This study aimed to investigate the biological activities, including polyphenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activities, of various cultivars of Korean perilla leaves. The results indicated that among nine cultivars (Namcheon dlggae, Saedora, Nulbora, Donggel 1, Donggell 2, Soim, Sangyeop, Somirang, and Saebom) of perilla leaves, the total polyphenolic content (gallic acid equivalent mg/g, GAE) was the highest in “Nulbora,” while it was lowest in Namcheon dlggae. Moreover, flavonoid content in the extracts of nine cultivars leaves was in the range of 132.93~268.50 mg catechin equivalent/g sample. The antioxidant effects of the perilla leaves were determined using two different in vitro bioassays measuring DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities. The results revealed that antioxidant activity was also higher in “Nulbora” compared with other cultivars. Xanthin-oxidase-inhibition activity ranged from 65.65% to 80.58%, with “Nulbora” exhibiting the highest activity, although the difference with other cultivars was not significant. “Nulbora” extracts reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes and several cytokines, including IL-6 activation induced by LPS in macrophages in the range of 100–50 μg/mL. These results suggest that extracts from perilla leaves can be used as bioactive and functional materials that could be important in industrial applications in the future.
Recently, consumers’ awareness of the importance of the intestinal action of lactic acid bacteria and intestinal microbes is increasing, as well as interest in yogurt. In this study, yogurt was prepared with three mixed strains (lactic acid bacteria combination, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp., and Bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilussei, 1:1:1) by adding oats flour, and the quality characteristics of yogurt were investigated, while stored at a storage temperature of 4℃ for 12 days. According to the storage period, the control as wel as the oat yogurt showed slight decrease in pH, and no significant change in acidity. Sugar content slightly increased. and brightness decreased, in the control and the oat yogurt. Visible cell numbers increased during storage, and decreased on the 12th day. Viscosity in the oat yogurt was 7,580 cP, which was approximately eight times higher than that of the control group, and decreased gradually according to the storage period. Antioxidant activity (DPPH) was approximately two times higher in the oat-added yogurt, and slightly increased with the storage period, decreased on the 12th day of storage, and β-glucan was detected only in oat-added yogurt.
Sprouts have various health benefits. Specifically, wheat sprouts are rich in bioactive compounds, such as vitamins and polyphenols. Elicitation induces and enhances secondary metabolite biosynthesis in plants. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) treatments on the growth profile, free amino acid content, and antioxidant activity of germinated wheat (Triticum aestivum). Wheat seeds were germinated at 20℃ for 10 days and treated with 0, 2, 4, 7.5, and 10 mM of NaCl 10 days before harvesting. Treating the soil bed with NaCl increased the nutritional component amounts, such as free amino acids and γ- aminobutyric acid. The chlorophyll a and b concentrations were the highest in the hydroponic system treated with 7.5 mM NaCl. In addition, the polyphenol and flavonoid contents of sprouts treated with 2 and 7.5 mM NaCl were 1.94 and 1.34 times higher than that of the control sprouts (0 mM NaCl, water only), respectively. These results suggest that 2 to 4 mM NaCl treatments improve the nutritional and food quality of wheat sprouts more than water only.
In this study, we investigated the effects of adding oat and lactic acid bacteria on the quality and functionality of yogurt. Yogurt was fermented with various lactic acid bacteria,; Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Lactobacillus delbrueckii sub. bulgaricus (LB), and Streptococcus thermophilussei (ST) and quality properties, β-glucan content, antioxidant activity were estimated. The quality of control and oat added yogurt (OY) showed significant differences depending on the type of strain and combination. The addition of oats significantly accelerated the lactic acid bacteria production, decreased the pH, and increased the titratable acidity and count of the viable cells compared to the control. Acid production was highest in ST, with the complex strains containing ST and LALBST showing high quality characteristics. The viscosity of oat yogurt was higher than that of the control group, and LALBST was also significantly higher than that of the control group. The β-glucan content of OY was 0.14-0.2%, and the organic acid content and antioxidant activity were also significantly increased by the addition of oats. As a result, it is thought that the addition of oats and a combination of lactic acid bacteria can be used for improving the quality and functionality of yogurt.
