This study was designed to investigate the relationships among blood lipid levels, nutrient intakes, oxidation and inflammation markers of overweight adults(23≤BMI<25) and obese(BMI≥25) in Korea. The subjects were classified as control, borderline hyperlipidemia. and hyperlipidemia groups based on The Korean guidelines of Hyperlipidemia Treatment for the Prevention of Atherosclerosis. The study was conducted through questionnaires, anthropometric checkups, 2-days of 24 hr recalls, and blood biomarker analyses. Systolic blood pressure(SBP) was significantly increased in the hyperlipidemia group(p=0.0464). Intakes of nutrients were not significantly different among the three groups. Blood oxidized-LDL levels were significantly increased in the hyperlipidemia group(p<0.0001). Blood triglyceride(TG) levels were positively associated with BMI(p=0.0498), SBP(p=0.0158), and diastolic blood pressure(DBP; p=0.0076). Blood total cholesterol levels were positively associated with SBP(p=0.0005), and blood HDL-cholesterol levels were negatively associated with body fat (p=0.0408). Blood LDL-cholesterol levels were negatively associated with height(p=0.0207), and blood VLDL-cholesterol levels were positively associated with SBP(p=0.0011) and DBP(p=0.0490). Intakes of protein(p=0.0257) and dietary fiber (p=0.0094) were positively associated with blood HDL-cholesterol levels. Frap levels were positively associated with TG levels(p=0.0001) and VLDL-cholesterol levels(p=0.0077). Oxidized-LDL levels were positively associated with LDL-cholesterol levels(p=0.0135). These results suggest that oxidation and inflammation markers may be related to hypercholesterolemia progress, and dietary fiber intake may play a role in preventing hyperlipidemia in overweight and obese adults.
This study was conducted to investigate the quality characteristics of soybean curd prepared with Opuntia ficus-indica fruit, freeze-dried Opuntia ficus-indica fruit powder, or heat-dried Opuntia ficus-indica fruit powder, without addition of a coagulant. The yield rates of the soybean curd were slightly decreased for the three curds containing Opuntia ficus-indica fruit; this was accompanied by a significant decrease in pH. Furthermore, the hardness and springiness of soybean curds coagulated with added freeze-dried Opuntia ficus-indica fruit powder or heat-dried Opuntia ficus-indica fruit powder were higher than the hardness and springiness of the coagulated controls. However, the cohesiveness and brittleness of two soybean curds were lower than for the controls, while the gumminess of the four soybean curds containing control fruit was the same. In terms of overall acceptability, the preferred soybean curd was the curd containing freeze-dried Opuntia ficus-indica fruit powder.
This study was conducted to investigate the consumption of milk, along with satisfaction for improvement of the school milk program in middle school. The subjects were 447 middle school students(265 male, 182 female) in the Gyeonggi area, who were asked to fill out the questionnaire. The collected data were analyzed by a SAS package. The results showed that 53.2% of the subjects were participating in the school milk program. Regarding the frequency of milk consumption, 77.7% of students reported daily milk consumption and 65.3% of students reported they drank milk when it was available. 56.8% of the students responded that they were satisfied with the school milk program. Male students not participating in the school milk program cited the reason as "eating at home", while non-participating female students cited the reason as "tasteless". When asked whether they accepted or rejected the school milk program, male students(97.7%) and female students(97.8%) answered "it should be executed". To improve the school milk program, most of the students(72.2%) stated that "it should be selected among flavored milk(strawberry, banana, chocolate, black bean, and husked rice milk) instead of white milk". Therefore, in order to increase the intake of milk, the students should develop the habit of drinking milk to gain the attention of parents. Also, schools should attempt to help through offering proper dietary education.
To investigate the protective effect of omija(Schizandra chinensis Baillon) tea extracts against the aluminum toxicity, Sprague-Dawley rats(100±10g) were divided into 6groups consisting of a control group, a 3% Schizandra chinensis Baillon tea plus extract group, a 1, 000 and 2, 000ppm aluminum group, and a 1, 000 and 2, 000ppm aluminum plus 3% Schizandra chinensis Baillon tea plus extract group. The rats administered aluminum were given 1, 000 and 2, 000ppm of Al2(SO4)3 dissolved in distilled water. The aluminum content in tissues from rats administered aluminum was lower than in the tissues of rats of administered aluminum plus 3% Schizandra chinensis Baillon tea in the water extract. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase(ALT) levels were increased in the aluminum group and lower in the group receiving a 3% extract of Schizandra chinensis Baillon tea. Lactate dehydrogenase(LDHase) was lower in the group receiving a 3% extract of Schizandra chinensis Baillon tea plus aluminum than in the aluminum group. Cholinesterase(ChEase) was higher in the 3% Schizandra chinensis Baillon tea-aluminum group than in the aluminum group. Plasma levels of renin were increased in the aluminum group, compared to the group receiving 3% Schizandra chinensis Baillon tea plus aluminum. Plasma levels of aldosterone were increased in the aluminum group compared with the 3% Schizandra chinensis Baillon tea plus aluminum group. These results suggest that the group receiving Schizandra chinensis Baillon tea in water extract had a lowered level of aluminum accumulation, and it is believed that the Schizandra chinensis Baillon tea plus water had some protective effects against aluminum toxicity when administered in rats, but the mechanism of these effects remains obscure.
