The objective of this study is to evaluate the antioxidant components, elastase inhibition activities, and melanin synthesis rates of Korean traditional Actinidia (Actinidia arguta) fruits and leaves depending on the ethanol extraction concentrations. The total polyphenol content was the highest in the 50% ethanol extract of both fruits and leaves, with values of 634.1 mg GAE/100 g and 3,985.2 mg GAE/100 g, respectively. The total flavonoid content was the highest in the fruit 90% extract and leaf 50% extract at 191.9 mg/100 g and 2655.6 mg/100 g, respectively. The vitamin C content was the highest in the 50% extract of leaves at 2990.3 mg/100 g. Elastase inhibition was the highest at 56.9% in the leaf 50% extract at a concentration of 1,000 μg/mL. Melanin synthesis inhibition showed the highest melanin synthesis inhibitory effect among the extracts, as the leaf 50% extract showed an inhibitory rate of 65% or more. Therefore, the antioxidant components, elastase inhibition activities, and melanin synthesis inhibitory rate were better in leaves than in fruits. The leaf 50% extract was particularly the best among the extracts. Korean traditional Actinidia leaves can be considered as potential sources for new functional materials.
This study aimed to investigate the biological activities, including polyphenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activities, of various cultivars of Korean perilla leaves. The results indicated that among nine cultivars (Namcheon dlggae, Saedora, Nulbora, Donggel 1, Donggell 2, Soim, Sangyeop, Somirang, and Saebom) of perilla leaves, the total polyphenolic content (gallic acid equivalent mg/g, GAE) was the highest in “Nulbora,” while it was lowest in Namcheon dlggae. Moreover, flavonoid content in the extracts of nine cultivars leaves was in the range of 132.93~268.50 mg catechin equivalent/g sample. The antioxidant effects of the perilla leaves were determined using two different in vitro bioassays measuring DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities. The results revealed that antioxidant activity was also higher in “Nulbora” compared with other cultivars. Xanthin-oxidase-inhibition activity ranged from 65.65% to 80.58%, with “Nulbora” exhibiting the highest activity, although the difference with other cultivars was not significant. “Nulbora” extracts reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes and several cytokines, including IL-6 activation induced by LPS in macrophages in the range of 100–50 μg/mL. These results suggest that extracts from perilla leaves can be used as bioactive and functional materials that could be important in industrial applications in the future.
Recently, consumers’ awareness of the importance of the intestinal action of lactic acid bacteria and intestinal microbes is increasing, as well as interest in yogurt. In this study, yogurt was prepared with three mixed strains (lactic acid bacteria combination, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp., and Bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilussei, 1:1:1) by adding oats flour, and the quality characteristics of yogurt were investigated, while stored at a storage temperature of 4℃ for 12 days. According to the storage period, the control as wel as the oat yogurt showed slight decrease in pH, and no significant change in acidity. Sugar content slightly increased. and brightness decreased, in the control and the oat yogurt. Visible cell numbers increased during storage, and decreased on the 12th day. Viscosity in the oat yogurt was 7,580 cP, which was approximately eight times higher than that of the control group, and decreased gradually according to the storage period. Antioxidant activity (DPPH) was approximately two times higher in the oat-added yogurt, and slightly increased with the storage period, decreased on the 12th day of storage, and β-glucan was detected only in oat-added yogurt.
In this study, the dietary fiber content of 33 kinds of agricultural products and seaweeds was compared with that of raw products after heat treatment. To verify the total dietary fiber analysis method, the recovery rate was reviewed by measuring the total dietary fiber content for 4 standard certified substances. As a result, the recovery rate of the analysis value for the true value was 98.8%~103.1%, which was judged to be reliable. The total dietary fiber of vegetables ranged between 0.61~5.36 g/100 g for raw vegetables and 0.55~4.84 g/100 g for heat-treated vegetables. Among the 24 kinds of vegetables used in the analanalysis, the total dietary fiber content of heat-treated Korean radish (3.13 g/100 g) was the highest compared to that of raw radish (0.61 g/100 g). The total dietary fiber of beans was between 13.86~29.69 g/100 g for raw beans and 6.72~18.40 g/100 g for heat-treated beans. In particular, the total dietary fiber content of sword beans was the highest in both raw (29.69 g/100 g) and boiled (18.40 g/100 g) beans. The total dietary fiber content of the three types of seaweed was 1.93~4.85 g/100 g in raw seaweed and 0.99~5.72 g/100 g in heat-treated seaweed.