In this study, the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of wheat sprouts grown in wild fields and cultivated fields and harvested at various times were analyzed to compare the quality characteristics of the wheat sprouts as a function of their cultivation and harvest time, as well as for the development of functional materials. The total polyphenolic and flavonoid content, as well as antioxidant activity of the wheat extracts, were subsequently analyzed. The ABTS radical scavenging activity of the wheat extract increased from 16.97 mg TEAC/g sample on cultivation day three in cultivated field wheat sprouts to 25.99 mg TEAC/g sample after seven days of wild field cultivation. The total polyphenol content increased from 17.08 mg GA eq/100 g in cultivated field wheat sprouts grown for three days to 28.70 mg GA eq/100 g after seven days of wild field cultivation. In addition, the flavonoid content increased from 7.02 mg catechin eq/100 g (7 days) to 8.47 mg/g after 12 days of wild field cultivation. Notably, the activity subsequently decreased. These results suggest that the wheat sprouts with higher biological activity were those produced from the wild field after 20 days.
Barley’s nutritional value as a health food is increasing due to its excellent nutritional functionality. In this study, the levels of β-glucan, total polyphenols, and total flavonoids were analyzed in the ethanol extracts of different barley cultivars (Hinchalssal, Heuksoojeongchal, Betaone, Ganghochung, and Saechalssal). Also, the free radical scavenging abilities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiaxoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) were measured to determine their antioxidant activity. The results confirmed that Betaone extract contained highly activefunctional components and exhibitedantioxidant activity. Next, we evaluated the hepatoprotective and inhibitory effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by barley ethanol extracts after inducing oxidative stress with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) in HepG2 cells. Hinchalssal and Saechalssal extracts showed the most significant cytoprotective effect and also reduced ROS production significantly. These results suggest that Hinchalssal, Saechalssal, and Betaone represent potential natural antioxidant and hepatoprotective agents.
With the aim of developing region specialized crops, this study was conducted to clarify effects of variant and cultivation region on antioxidative activities in various black soybean (Glycine max L.) seed tissues. Three black soybean varieties (SCEL-1, Wonheug, and Cheongja 3) were each cultivated in 4 different regions (Jeonju, Pyeongchang, Paju, and Cheonan). Harvested seeds were used to assess DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and total polyphenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin content. SCEL-1 soybean hull contained higher DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity (61% and 85% respectively) compared to Wonheug (40% and 50% respectively). SCEL-1 cultivated in Pyeongchang displayed the highest total polyphenol and flavonoid content (1,189 mg GAE/ 100g sample and 951 mg CTE/ 100g sample, respectively). Total anthocyanin content was ranked in the following order: SCEL-1>Wonheug>Cheongja 3. All black soybeans showed much higher antioxidant activity in the soybean hull than in the dehulled soybean. The antioxidant activity of black soybeans cultivated at high latitudes was high. These results suggest that the best black soybean variant for high beneficial biological activities is the SCEL-1 variant. For a complete understanding of the potential of black soybean as functional foods, we plan to further analyze their antioxidant activities in future studies.
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum species) has long been an excellent functional food. Besides, buckwheat sprouts contain various functional substances. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant activity of buckwheat sprouts in the context of cultivars harvested after different cultivation periods (0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, and 15 days after planting). Buckwheat sprouts were cultivated at 25oC for up to 15 days and then extracted with ethanol. Antioxidant components were then extracted from sprouts and leaves using a freeze dryer. The total polyphenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity were then analyzed. The total polyphenol content increased from 32.26 mg GA eq/100 g for raw buckwheat to 114.75 mg GA eq/100 g after 7 days of cultivation. Also, the flavonoid content increased from 20.61 mg catechin eq/100 g (0 days) to 56.54 mg/g after 9 days of cultivation. The DPPH radical scavenging activity (concentration of extract at 0.25 mg/mL) increased from 7.89% at day 0 to 53.48% after 9 days of cultivation. Additionally, the ABTS radical scavenging activity increased from 10.26% at day 0 to 32.89% after 7 days of cultivation; of note, the activity decreased afterward. These results suggest that the best buckwheat sprouts with higher biological activities are those cultivated for 7-9 days. For a complete understanding of the potential of buckwheat sprouts as functional foods, we plan to further analyze their antioxidant activity in the future.
