The viscosity, overrun, melting-down, moisture, crude fat, total sugar, and color of rice powder and puffed rice powder ice cream, following the addition of α-amylase, were investigated. For identical grain types, the gelatinization degree increased with puffing, and within the same treatment, the short grain was higher than the long grain. Viscosity dropped with increasing α-amylase at the same concentration and grain type, excluding 0.0%, the rice powder was higher than the puffed one, and for the same concentration and treatment, the short grain was higher. The overrun was highest at 0.2%, and for the same concentration and treatment, the short grain exhibited higher overrun. Higher melting-down was observed in puffed and lower viscosity ice cream mix. No significant difference was found in moisture with enzyme concentration. Regardless of puffing, the short tended to have a higher moisture. No difference was noticed in crude fat by concentration, grain type, or puffing. The total sugar was higher with increasing α-amylase; at the same concentration, puffed tended to be higher. The hunter “L” and “b” increased with α-amylase, while the “a” value dropped. At the same concentration and grain type, the “b” values decreased with puffing (p<0.05).
Twenty four covered barley cultivars of Korea and subsequently produced malts were evaluated for quality characteristics, diastatic power (DP), and enzymatic actvity. Protein, amylase, starch and β-glucan content of covered barley cultivars were 8.2-12.8%, 4.2-19.1%, 47.9-59.7%, and 4.1-7.4%, respectively. The DP of malt during malting showed a maximum value in Day 4, when the bud length was 2.0-2.5 times longer than the length of the grain itself. α-Amylase activity was very low but increased significantly after Day 4, showing greatest activity on Day 6 (185.5-206.1 unit/g). β-Amylase activity increased as the malting progressed and a considerable amount was detected in barley grain on Day 6 (898.6-1591.6 unit/g). The potential diastatic power (PDP) of various cultivar grains ranged from 89.7 °L to 169.3 °L. The PDP of raw barley had strong correlation with β-amylase of raw barley (r=0.977, p<0.001) while the DP of malted barley was also correlated with the β-amylase activity of raw barley (r=0.654, p<0.001). Since the PDP of raw barley and the DP of malted barley are correlated (r=0.644, p<0.001), the PDP and β-amylase activity of raw barley are useful factors in predicting the DP of malted barley.
This study was conducted to develop and evaluate an appropriate control device for a purge type controlled atmosphere (CA) storage in Korea. To determine ideal performance, oxygen and carbon dioxide control capability and airtightness were analyzed according to the postharvest management manual of CA storage of Fuji apples. In shortened experiments for CA storage, the condition was delayed CA at 0-0.5oC for three days and stored at 0.1-0.5% carbon dioxide levels for 3 days and then further stored 6 days under 1% carbon dioxide. As a result, the temperature control range of a developed CA container was 0.0-0.5oC, and the relative humidity was more than 90%, except for the defrosting step for the freezer during the storage period. The rate of pressure reduction for the CA container in the negative and positive pressure states was 0.45 and 0.21 mmH2O/min, respectively, and it was twofolds higher than standard airtightness for CA storage. After nitrogen injection, oxygen concentration was achieved at 2%, and carbon dioxide concentration was maintained at 0.1-0.5% for 6 days. Afterwards, carbon dioxide levels were tightly controlled between 0.1-1.0%. These results suggest that a developed purge type CA container could be effective in commercially maintaining the quality of agricultural products.
A lot of research about applications of natural extracts to both food and medicine is in progress. In this paper, we tested the applicability of Rubus crataegifolius leaf extract in functional materials including its anti-inflammatory effects. We investigated the effects of Rubus crataegifolius leaf extract on the LPS-induced production of inflammatory cytokines and mediators in RAW264.7 macrophage cell line. The protein expression of COX-2, iNOS, IL- 4, TNF-α, and IFN-γ, phosphorylation of MAPKs (ERK, JNK, p38) and the activation of NF-κB with Rubus crataegifolius leaf extract were assayed in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Pre-treatment with Rubus crataegifolius leaf extract significantly inhibited the protein expression of iNOS and COX-2 in a dose-dependent item and the secretion of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-4, TNF-α, and IFN-γ. Rubus crataegifolius leaf extract significantly reduced the phosphorylation of MAPKs. The NF-κB was strongly suppressed by extracts. Moreover, the pathological phenotypes of contact dermatitis such as erythema, edema, and scabs were significantly decreased in Rubus crataegifolius leaf extract-treated mice. These results indicated that Rubus crataegifolius leaf extract have an antiinflammatory effect, and that this might be used as a supplement for the functional materials.
Cronobactersakazakii is a newly emerging high hazard pathogen, which causes encephalomeningitis and necrotic colitis. Recently, successful biocontrol of harmful microorganisms in several foods through the use of bacteriophages has been reported. In this study, bacteriophages were isolated from kimchi and sewages. Morphological analysis by TEM indicated that phages belonged to the Myoviridae family. In case of heat stability, KCES2 and ESP 2949-2 phages were susceptible to temperatures above 70oC. KCES2 and ESP 2949-2 phages inhibited the growth of C. sakazakii in culture broth. When KCES2 and ESP 2949-2 phages were applied to biofilm-formed C. sakazakii, C. sakazakii was efficiently reduced. Therefore, newly isolated KCES2 and ESP 2949-2 phage for C. sakazakii might effectively reduce C. sakazakii in various foods.