Sprouts have various health benefits. Specifically, wheat sprouts are rich in bioactive compounds, such as vitamins and polyphenols. Elicitation induces and enhances secondary metabolite biosynthesis in plants. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effects of sodium chloride (NaCl) treatments on the growth profile, free amino acid content, and antioxidant activity of germinated wheat (Triticum aestivum). Wheat seeds were germinated at 20℃ for 10 days and treated with 0, 2, 4, 7.5, and 10 mM of NaCl 10 days before harvesting. Treating the soil bed with NaCl increased the nutritional component amounts, such as free amino acids and γ- aminobutyric acid. The chlorophyll a and b concentrations were the highest in the hydroponic system treated with 7.5 mM NaCl. In addition, the polyphenol and flavonoid contents of sprouts treated with 2 and 7.5 mM NaCl were 1.94 and 1.34 times higher than that of the control sprouts (0 mM NaCl, water only), respectively. These results suggest that 2 to 4 mM NaCl treatments improve the nutritional and food quality of wheat sprouts more than water only.
본 연구는 hesperidin과 hesperidin의 aglycone 형태인 hesperetin의 2,2'-azobis (2-aminopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH)에 의해 신장 독성이 유도된 쥐에서 신장 보호 효과에 대해 연구하였다. Hesperidin과 hesperetin은 200 mg/kg/day의 농도로 7일간 위내투여하였으며, AAPH를 복강주사하여 급성 신장 손상을 유도하였다. 이 후 쥐의 신장 조직에서 지질과산화 함량, nitric oxide (NO) 생성량, catalase 효소 활성을 측정하였으 며, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) 및 inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) 단백질 발현량을 측정하였다. AAPH로 신장 독성을 유도한 control군의 신장 내 지질과산화 및 NO 생성량은 신장 독성을 유도하지 않은 normal군에 비해 유의적으로 증가하여 산화적 손상이 유도됨을 확인하였다. 반면 hesperidin과 hesperetin를 투여했을 때 신장 내 지질과산화 및 NO 생성량이 control군에 비해 유의적으로 감소하여 산화적 스트레스 개선 효과를 확인하였다. Hesperidin과 hesperetin을 투여한 군의 경우 신장 내 항산화 효소인 catalase 활성을 유의적으로 증가시켰다. 뿐만 아니라, hesperidin과 hesperetin의 투여는 AAPH로 신장독성을 유도한 control군 100% 대비 NF-κB 단백질을 각각 66% 및 71%로, iNOS 단백질 발현을 각각 46% 및 33%로 억제시켰다. 따라서 본 연구를 통해 hesperidin과 hesperetin의 투여가 항산화 활성 조절을 통해 AAPH로 유도된 신장 독성을 억제하는 것을 알 수 있었다.
In this study, we investigated the effects of adding oat and lactic acid bacteria on the quality and functionality of yogurt. Yogurt was fermented with various lactic acid bacteria,; Lactobacillus acidophilus (LA), Lactobacillus delbrueckii sub. bulgaricus (LB), and Streptococcus thermophilussei (ST) and quality properties, β-glucan content, antioxidant activity were estimated. The quality of control and oat added yogurt (OY) showed significant differences depending on the type of strain and combination. The addition of oats significantly accelerated the lactic acid bacteria production, decreased the pH, and increased the titratable acidity and count of the viable cells compared to the control. Acid production was highest in ST, with the complex strains containing ST and LALBST showing high quality characteristics. The viscosity of oat yogurt was higher than that of the control group, and LALBST was also significantly higher than that of the control group. The β-glucan content of OY was 0.14-0.2%, and the organic acid content and antioxidant activity were also significantly increased by the addition of oats. As a result, it is thought that the addition of oats and a combination of lactic acid bacteria can be used for improving the quality and functionality of yogurt.