To increase the functional material content of soybean, a repetitive steaming and drying process was used. We investigated the changes in the total polyphenol content, the antioxidant activity, and the angiotensin-Ⅰ converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition in soybean following nine rounds of steaming and drying. Soybean was steamed 9 times for 2 h and then dried 9 times from 55℃ to 73℃ for 3 h. The total polyphenol content in the soybean reached a maximum value of 60.47 mg GAE eq./100 g at 73℃ while the total polyphenol content in the raw soybean reached 25.17 mg GAE eq./100 g. In the raw soybean samples, the DPPH radical scavenging activity (5 mg/mL) was 8.04% but it increased by 43.29% after drying 9 times to 73℃. ABTS radical scavenging activity also improved following 9 rounds of steaming and drying. ACE inhibitory activity of the soybean dried 9 times at 73℃ was 58.94% at 10 mg/mL. These results showed that steaming and drying soybean 9 times enhanced the antioxidant activity and the ACE inhibitory activity of soybean. Therefore, more research on the biological and anti-hypertensive activity of soybean using this steaming and drying method is necessary.
The purpose of this study was to examine biological activities, including total contents of polyphenol, antioxidant activities, inhibitory activities of tyrosinase, and protective effect against oxidative stress in the HepG2 cells of ethanol extracts from wheat sprout. The antioxidant activity of extracts was determined by ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activities. Ethanol extracts were tested using different ethanol concentrations (0%, 30%, 50%, 80% and 95%, respectively). The highest amount of total polyphenol was extracted by 50% and 80% ethanol which was 26.3 and 26.8 mg gallic acid equivalents/g sample, respectively. High levels of ABTS and DPPH radical scavenging activity were found in 50% ethanol (26.7 and 15.0 mg TEAC/g sample, respectively) and 80% (24.3 and 16.1 mg TEAC/g sample, respectively) ethanol extracts. Also, 50% and 80% ethanol extracts indicated higher inhibitory activities of tyrosinase compared with other extracts. In the cell-based assay, pre-treatment of the HepG2 cells with wheat sprout extracts prevented the cell damage induced by TBHP (tert-butyl hydroperoxide). The results of this study indicate that wheat sprout has significantly higher diverse biological activities and apparently has significant health benefits.
