadability was the highest in the sample using only sugar and decreased as the allulose content increased. Moisture content did not show a significant difference, the baking loss was the highest in the sample using 100% sugar, and there was no significant difference in the samples replaced with allulose. As a result of measuring the chromaticity of dacquoise, the L value and b value decreased and the a value showed a significant difference between the samples as the amount of substitution of allulose increased. Hardness increased as the replacement amount of allulose increased, while gumminess and chewiness showed similar trends. As a result of the sensory evaluation, the overall acceptability for the substitute sample of 100% sugar and 10% allulose was the highest. The maximum substitution ratio of allulose for dacquoise is considered to be 10%.
In this study, the quality properties were compared by replacing allulose with a ratio of 0%-100% instead of sugar used in sponge cake. There was no significant difference in specific gravity, pH, and degree Brix of the dough according to the allulose content, but the brightness decreased and the redness, and yellowness increased as the allulose content increased. The volume of the sponge cake decreased as the content of allulose increased. Symmetry was uniform in the cakes replaced with allulose compared to 100% sugar. There was no significant difference in baking loss and moisture content. Hardness, gumminess and chewiness increased as the replacement rate of allulose increased, and adhesiveness was highest in 100% allulose. In the hedonic evaluation, 100% sugar and allulose 25% samples showed no difference, and the other samples were evaluated lower than the control. The maximum replacement ratio of allulose for sponge cake is considered to be 50%.
식물성 떡갈비를 조리방법을 달리하여 조리한 후 수분함량, pH, 가열감량, 직경 감소율, 두께 감소율, 색도, 물성, 관능검사를 측정하였다. 수분함량은 전자레인지로 조리한 식물성 떡갈비가 가장 높은 값을 나타냈으며, 오븐으로 조리했을 때 가장 낮은 값을 나타냈다. pH는 전자레인지로 조리한 경우 가장 높은 값을, 팬 프라잉한 떡갈비에서 가장 낮은 값을 나타냈다. 가열감량과 직경 감소율, 두께 감소율은 모두 오븐에서 조리한 떡갈비에서 가장 높게 나타났다. 가열감량은 전자레인지 조리시 가장 낮게 나타났으 며, 직경 감소율과 두께 감소율은 에어프라이어에서 조리한 떡갈비에서 가장 낮게 나타났다. 식물성 떡갈비의 명도와 적색도는 각각 전자레인지, 오븐으로 조리한 경우 가장 높게 나타났고, 명도와 적색도 모두 팬 프라잉이 가장 낮은 값을 나타냈다. 황색도는 팬 프라잉한 떡갈비에서 가장 높은 값을 나타냈으나 오븐과 유의적 차이는 없었으며 전자레인지로 조리한 경우 가장 낮은 값을 나타냈다. 물성은 경도, 씹힘성, 탄력성, 응집성 모두 팬 프라잉한 식물성 떡갈비에서 가장 높은 값을 나타냈으며, 전자레인지로 조리한 경우 가장 낮은 값을 나타냈다. 식물성 떡갈비의 기호도 평가는 전반적으로 팬 프라잉한 경우 높은 값을 나타냈으며. 조직감 항목을 제외하고 전자레인지로 조리한 식물성 떡갈비의 기호도가 낮게 나타났다. 이와 같은 결과로 보아 팬 프라잉이 식물성 떡갈비의 기호도를 향상시킬 수 있는 적절한 조리방법으로 판단된다.