In this study, the antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of wheat sprouts grown in wild fields and cultivated fields and harvested at various times were analyzed to compare the quality characteristics of the wheat sprouts as a function of their cultivation and harvest time, as well as for the development of functional materials. The total polyphenolic and flavonoid content, as well as antioxidant activity of the wheat extracts, were subsequently analyzed. The ABTS radical scavenging activity of the wheat extract increased from 16.97 mg TEAC/g sample on cultivation day three in cultivated field wheat sprouts to 25.99 mg TEAC/g sample after seven days of wild field cultivation. The total polyphenol content increased from 17.08 mg GA eq/100 g in cultivated field wheat sprouts grown for three days to 28.70 mg GA eq/100 g after seven days of wild field cultivation. In addition, the flavonoid content increased from 7.02 mg catechin eq/100 g (7 days) to 8.47 mg/g after 12 days of wild field cultivation. Notably, the activity subsequently decreased. These results suggest that the wheat sprouts with higher biological activity were those produced from the wild field after 20 days.
This study aims to understand the opening efficiency of the finless porpoise escape guide net by the type of extension net that is the part to which the escape guide net is attached in stow net. To this end, extension nets were manufactured in full size and the net mouth area and towing tension were investigated according to the towing speed (0.2, 0.4, 0.6 and 0.8 m/s) and the type of extension net (25 mm net and raschel net) in the water tank. As a result, the net mouth area of the guide net was larger when the raschel net was used for the extension net than when the 25 mm net was used under all towing speeds. In addition, regardless of the type of extension net, the net mouth area reached about 80% of the maximum value at a towing speed of 0.4 m/s. In the field, fishing operation of stow net is performed only when the current speed is above 0.4 m/s. Therefore, the speed of 0.4 m/s was confirmed as a meaningful value to determine whether it is possible to operate. As a result of analyzing the relationship between the net mouth area of the guide net and the towing tension, it was confirmed that the difference in the net mouth area of the guide net according to the type of the extension net was due to the difference in the solidity ratio.
Barley’s nutritional value as a health food is increasing due to its excellent nutritional functionality. In this study, the levels of β-glucan, total polyphenols, and total flavonoids were analyzed in the ethanol extracts of different barley cultivars (Hinchalssal, Heuksoojeongchal, Betaone, Ganghochung, and Saechalssal). Also, the free radical scavenging abilities of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) and 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzo-thiaxoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) were measured to determine their antioxidant activity. The results confirmed that Betaone extract contained highly activefunctional components and exhibitedantioxidant activity. Next, we evaluated the hepatoprotective and inhibitory effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by barley ethanol extracts after inducing oxidative stress with tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBHP) in HepG2 cells. Hinchalssal and Saechalssal extracts showed the most significant cytoprotective effect and also reduced ROS production significantly. These results suggest that Hinchalssal, Saechalssal, and Betaone represent potential natural antioxidant and hepatoprotective agents.
With the aim of developing region specialized crops, this study was conducted to clarify effects of variant and cultivation region on antioxidative activities in various black soybean (Glycine max L.) seed tissues. Three black soybean varieties (SCEL-1, Wonheug, and Cheongja 3) were each cultivated in 4 different regions (Jeonju, Pyeongchang, Paju, and Cheonan). Harvested seeds were used to assess DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and total polyphenol, flavonoid and anthocyanin content. SCEL-1 soybean hull contained higher DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity (61% and 85% respectively) compared to Wonheug (40% and 50% respectively). SCEL-1 cultivated in Pyeongchang displayed the highest total polyphenol and flavonoid content (1,189 mg GAE/ 100g sample and 951 mg CTE/ 100g sample, respectively). Total anthocyanin content was ranked in the following order: SCEL-1>Wonheug>Cheongja 3. All black soybeans showed much higher antioxidant activity in the soybean hull than in the dehulled soybean. The antioxidant activity of black soybeans cultivated at high latitudes was high. These results suggest that the best black soybean variant for high beneficial biological activities is the SCEL-1 variant. For a complete understanding of the potential of black soybean as functional foods, we plan to further analyze their antioxidant activities in future studies.
