To enhance the bioavailability and bioactivities of mixed herbal medicines (RW), they were fermented with lactic-acid bacteria isolated from kimchi into postbiotics (FRW). Then, from the results of the 16s rRNA sequencing analysis, lactic acid bacteria isolated from kimchi were identified to be of two species, namely Lactobacillus sakei and Leuconostoc mesenteroides. The FRW prepared from the RW were extracted using hot water (HW) and 70% EtOH (EtOH) for comparison of their macrophage-stimulating activities. Based on a comparison of the activities of the FRW extracts, nitric oxide (NO) production of HW was significantly higher than that in EtOH. An analysis of the chemical properties of the extracts showed that HW had higher contents of neutral sugar and uronic acid than EtOH as well as contained a large amount of glucose. In addition, crude polysaccharide (CP) was prepared to enhance the macrophage-stimulating activity. The FRW-CP not only secreted immunostimulatory mediators but also increased the expression of immunostimulatory genes (iNOS, TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-6). The fractionated FRW-CP contained about 90% neutral sugars, and these sugars were mainly composed of glucose, galacturonic acid, and arabinose. Thus, FRW prepared by fermentation of RW with kimchi lactic acid bacteria were found to be immunostimulatory modulators.
Looking at the dietary patterns of women in their 20s and 30s as well as postmenopausal women, the intake of most nutrients was lower than the recommended levels. Shrimp is a low-calorie, high-protein food, and contains abundant minerals, and it is expected to help prevent osteoporosis. In this study, jinmal dasik was prepared by varying the shrimp content at 0, 1, 5, and 7%, and the quality characteristics were measured. Hardness, adhesion, chewiness, and cohesiveness of physical properties increased significantly as the amount added increased (p<0.001). The springiness decreased significantly as the amount of addition increased in the addition group (p<0.001). In the calcium, there was a significant increase as the amount added increased (p<0.001). In the potassium, there was a significant increase as the amount added increased (p=0.049). This study intends to highlight the benefits and possible uses of shrimp.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the antioxidant activities, quality characteristics, and storage stability of perilla oil mayonnaise (PM) with different levels of onion powder (OP) from 0 to 3%. As the amount of OP increased, the L, a, and b values increased, but pH decreased (p<0.05). The addition of OP raised viscosity (p<0.05). The addition of OP to PM proportionally increased the total phenolic content, and antioxidant activities as measured by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging activity, and FRAP assay. When compared to PM without OP, PM that contained OP had a peroxide value that was almost 1.94 times lower. The emulsion stability was between 97.62 to 94.92% in the PM without OP and PM with OP groups was 99.60% for 12 weeks. This study showed that the inclusion of OP in PM has the potential to inprove its quality, antioxidant activities, and storage stability.
In this study, the effect of osmotic drying conditions of mangoes on hot air drying was investigated. Four different osmotic agents of 60 Brix, such as S60, SM10, HF80, and SG25, were prepared. Mango slabs were osmotically dried with the agents at a ratio of 1:4 (w/w) for up to 8 hours. SG25 showed the lowest weight reduction and moisture loss during the process. As a result of hot-air drying, all samples showed a high correlation with the Page model (0.9761~0.9997), and the required drying time of all samples that were osmotically dried was reduced compared to the non-osmotically dried group. After hot-air drying, the pH value increased according to the drying temperature. The L, a, and b values and the total polyphenol content also decreased. Through this study, the possibility of osmotic drying was confirmed to increase the efficiency of hot air drying of mangoes, which is expected to contribute to the industrial use of domestic mangoes.
In vitro digestibility and protein digestibility corrected amino acid scores (PDCAAS) were investigated to verify the availability of protein in various Rhizopus oligosporus fermented products of domestic soybean (Glycine max L.) cultivars. Danbaegkong (DBK), Daepung (DP), Daewonkong (DWK), Saedanbaek (SDB), Seonyu (SY), and Cheongja4ho (CJ4) were used as raw samples, which were fermented using commercially available Rhizopus oligosporus for 48 h. All cultivars showed increased crude protein content after fermentation. The crude protein content of DBK and SDB was significantly higher than that of the other samples (55.12% in DBK and 54.22% in SDB) (p<0.001). CJ4 had the highest alanine content of 28.88 mg/g (p<0.001), and no significant difference in cysteine content was detected among the cultivars. In most of the fermented samples, the in vitro digestibility was 0.9 or higher, indicating high protein in the fermented samples. However, it is considered that restrictions on digestion are low. In DWK, the amino acid content and PDCAAS, which together indicate protein quality, were 0.917 and 0.855, respectively, confirming that it was the best cultivar to provide the raw material for fermentation. In conclusion Rhizopus oligosporus fermented soybean products can be considered a prospective source of protein with high utility value.