콩 가공 부산물인 콩 배아 이소플라본의 생체내 활성을 증가시키기 위하여 LA, LB, LP 등 3가지 유산균을 단독 또는 혼합하여 비배당체화 전환 효율을 증가시키고자 균주의 종류와 접종량, 발효시간에 따른 이소플라본 함량을 분석하였다. 그 결과 균주를 이용한 모든 발효에서 균주를 사용하지 않은 대조군에 비하여 높은 이소플라본 비배당체 전환을 보였고, 발효시간에 따른 비배당체 전환율은 24시간에서 급격히 증가하였고 이후에는 큰 변화는 보이지 않았다. 비배당체화 발효의 최적 균주는 LP균, 접종량은 5%, 발효시간은 24시간 이었다. 대조군의 이소플라본 배당체의 구성은 글리시틴>다이드진>제니스틴 순으로 가장 높은 함량을 나타내었고, 유산균을 접종하여 발효시켰을 때 배당체들은 감소하였고, 비배당체 함량이 증가하였으며, 다이드제인>글리시테인>제니스테인 순으로 45% 이상의 비배당체 전환율을 나타내었다. 특히, 대조군과 비교하여 유산균으로 발효시켰을 때 다이드진의 함량이 가장 크게 감소하였고, 다이드제인 함량이 가장 크게 증가하였다. 소야사포닌의 경우 발효에 의하여 Ab가 급격하게 감소하였고 Ba와 Bb가 증가하였다. 발효액은 pH 3에서 pH 6으로 증가함에 따라 이소플라본 비배당체 함량이 증가하였으며 특히, 다이드제인 함량이 많이 증가하였고, 소야사포닌 함량은 Ab 함량이 급격하게 감소하였고, Ba와 Bb 함량도 소량감소하는 등 발효액의 pH가 발효에 의한 이소플라본과 소야사포닌 함량 변화에 많은 영향을 미치는 중요한 요인중의 하나임을 알 수 있었고, LP균을 이용한 발효로 가공부산물인 콩 배아의 생리활성 증가 및 기능성소재화를 꾀할 수 있을 것 으로 생각된다.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the appropriate amount of oats to add to rice and the merits of oat meal. We analyzed the physicochemical characteristics, cooking properties, functional components, and sensory evaluation according to the amount of oats added in the cooked rice. Compared with rice, the oat showed higher level in protein, fat, total β-glucan and total polyphenol, but not for starch. Therefore, the amount of chemical and functional components was increased significantly with the increase in the amount of oats added. Water absorption and expansion were decreased with the increase in the amount of oat added. Oleic acid content was increased and linoleic acid content was decreased slightly. Unsaturated fatty acid content was greatly increased. The DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity were increased significantly according to the amount of oats added. As a result of sensory evaluation, the most appropriate amount of oat added was 20% and 30%. By the addition of oat, the β- glucan content of the cooked rice and the antioxidant activity could increase.
Twenty four covered barley cultivars of Korea and subsequently produced malts were evaluated for quality characteristics, diastatic power (DP), and enzymatic actvity. Protein, amylase, starch and β-glucan content of covered barley cultivars were 8.2-12.8%, 4.2-19.1%, 47.9-59.7%, and 4.1-7.4%, respectively. The DP of malt during malting showed a maximum value in Day 4, when the bud length was 2.0-2.5 times longer than the length of the grain itself. α-Amylase activity was very low but increased significantly after Day 4, showing greatest activity on Day 6 (185.5-206.1 unit/g). β-Amylase activity increased as the malting progressed and a considerable amount was detected in barley grain on Day 6 (898.6-1591.6 unit/g). The potential diastatic power (PDP) of various cultivar grains ranged from 89.7 °L to 169.3 °L. The PDP of raw barley had strong correlation with β-amylase of raw barley (r=0.977, p<0.001) while the DP of malted barley was also correlated with the β-amylase activity of raw barley (r=0.654, p<0.001). Since the PDP of raw barley and the DP of malted barley are correlated (r=0.644, p<0.001), the PDP and β-amylase activity of raw barley are useful factors in predicting the DP of malted barley.
Quality characteristics were evaluated for whole barley yogurt prepared with lactic acid bacteria combination such as Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus, and Streptococcus thermophilussei (1:1:1) with the addition of whole barley flour at 3%. The barley yogurt had lower pH, higher titratable acidity, and higher sugar content than control yogurt. The viable cell number of the barley yogurt was lower than the control yogurt. However, the viscosity and antioxidant activity of the barley yogurt were higher than those of the control yogurt. In up to 12 d of storage at 4oC, pH decreased while titratable acidity increased in both control yogurt and barley yogurt. The sugar content and brightness increased slightly. The viable cell number of the barley yogurt decreased during storage. However, the viable cell number of the barley yogurt met the standard suggested by the KFDA. Although the viscosity of the barley yogurt decreased, it corresponded to the required viscosity of a curd yogurt. Antioxidant activity slightly increased up to 9 d and then decreased, but the decrease of antioxidant activity was smaller in barley yogurt than in the control yogurt. During storage, there was no curd separation, change in scent, etc. Thus the storage quality of barley yogurt was relatively good.