본 연구에서는 처리용기의 재질에 따른 광펄스의 살균 효과에 대해서 알아보았다. 처리용기의 재질에 따른 UV-C 의 광량은 대조구는 3.595W/m2이었으며, 두께 1 mm에서 석영은 3.358W/m2, 아크릴은 0.878W/m2, 그리고 유리는 0.060W/m2였으며, 빛의 투과율은 석영은 93.4%, 아크릴은 24.4%, 유리는 1.7%로 나타났다. 처리 용기 재질에 따른 살균 효과는 석영은 처리용기의 두께와 상관없이 대조구와 동일한 살균 효과를 보였으며, 아크릴은 1 mm 두께에서 60초 처리 후 1.1 log 사멸하였으며, 180초 처리 후에는 5.0 log의 사멸효과를 보였으며, 두께가 증가함에 따라 살균 효과가 현저히 감소하였다. 유리는 두께와 관계없이 살균 효과가 거의 없었다. 사멸패턴은 유리를 제외하고는 모두 bi-phasic의 형태를 보였으며, 사멸속도상수와 D 값은 대조 구는 k1값은 0.287 s−1이었으며, k2값은 0.072 s−1이었고, D1 은 8.02 s였으며, D2는 31.87 s였다. 1 mm의 두께에서 석영 은 k1은 0.284 s−1, k2는 0.069 s−1, 아크릴은 k1은 0.018 s−1, k2는 0.042 s−1이었고, 유리는 k는 0.004 s−1이었다. 두께 1 mm에서 D값은 석영은 D1=8.11 s, D2=33.87, 아크릴은 D1 =127.94 s, D2=54.83 s, 유리는 D=575.75 s로 나타났다.
본 연구에서는 설탕 대체 비율에 따른 알룰로스의 이화학적 특성 변화를 연구하였다. 알룰로스의 설탕 대체비율을 0, 25, 50, 75, 100%로 설정한 후 수분함량, pH, Brix 의 변화를 측정하였다. 설탕 100%를 사용하였을 경우 0.11%로 가장 낮은 수분함량을 나타냈으며, 알룰로스의 함량이 높아질수록 수분함량이 증가하는 경향을 보였다. pH 는 설탕 100%와 알룰로스 100%를 제외하고 알룰로스 대체에 따른 시료간의 유의적 차이는 없었으며, brix는 알룰 로스의 함량이 높아질수록 낮은 값을 보였다. 상대습도에 따른 흡습량의 정도를 측정한 결과, 모든 실험조건에서 알룰로스 함량이 높아질수록 흡습량이 높아졌으며, 상대습도가 높을수록 흡습량의 증가가 더 큰 것으로 나타났다. 상대습도가 높고 알룰로스의 함량이 높을수록 흡습이 일어나 는 기간이 긴 것으로 나타났다. 이러한 알룰로스와 설탕의 혼합 비율에 따른 수분함량 및 흡습량의 자료는 앞으로 제빵 공정에 있어서 최종제품의 품질을 결정할 수 있는 기초자료로서 활용이 가능할 것으로 판단된다.
본 연구에서는 분리대두단백 효소가수분해물(eHISP)의 짠맛 증진 효과를 알아보기 위하여 된장국과 숙주나물 무침 내 소금의 양을 일정하게 하고 eHISP의 첨가량을 달리 하여 짠맛의 강도 평가와 전반적인 기호도의 차이를 비교 하였다. 된장국의 모든 시료의 NaCl 함량을 0.7%로 동일하게 한 후 대조구와 eHISP 첨가구간의 짠맛증진효과를 평가한 결과, 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% 첨가구에서 각각 21%, 49%, 61%, 70%의 짠맛상승 효과가 있는 것으로 나타났으며, 기호도는 0.5%까지는 증가하고 이후 eHISP의 첨가량이 증가하면서 점차 낮게 평가되었다. 숙주나물 무침도 모든 시료의 NaCl의 농도를 0.7%가 되도록 하였으며, eHISP의 첨가량을 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5%로 하였을 때 짠맛 증진 효과는 3%, 10%, 20%, 23%로 나타났다. 숙주 나물무침의 기호도는 1.0%에서 가장 높게 나타났다. eHISP의 첨가량이 증가할수록 된장국과 숙주나물의 명도 값은 감소하였으며, 적색도와 황색도는 감소하는 경향을 나타냈다.