Purpose: This study aims to develop a simulation module equipped with scenario-based core nursing skills and test the effects after applying the simulation education based on a developed scenario. Method: This was a nonequivalent control group pre-/posttest design study, and 114 nursing students participated from April 1 to August 30, 2018. The applied scenario-based core nursing skills simulation module was developed in the order of planning, development, application, and evaluation according to the Dick and Carye Model’s program development process. Knowledge, self-efficacy, stress, and nursing practice were measured before and after intervention in two groups: an experimental group that performed a simulation after applying the scenario-based core nursing skills, and a control group that performed a simulation after applying core nursing skills. Results: Knowledge (F=23.19, p<.001), self-efficacy (F=25.83, p<.001), and nursing practice (t=9.51 p<.001) increased in the group that performed a simulation after applying the scenario-based core nursing skills, whereas stress (F=40.41, p<.001) decreased. Conclusion: Various education methods should be applied to increase the education effect of the simulation, Simulation performance can be used as an alternative to improve nursing practice during simulation education.
This study investigated the microbial community and quality characteristics of traditional soybean pastes (doenjang) based on the aging period in Gyeongnam province. The samples were collected from seven regions in Gyeongnam Province (Goseong, Hadong, Haman, Hamyang, Sacheon, Sancheong and Uiryeong). Contents of moisture, salinity, pH, and acidity of doenjang after 210 days aging were 56.40~65.21%, 9.05~16.08%, 4.88~6.86 and 0.64~2.14%, respectively. Lightness significantly decreased over the aging period, while the redness tended to increase over the aging period. Yellowness was from 21.39~26.81 to 21.10~28.36. Reducing sugar content was from 0.31~1.45% to 0.11~3.13%. The amino-type content increased from 141.87~495.13 mg/100 g to 328.53~823.67 mg/100 g. In contrast, the ammonia-type content declined from 136.74~364.70 mg/ 100 g to 128.62~331.00 mg/100 g. The overall total microbial count did not significantly differ, but it tended to decrease in sample GD4. Fungus declined overall or was not detected. Coliform groups were not detected in all samples. Lactobacillus and Bacillus cereus tended to decrease over the aging period. The common fungus and bacterium were Aspergillus oryzae and Tetragenococcus halophilus, respectively. After the aging period, the predominant fungi were Candida versatilis, Candida apicola, and Debaryomyces hansenii. The predominant bacteria were Tetragenococcus halophilus and Cronobacter sakazakii.
Buckwheat (Fagopyrum species) has long been an excellent functional food. Besides, buckwheat sprouts contain various functional substances. In this study, we investigated the antioxidant activity of buckwheat sprouts in the context of cultivars harvested after different cultivation periods (0, 3, 5, 7, 9, 13, and 15 days after planting). Buckwheat sprouts were cultivated at 25oC for up to 15 days and then extracted with ethanol. Antioxidant components were then extracted from sprouts and leaves using a freeze dryer. The total polyphenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activity were then analyzed. The total polyphenol content increased from 32.26 mg GA eq/100 g for raw buckwheat to 114.75 mg GA eq/100 g after 7 days of cultivation. Also, the flavonoid content increased from 20.61 mg catechin eq/100 g (0 days) to 56.54 mg/g after 9 days of cultivation. The DPPH radical scavenging activity (concentration of extract at 0.25 mg/mL) increased from 7.89% at day 0 to 53.48% after 9 days of cultivation. Additionally, the ABTS radical scavenging activity increased from 10.26% at day 0 to 32.89% after 7 days of cultivation; of note, the activity decreased afterward. These results suggest that the best buckwheat sprouts with higher biological activities are those cultivated for 7-9 days. For a complete understanding of the potential of buckwheat sprouts as functional foods, we plan to further analyze their antioxidant activity in the future.
본 연구에서는 점근해석 및 논로컬 이론에서 요구하는 4차 이상의 고차 미분근사를 수행하기 위하여 계방정식에 혼합변분이론을 적용하여 MLS 차분법으로부터 구해지는 고차 미분근사의 정확도를 큰 폭으로 향상시킨다. 또한, MLS 차분법에 존재하는 세 가지 조건변수에 따른 고차미분근사의 정확도를 비교·분석한다. 혼합변분이론의 합응력을 후처리하여 변위의 미분을 근사할 경우 기존의 변위장 기반 계방정식의 차분 결과에 비해 미분 차수가 2차 낮아진다. 해석 범위내 절점 수가 과도하게 많거나 기저 차수가 클 경우 MLS 차분법의 영향영역 내에서 과적합(overfitting)이 발생한다. 또한 영향영역이 최적 범위 이상으로 넓어질 경우 근사의 정확도가 떨어진다. 위 내용을 사인 하중을 받는 단순지지보 수치예제로부터 확인하였다.