다수성 통일형 및 자포니카형 벼 품종을 이용하여 파보일드미 제조 후 이화학적 특성을 비교 연구함으로써 파보일드미 이용 확대를 위한 기초자료로 활용하고자 실험을수행하였다. 모든 품종들의 쌀알의 길이와 폭은 원료미보다 파보일드미에서 짧아지는 경향을 나타냈고, 도정수율은원료미의 경우 보람찬벼가 95.8%로 가장 높고 파보일링후 모든 품종에서 2.9~4.6% 범위로 증가되었다. 경도는 원료미의 경우 통일형이 223~245N 범위로 자포니카인 보람찬 보다 높았고, 파보일링 후 모든 품종에서 1.7~1.9배 증가되어 저장성 향상이 기대된다. 고형분 함량은 자포니카형 보다 통일형 품종에서 낮았고, 파보일링 후 33~37% 감소되었으며, 환원당 함량은 파보일링 후 모든 품종에서 증가되었고 색도와 부의 상관을 나타냈다. 용해도와 팽윤력은 원료미의 경우 상온(25oC)보다 75oC에서 모두 높았고,파보일드미의 경우 높은 온도(75oC)에서 각각 감소 및 증가되어 가열을 이용한 가공제품 제조 시 영양분 손실이 적고, 형태유지가 지속되어 상품가치를 높일 수 있다고 판단되었다.
찰벼 품종 별 파보일드미 제조 후 물리적 특성 및 호화특성을 조사하였다. 경도는 품종 중 신선찰이 가장 높고한강찰이 낮았으며 원료미보다 파보일링 후 약 1.6-3.8배증가되었다. 고형분 함량은 파보일링 후 약 1.1-1.4배 감소되었고, 물결합력은 품종 중 화선찰벼가 가장 높고 파보일링 후 1.9-5.3배 향상되었다. 색도는 L값이 원료미보다감소되어 어두워지는 경향을 나타냈고, 용해도와 팽윤력은원료미의 경우 상온(25oC)보다 75oC에서 높았고, 파보일드미의 경우 팽윤력은 증가되었으나 용해도는 감소되었다.호화 특성 중 호화개시온도는 62.1-69.4oC 범위로 한강찰을 제외한 품종 간 유의적인 차이는 없었으며 파보일링 후낮아졌다. 최고점도는 172.0-234.6RVU로 원료미보다 1.2-3.6배 높아졌으며, 치반 점도는 한강찰을 제외한 모든 품종에서 원료미보다 값이 낮아졌고 −값을 나타내 노화가 느리게 진행됨을 알 수 있었다. X-선 회절 각도는 원료미와파보일드미 모두 A형 pattern을 나타냈고, 전분입자의 상대적인 결정화도 값은 파보일링 후 9-30% 감소되어 결정구조가 파괴되었다는 것을 확인 할 수 있었다.
본 연구에서는 3%의 통보릿가루를 첨가하여 Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. Bulgaricus와 treptococcus thermophilussei 등 3종의 균주를 단일균 또는 혼합균 조합별로 이용하여 요구르트를 제조하고 젖산균주에 따른 요구르트 품질 특성을 알아보았다. 대조군과 보릿가루 첨가군의 요구르트 품질특성은 균주 종류 및 조합에 따라 유의적인 차이를 나타내었다. 보릿가루 무첨가군인 대조군에서는 LBST 복합균으로 제조한 요구르트가 적정pH, 산도, 점도, 항산화활성 등에서 좋은 특성을 나타내었으며, 다음으로 LALBST 복합균이 좋았다. 보릿가루 첨가군에서는 LALBST가 다른 균주조합에 비하여 낮은 pH, 적합 범위의 적정산도, 높은 항산화활성 등 좋은 요구르트 품질특성을 나타내었으며 β-glucan 함량은 약 0.15%이었다. 대조군과 보릿가루첨가군에서 단독균보다는 복합균이 좋은요구르트 품질특성을 보였고, 보릿가루를 첨가함에 따라 대조군에 비하여 pH는 감소하였고, 적정산도와 당도는 증가하였으며 젖산균수는 감소하였고 점도는 상당한 증가를 보였다. 색도의 경우 L값은 낮았고, a값과 b값은 높았으며 연구결과 LALBST 혼합균주가 보릿가루 첨가 요구르트 제조시 가장 적합한 것으로 판단되었다.