This study investigates the physicochemical and sensory properties of the soy-based patties using κ-carrageenan (CG) and methyl-cellulose (MC) as binders. Soy-based patties were prepared using 0%-2% of κ-carrageenan and methyl-cellulose in proportion, and the quality change of soy-based patties was measured by storing them at 4oC for 4 weeks. During the storage periods, the water holding capacity of ‘MC 1.5%+CG 0.5%’ showed high values. As the MC content increased, the weight loss and cooking loss tended to decrease, and both values increased significantly during the storage period. As the MC content increased, the lightness and redness tended to decreased. The hardness and chewiness of soy-based patties tended to increase as the MC content increased. During the storage period, the total aerobic bacteria and the coliforms tended to increase. The VBN content was showed 14.6-17.5 mg%/100g in first week, since then, the VBN content has continued to increase. As a result of sensory evaluation, the springiness, taste and overall acceptability of soy-based patties with ‘MC 1.5%+CG 0.5%’ and ‘MC 2.0%’ showed the highest value.
This study was carried out to investigate the changes of the microbiological contamination levels, pH, acidity, solid contents, total phenol contents, and color difference of cold-brew coffee products during 4 weeks at room and cold temperatures. The 17 sample coffees were purchased from regional cafes in Jeonju. Each coffee was self-blended by the cafes. Esherichia coli was not detected in all the samples, but bacteria were detected in 1 sample and yeast and molds were detected in 4 samples. Of the samples stored at room temperature (25oC) after 4 weeks, general bacteria were detected in 4 samples (3.0×101 cfu/ml-1.7×103 cfu/ml), and yeast and molds were detected in 11 samples (1.3×101 cfu/ml - 3.1×105 cfu/ml). In the case of the samples stored at cold temperature (4oC), general bacteria were detected in 3 samples, and yeast and molds were detected in 6 samples although the level of contamination was lower than that at room temperature. pH and acidity decreased during the storage period, but the total phenol content did not change. In the case of chromaticity, redness and yellowness tended to decrease.
The purpose of this study was to confirm changes in flavor and taste characteristics of black pepper by combining nonthermal sterilization treatment methods, namely intense pulsed light, cold plasma, and ultraviolet. After treatment, lightness value and hue angle of black pepper were decreased. The difference in chromaticity between samples before and after treatment showed a significant difference of 6.11. The piperine contents before and after the combined nonthermal sterilization treatment were reduced from 28.4±0.25 mg/g to 20.4±1.06 mg/g. The results of an intensity test showed that the color and flavor of the sample became darker and weaker, but hot and pungent were not distinguished after nonthermal treatment. The flavor profile showed that the intensity of cool flavor was decreased, the intensity of nutty taste was increased, and other sensory languages did not show any difference. Although differences in flavor and taste were distinguished in a cooking application, the differences were not significant.
Recently, health concerns related to NaCl overconsumption have led to an increased demand for sodium-reduced foods. The purpose of this research is to investigate the possibility of using enzymatically hydrolyzed isolated soybean protein (eHISP) to reduce the level of salt in salad dressing. The intensity of the salty taste enhancing effect was 31%, 29%, 43%, and 52% in the samples with 0.1%, 0.5%, 1.0%, and 1.5% eHISP added, respectively. There are significant differences between the control and samples (p<0.05). The overall acceptability was increased as the amount of added eHISP was increased when eHISP was 1.0%. However, it was lower when 1.5% eHISP was added. The pH of salad dressing was increased as the eHISP addition was increased. The results showed that the addition of eHISP to a salad dressing significantly enhances its salty taste effect.
The purpose of this study was to review literature on beef recipes, focusing on 20 recipe books published from the late 1800s to 1990s. A total of 119 beef dry-heat cooking were recorded. The most often used cooking were as follows: roasting 54 times, skewering 35 times, stir-frying18 times, pan-frying11 times and deep frying 1 time. The culinary book that the recipes was Hangukeumsik daegwan (1997). ribs, brisket, rump, bottom sirloin, sirloin and tenderloin were used but all beef cuts were marked as ‘beef.’ Thus, it impossible to figure out which beef cut was used in the recipe. Chili, green onion, egg, tofu and wheat flour were used together as, while soy sauce, salt, sugar, sesame oil, ground pepper, pear juice, honey, chopped green onion, chopped garlic, ginger juice, ground sesame used as. In addition, pine nuts or ground pine-nuts were often used for garnish.