The quality and antioxidant characteristics of apios (Apios americana Medikus) according to different harvest periods and steaming treatment were investigated. The quality and antioxidant characteristics of apios were significantly different depending on harvest periods. Total starch contents was higher in 1st harvesting period as 62.32 g/100 g than other harvesting period. The water binding capacity and water solubility index was higher in 1st harvesting period as 228.65 and 11.29% than other harvesting period. The sucrose and total free sugar contents were 3.64~8.67 and 4.49~9.54 g/100 g, respectively. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents of apios was the highest 2nd and 4th harvesting period at 4.21 mg GAE/g and 611.11 μg CE/g, respectively. DPPH radical scavenging activity was higher in 1st harvesting period as 84.96 mg TE/100 g than other harvesting period, and decreased as the harvest periods were delayed. ABTS radical scavenging activity and ferric-reducing antioxidant power were 43.81~47.89 mg TE/g and 231.20~264.07 mM/100 g, and increased to 50.58~51.44 mg TE/g and 342.55~384.29 mM/100 g after heat treatment. As a result, it is thought that studies on change of quality and physicochemical characteristics according to cultivation characteristics should be preceded for cultivation stability of apios.
This study aimed to investigate the biological activities, including polyphenolic content, flavonoid content, and antioxidant activities, of various cultivars of Korean perilla leaves. The results indicated that among nine cultivars (Namcheon dlggae, Saedora, Nulbora, Donggel 1, Donggell 2, Soim, Sangyeop, Somirang, and Saebom) of perilla leaves, the total polyphenolic content (gallic acid equivalent mg/g, GAE) was the highest in “Nulbora,” while it was lowest in Namcheon dlggae. Moreover, flavonoid content in the extracts of nine cultivars leaves was in the range of 132.93~268.50 mg catechin equivalent/g sample. The antioxidant effects of the perilla leaves were determined using two different in vitro bioassays measuring DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging activities. The results revealed that antioxidant activity was also higher in “Nulbora” compared with other cultivars. Xanthin-oxidase-inhibition activity ranged from 65.65% to 80.58%, with “Nulbora” exhibiting the highest activity, although the difference with other cultivars was not significant. “Nulbora” extracts reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory genes and several cytokines, including IL-6 activation induced by LPS in macrophages in the range of 100–50 μg/mL. These results suggest that extracts from perilla leaves can be used as bioactive and functional materials that could be important in industrial applications in the future.
The present study was designed to investigate the antiproliferative activity and molecular mechanisms of Bibimbap in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. Bibimbap extract inhibited the proliferation of HT-29 cells by 50% at a concentration of 10.1±0.17 mg/mL for 48 h. The population of live cells decreased slightly, and the morphology changed with a reduction in cell volume (pyknosis) with Bibimbap. Treatment with 5 mg/mL of Bibimbap resulted in slight cell shrinkage. Furthermore, as the Bibimbap dose increased to 10 mg/mL, these characteristics were more evident, and HT-29 cells exhibited partial detachment by staining with the DNA-binding dye Hoechst 33342. Flow cytometric analysis by Annexin V and PI double staining showed that Bibimbap increased the levels of apoptosis. Analysis of the mechanism of these events showed that Bibimbap-treated cells exhibited a mitochondria-dependent apoptotic pathway through the modulation of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, and poly-ADP ribose polymerase, as well as Bax and Bcl-2 expression in dose- and time-dependent manners. Consequently, Bibimbap exerts a significant antiproliferative effect on HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells.