알칼리 가수분해에 따른 보리 β-glucan의 이화학적 특성변화를 살펴보기 위하여 새쌀보리, 새찰쌀보리 및 흰찰쌀보리에 0.2~1.0 N NaOH를 처리하였으며, 총 및 수용성 β-glucan의 함량 및 순도, 수용성 β-glcuan의 분자량, 점도 및 재용해율을 살펴보았다. 3품종 보리의 총 β-glucan 함량은 7.77~8.40% 범위이었으며, 알칼리 가수분해 농도가 증가함에따라 6.89~7.54% 범위로 감소하였다. 수용성 β-glucan의 함량은 무처리의 4.16~4.80% 범위에서 알칼리 가수분해 농도가 증가함에 따라 4.30~4.82% 범위로 유의적인 차이가 없었다. 수용성 β-glucan의 순도는 3품종 모두 30.91~35.79% 범위이었으나, 알칼리 가수분해에 의해 74.02~81.41%까지 증가하였다. 분자량은 메성보리보다 찰성보리가 더 컸으며, 알칼리 가수분해 농도가 증가함에 따라서 크게 감소하였다. β-Glucan 수용액의 점도는 알칼리 가수분해 농도가 증가함에 따라 감소하였으며, 메성보리보다 찰성보리가 높았고, 흰찰쌀보리보다 새찰쌀보리가 높았다. 재용해율은 무처리의 50~55% 범위에서 알칼리 가수분해 농도가 증가함에 따라 증가하여 1.0 N NaOH 처리구에서 80.00~87.66% 범위로 증가하였다.
본 연구는 국내산 쌀보리(새쌀, 새찰, 흰찰보리) 전분의 이화학적 특성 및 이들 전분 현탁액의 가열에 따른 호화양상 및 레올로지 특성에 대해 연구하였다. 새쌀보리 전분은 아밀로스 함량이 새찰 및 흰찰보리 전분에 비해 높았으며, 물결합력은 낮았다. 팽윤력은 전반적으로 새쌀보리 전분이 새찰 및 흰찰보리 전분에 비해 낮았고 80oC 이상의 고온에서 급격히 증가하는 특성을 보인 반면, 새찰 및 흰찰보리 전분은 온도의 증가와 더불어 일정하게 증가하였다. 용해도는 새쌀보리 전분이 새찰 및 흰찰보리 전분에 비해 낮았으며, 세 전분 모두 80oC 이상의 고온에서 급격히 증가하였다. 전분 입자의 표면형태는 품종에 관계없이 모두 납작한 원형의 큰 입자와 불규칙적인 구의 형태인 작은 입자로 이루어져 있었다. 전분의 입도분포는 세 품종 모두 큰 입자 및 작은 입자로 구성되어 나타나는 bimodal 분포를 나타냈다. DSC 분석을 통한 전분의 열적특성에 있어서 새쌀보리 전분의 To가 62.25oC로 새찰(63.75oC) 및 흰찰보리 전분(62.53oC)에 비해 낮았으며, 호화온도 범위(To-TC)는 새찰, 흰찰, 새쌀보리 전분 순으로 높게 나타났다. RVA 및 small-deformation measurement로 부터 새쌀보리 전분은 높은 강도의 겔을 형성하는 반면에 노화되기 쉬우며, 찰보리 전분(새찰 및 흰찰보리 전분)은 겔 강도는 낮으나 쌀보리 전분에 비해 현저히 낮은 노화특성을 나타낼 것으로 사료되었다.