To investigate the preference of food of the elderly for developing processed elderly food, this study was conducted from February 2014 to March 2014 by questionnaire including dietary behaviors, food preference, and frequency of food intake to 119 elderly (49 males and 70 female) who were more than 65 years old and living in Jeonju. Most subjects ate three meals regularly and most of the subjects’ favorite meal time was lunch. The duration time of one meal was 20 min (48.74%). The most preferred taste was delicate and sweet. The subject preferred cooked rice with multi-grains, kalguksu (hot noodle), and abalone porridge to other staple foods. Almost 50% of the subjects liked soybean paste soup and stew, and the ratio of elderly who liked Chinese cabbage kimchi was 72.3%. Preference for panfried foods leaned toward pan fried fish fillet and mung bean pancake. Most subjects preferred plant foods like vegetables, lettuce, and seaweeds. The elderly in Jeonju liked roasted pork, grilled yellow croaker, and stir-fried octopus. Cooked and seasoned vegetables (namul) were the most preferred type by the elderly. Preferences for dishes and food materials were not affected by sex and ages. Most subjects preferred eating out with Korean food. Preference for eating food was selected in grilled beef ribs, a pork cutlet, sushi·broiled eels, and Chinese noodles. Western Japanese and Chinese food were preferred by an elderly subject, who was male and who liked Japanese food more than female.
Red raspberry (Rubus crataegifolius) is a well-known fruit with excellent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial and anti-cancer resources containing bioactive phenolic acids, terpenoids, glucosinolates, and glycosides. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of red raspberry cookies on quality characteristics and antioxidant activities. Cookies were prepared adding different concentrations of red raspberry powder (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50% to the flour weight). The bulk density, pH, spread ratio, loss rate, leavening rate, color, hardness of dough, and cookies were investigated. As a result, the pH of the dough, leavening and loss rate, and L- and b-value of the cookies are significantly decreased with increasing levels of red raspberry powder (p < 0.05). On the other hand, spread ratio, a-value, and brix of the cookies are significantly increased with increasing levels of red raspberry powder (p < 0.05). Total phenol compounds and FRAP assay are significantly increased with increasing levels of red raspberry powder (p < 0.05). Based on the overall observation, red raspberry cookies with 10-20% Rubus crataegifolius powder is recommended to take advantage of its functional properties with consumer acceptability.
The overconsumption of dietary salt is recognized to play a negative effect on human health such as increasing blood pressure. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of hydrolyzed anchovy products (HAP) on the salty taste of dried noodle. The physicochemical properties and sensory test of dried noodle were determined at different concentrations of HAP. The lightness of the noodle samples was decreased with increasing levels of HAP whereas their redness and yellowness were increased. There were no significant changes in hardness and texture properties by HAP concentration, compared to those of the control. From the sensory evaluation, the 25% and 50% HAP samples showed a high score on saltiness, preferredness, and overall taste acceptability. Consequently, the HAP could be utilized in dried noodles or cooked noodles as a salt enhancer without significantly altering the charateristics of noodles.
In this study, the texture, nucleotide-related compounds, and sensory characteristics of dry-aged beef, made from third quality grade Hanwoo beef (Korean native cattle), were investigated according to aging periods. Loin cuts obtained from three different Hanwoos were dry-aged under the specific conditions (controlled temperatures, humidity, and air flow) during 0-7 weeks. With increasing aging periods, textures were significantly decreased after 5 weeks (hardness: from 13,264±2,033 to 7,112±1,743 g; chewiness: from 4,107±1,467 to 2,334±780) and four sensory characteristics were significantly increased after 3 weeks (texture: from 2.2±1.0 to 6.2±1.1; flavor: from 3.9±0.7 to 6.2±1.5; whole preference: from 2.5±0.8 to 6.3±1.3; purchase intention: from 3.7±1.4 to 6.0±1.5) except for color (p<0.05). On the other hand, the concentrations of IMP which is related to the umami flavor of beef were significantly decreased with increasing aging periods (from 40.44±5.97 at 0-week to 7.44±2.43 μg/ mg at 7-week) (p<0.05). These results obtained in this study could provide an useful data base for the quality control of dry-aging.
Deseeded jujubes are commonly consumed as snacks. This study was conducted to develop a seed-removing machine for jujubes that relieves hard work in manual seed removal. The seed-removing machine consists of a jujube supplying unit, a punching unit, and a discharging unit. To test the performance of the machine, shape characteristics, seed removing rate, sarcocarp cracking rate, and flesh hardness were analyzed throughout the jujube storage period. The machine showed good seed removing and sarcocarp cracking rates at room temperature and cold temperature storage on days 2, 15, and 50. Seed removing rates were 80% at day 15 and 96% at day 50. The sarcocarp cracking rates were 33% for day 15 and 30% for day 50. Hardness started to decrease from day 8 to day 70 at both room temperature and cold temperature storage. The working capacity of the machine was 900 fruits/h. The results showed that the jujube seed removing machine is useful for reducing the labor requirements of postharvest jujube processing.
The objective of this study was to increase starch extraction efficiency from domestic potato by five kinds of foodgrade cellulases (mixture of β-glucanases, pectinase, cellulase, hemicelullase, and β-glucosdiase). Cellulase-treated potato had a maximum of 40% higher starch extraction yield than non-enzyme treated potato. It turned out that the shape and structure of cellulose-treated and nonenzyme-treated potatoes were the same. The average particle size of cellulose-treated potato starch was smaller than non-enzyme treated potato. Interestingly, the small starch granular (<10 μm particle) was shown in extracted starch from cellulose-treated potato. Rapid viscosity analysis showed that starch from cellulase treated potato had lower pasting temperature than starch from nonenzyme-treated potato. The range of the gelatinization temperature (49-62oC) of starches from cellulose-treated potato was broader than that of starches from nonenzyme-treated potato. Therefore, the results of this study confirm that cellulase plays an important role in the extraction of starch from the potato and physicochemical characteristics of potato starch.