This study aimed to develop an optimal processing method for the production of apple-mango jelly for domestic suppliers, by analyzing the quality attributes of the jelly. According to the central composite design, a total of 11 experimental points were designed including the content of apple-mango juice (X1), and the sugar content (X2). The responses were analyzed including the color values (CIE Lab and color difference), physicochemical properties (water activity, sweetness, pH, and total acidity), and textural properties (hardness and gel strength). Regression analysis was conducted, except for total acidity, and showed no significant difference for all the experimental points (p<0.05). Quadratic model was derived for all responses with an R square value ranging from 0.8590 to 0.9978. Based on regression model, the appropriate mixing ratio of apple-mango jelly was found to be 31.11% of apple mango juice and 14.65% of sugar. Through this study, the possibility for developing jelly product using apple-mango was confirmed, and it is expected that these findings will contribute to the improvement of the agricultural industry.
The influence of the food value consumption type of MZ generation on food choice attribute and sustainable food consumption behavior was studied using structural equation modeling. A survey was conducted on April 11~17, 2022, among panels aged 20 to 39. A total of 350 valid replicates (100%) were analyzed using statistical program SPSS The validity of the measurement instrument was verified through exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The data reliability was confirmed using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient. The hypothesis was verified by performing path analysis through structural equation modeling using AMOS. Regarding the influence of food choice characteristics on sustainable food consumption behavior, health has a significant positive (+) effect on the selection consumption behavior of certified food and local food. Among food value consumption categories social value consumption has a significant negative (－) influence on the consumption behavior of certified food and the choice of local food. Ethical value consumption has a significant positive (+) influence on the selection consumption behavior of certified food and local food. This study is significant because it has identified sustainable food consumption behaviors that domestic consumers can adopt daily. It can use as baseline data for preparing political and institutional measures.
This study compared the antioxidant and mineral properties of the leaves and seeds of fifteen Korean adzuki bean (Vigna angularis L.) breeding lines. This study was conducted in an attempt to expand the use of Korean adzuki bean leaves. The potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium contents of the leaves were significantly higher than the seeds, in particularly, the potassium content. The leaves had approximately 3.3 times higher potassium content than the seeds. For instance, the potassium content of YA1317 leaves was 21% higher than that of Arari. The total polyphenol content and ABTS activity of Adzuki bean leaves were significantly higher than the seeds, as opposed to the total flavonoid content and DPPH scavenging activity. Among the 15 breeding lines, YA1402 had 1.2~3.2 times higher antioxidant content and activity as compared to the Arari variety. It was concluded that adzuki bean leaves had higher mineral content, antioxidant component and activity as compared to the seeds. Therefore, adzuki bean leaves could be used an ingredient for dishes and as a medicine.
This study investigated the quality characteristics and antioxidant effects of rice cookies containing different percentage of freeze-dried plum powder (3%, 5%, 6%, and 12%). The density of the dough and the thickness of the rice cookies from the control group and the additive group were not significantly different. The pH value of the dough, its moisture content and spread factor, as well as the Hunter’s L and b values of the rice cookies significantly decreased as the amount of dried plum powder added increased. However, the sweetness, hardness, thickness, Hunter’s a value, total polyphenol, total flavonoid and anthocyanin contents, DPPH and ABTS free radials scavenging activity, and ferric reducing antioxidant power of the rice cookies significantly increased as the amount of dried plum powder added increased. Overall, the results of this study showed that adding dried plum power enhanced the antioxidant activities and quality characteristics of rice cookies.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Cheonggukjang pills with aronia and blueberries on dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. There have been several reports that Cheonggukjang is effective for intestinal health, but the efficacy of Cheonggukjang containing fruits has not yet been reported. In this study, we showed the effect of cheonggukjang pills with blueberries and aronia (CPBA) on DSS-induced colitis in BALB/c mice. CPBA was obtained from Soonchang Moonokae foods and orally administered once a day for 2 weeks before DSS treatment. Colitis was induced in mice by feeding 5% (w/v) DSS drinking water for 7 days. The results showed that CPBA treatment significantly alleviated DSS-induced disease activity index associated with a decrease in colon length. CPBA improved DSS-induced histological changes and intestinal epithelial barrier integrity in mice colon. In addition, CPBA administration significantly reduced the levels of DSS-mediated interferon-γ and interleukin-6 in serum and tumor necrosis factor-α in colon tissue. Moreover, the gene expression of COX-2 and iNOS, which are factors involved in inflammatory signaling, was significantly reduced by CPBA treatment. These results suggest that CPBA have a protective effect against DSS-induced mice colitis and may be a candidate for colitis treatment.