비가열 살균 기술 중 하나인 광펄스 기술을 이용하여 후추에 존재하는 미생물의 사멸 효과를 원통형 처리 용기를 이용하여 검토하였다. 후추에 존재하는 미생물의 오염도는 일반세균은 약 2.0-4.0×106 CFU/g, Bacillus cereus는 약 3.0-5.0×103 CFU/g이었다. 펄스 수 5 pps, 광원과 처리용기 사이의 거리 4 cm의 동일한 조건에서 빛의 세기를 달리하여 처리하였을 경우 빛의 세기가 강할수록 사멸정도는 증가하였으며, 빛의 세기 1,000 V에서 흑후추의 경우 일반세 균은 0.55 log, B. cereus는 0.6 log, 백후추의 경우 일반세균은 0.7 log, B. cereus는 0.6 log의 사멸효과를 보였다. 펄스 수를 달리하였을 경우에는 펄스수가 증가할수록 높은 사멸율을 보였으며, 광원과 처리 용기사이의 거리에 따른 사멸효과를 거리가 짧을수록 사멸율은 증가하였다. 입자의 크기에 따른 사멸 효과는 입자의 크기가 클수록 살균효과 가 높은 것으로 나타났다. 후춧가루의 살균에 있어 광펄스 기술은 처리 조건에 따라 40-80%정도의 사멸율을 나타내어 후춧가루의 비가열 살균 기술로서의 적용 가능성을 볼 수 있었다.
Quality changes in yakgwa (such as color, moisture contents, acid value, rheological properties, and viable cells) using different types of frying oils was examined for 5 weeks. During the storage period, the lightness and yellowness of all samples were increased and there was no significant difference in redness. After 5 weeks of storage, rice bran oil showed the least color difference. There was no difference in the moisture contents of all samples except for grape seed oil, while the moisture contents of yakgwa fried with grape seed oil was decreased. The acid value increased as the storage period increased regardless of the type of frying oil, and yakgwa fried with rice bran oil and grape seed oil showed a low acid value. The hardness was increased as the storage period increased, but there was no difference in the hardness between the samples. The adhesiveness and resilience were decreased and the chewiness was increased. The total cell count did not increase significantly as the storage period, and there was also no difference in the total cell count between the samples. There was a high level of yeast and mold in comparison to total cell count, and the colony of bacteria was not detected.
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of different types of frying oil on the quality of yakgwa such as expansion rate, color, moisture content and rheological properties. Yakgwa fried with corn oil showed the highest expansion in width and length, and rice bran oil in height. With regard to the overall expansion rate, yakgwa fried with rice bran had the highest value. As for lightness and yellowness, yakgwa fried with soybean oil had the highest lightness (34.74), while yakgwa fried with grape seed oil had the lowest lightness (29.82). As for redness, however, no significant difference was found. Regarding fat content, yakgwa fried with rice bran oil showed the highest value with 18.91%, while yakgwa fried with corn oil and canola oil showed the lowest value. No difference was found in moisture content according to the type of frying oil. In relation to the acid value, yagkwa with soybean oil showed the lowest value of 0.24±0.66; as for peroxide value, yagkwa fried with rice bran oil showed the lowest value of 3.59±1.74 meq/kg. No difference was found in hardness, cohesiveness and resilience according to the type of frying oil. Yagkwa fried with corn oil and canola oil showed the lowest value in terms of adhesiveness and chewiness, respectively. The results of the sensory evaluation showed not significance difference in overall preference, but yakgwa fried with rice bran oil had the highest value of 5.93±1.87.