This study was conducted to compare the quality characteristics of commercial tofu products from the market in Korea. Seventeen types of commercial tofu samples were taken and their physicochemical properties, including soluble solid contents, salinity, pH, total acidity and moisture (total solid contents), were analyzed. The hardness of tofu was negatively correlated with the moisture contents of tofu (r=－0.667**). The commercial tofu showed pH 5.80~6.24, total acidity of 0.016~0.034%, soluble solids of 1.50~3.45 °Brix, salinity of 1.20~2.30%, and moisture content of 79.91~87.57%, respectively. All 17 tofu samples sold in the Korean market were prepared using crude MgCl2 and sea water as a coagulant. The quality characteristics vary depending on the constituent’s of soybeans, and the ratio and amount of coagulants of tofu used. The origin of soybean seeds affected the yellowness of tofu; tofu made from imported soybean showed a higher b value than domestic soybean. These results are expected to be useful for understanding trends in the domestic tofu industry.
Umami taste-yielding foods, such as, Joseonganjang, dried anchovies, dried shiitake, dried Konbu (kelp), and Yukjeot, are widely used in the Korean cuisine as soup base. While Umami taste enhancement related to Kokumi taste substances has been proposed in human sensory studies, the potential action of Kokumi taste substances has not been explored on calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR), here referred to as Kokumi taste receptors. In this study, we investigated the effect of Umami taste-yielding foods on Kokumi taste receptors using cells expressing human CaSR. We monitored the temporal changes in intracellular Ca2+ in HEK293T cells expressing CaSR in response to aqueous extract of Joseonganjang, dried anchovies, dried shiitake, dried Konbu, and Yukjeot. Kokumi substances tested-glutathione and γ-Glu-Val-Gly- evoked intracellular Ca2+ influx in a concentration-dependent manner. A similar increment of intracellular Ca2+ influx was induced by Joseonganjang, Yukjeot, and dried anchovies, but not by dried shiitake and dried Konbu. Only Joseonganjang- and Yukjeot-evoked intracellular Ca2+ influx was significantly reduced by NPS 2143, a CaSR-specific antagonist. These data indicated that some Umami substances/Umami-yielding materials could activate CaSR, but this property was not observed for all the Umami tasting substances.
This study was conducted to provide basic data on the amount of sodium and the setting of permissible error range of actual measurement, which is a problem for cabbage kimchi nutrients subject to labeling. The sample targeted was baechu (Kimchi cabbage) kimchi, which might have a large variation in sodium content by part of kimchi. Kimchi samples were collected twice from eight companies by season (spring, summer, fall, and winter). The average sodium content in kimchi samples was 619±87 mg/100 g (range, 534±63 mg/100 g to 783±40 mg/100 g). The error in average annual sodium content of abandonment kimchi (maximum value difference compared to the minimum value) was 26.8 to 64.3%. Sodium contents in kimchi produced in spring and summer were relatively low. However, deviation between individuals was large. It was found that cases exceeding the permissible error (120%) standard varied depending on the criteria for setting the amount of sodium. In addition, due to seasonal differences, sodium content in kimchi exceeded 120% of the labeling value. Thus, it is necessary to set standards suitable for characteristics of kimchi to prevent unintentional violations of labeling standards by raw materials and manufacturing processes.
There has been increased interest in lignans due to their potential effect in reducing the risk of developing several diseases. To evaluate lignan contents, sensitive and accurate methods should be developed for their quantification in food. The present study aimed to validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for the quantification of 5 lignans: lariciresinol (Lar), matairesinol (Mat), pinoresinol (Pin), secoisolariciresinol (Seco), and syringaresinol (Syr). The validation included selectivity, linearity, recovery, accuracy, and precision. The method was proved to be specific, with a linear response (R2≥0.99). The limits of detection were 0.040~0.765 μg/100 g and the limits of quantification were 0.114~1.532 μg/100 g. Recoveries were 90.588~109.053% for black sesame powder. Relative standard deviations of repeatability and reproducibility were below 5%. Total lignan contents of roasted coffee bean, oat, and blacksoy bean were 105.702 μg/100 g, 78.965 μg/100 g, and 165.521 μg/100 g, respectively. These results showed that LC-MS/MS analysis would be effective in producing acceptable sensitivity, accuracy, and precision in five lignan analyses.