The objective of this study was to prepare the base on which Korean food can become aglobally important health food. A focus group interview was conducted with a nutritionist and professor of food and nutrition to select the Korean food for a healthy menu. Five main categories were established to select a healthy menu based on the Korean food philosophy, including Korean food made from beans, Korean food made using fermentation, Korean food made using various colors, Korean food with high dietary fiber, and Korean food made with abundant unsaturated fatty acids. The 52 healthy menu items selected based on these standards were composed of easily available food materials. The efficacy of food materials described in Sikryochanyo, the traditional Chosun dietary therapy, was checked to verify the efficacy of this healthy menu. This study demonstrated that basic materials can be efficiently used to enable citizens to select Korean food as an international health food. As such, the results can be utilized to publicize Korean food as a healthy food.
The study was conducted to identify the recognition, and the preference for the traditional food provided by secondary school food services in male and female secondary school students in certain areas of Gyeonggi-do. The summarized results are from a survey of 300 students. Forty seven percent of the men and women had BMI indexes within the normal range. In an investigation of satisfaction, and recognition of traditional food, ~81.3% of the total respondents stated that Korean food developed in the context of traditional culture best defined traditional Korean food(p<0.01). In a reason of being concerned about the traditional food, man and woman student who responded "through mass-media" was the most. Concerning the degree of satisfaction with the traditional food provided in school food services, ~67.3% of total respondents responded with "satisfaction", this was double the number of responses indicating "unsatisfaction". In an order of preference of traditional Korean foods provided in school food services, noodles, dumplings, stew, and Jungol rated the highest in preference. Seasoned vegetables, raw vegetables, radishes seasoned with soy, and salted fish were the foods with the lowest preference ratings; the students did not prefer to those foods. Especially, soup(p<0.01), broth(p<0.05), roast(p<0.01), and hard boiled food, and fried food(p<0.05) showed meaningful differences regarding gender preference.
This study was performed to investigate the in vitro effect of a corn water extract on immune function. Splenocyte proliferation was determined by the MTT(3-[4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyl terazolium bromide) assay after preparing asingle cell suspension. Production of macrophage-secreted interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-6, and interferon(IFN)-γ, was detected by ELISA using a cytokine assay kit. After a 48-hr incubation with mitogens(ConA or lipopolysaccharide), mice splenocyte proliferation increased with the addition of a corn water extract supplement at 10, 50, 100, 250, 500, or 1, 000㎍/㎖. Production of IL-1β, IL-6, and IFN-γ increased in treatments supplemented with the corn water extract. In an in vitro study, splenocyte proliferation increased when 50~1, 000㎕/㎖ corn water extract was added. In an ex vivo experiment, the highest production of cytokines by activated peritoneal macrophages was observed in mice orally administered 500㎎/㎏ body weight/day.
Peeled chestnuts were stored at different temperatures(-10℃ and -20℃) and for different times(0, 10, and 20 min at 90℃) for blanching over a 6 month period. Analyses were conducted for moisture content, total sugar content, browning index, polyphenol compounds, PPO activity, and SEM. Moisture content and PPO activity were increased by storage time. The increments for the samples stored at -20℃ were lower that for the samples stored at -10℃. The Browning index was increased by storage time, and increments for the samples stored at -20℃ were lower that for the samples stored at -10℃. Scanning electronic microscopy(SEM) studies were performed on peeled chestnuts. Results showed that the wrinkle structure of the cell wall was enhanced by storage time, and the level of enhancement was higher at -10℃ than at -20℃.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of oral administering kefir on blood glucose levels in diabetic mice. Kefir(10 ㎖/㎏body weight) was orally administered to diabetic mice twice daily for 45 days. Diabetic mice fed saline or 10% skim milk were used as a control. No significant difference in feed intake and weight gain were observed among the treatments. Compared to the saline-fed or skim milk-fed group, blood glucose in the kefir-fed group decreased significantly at 45 days(p<0.05). At 45 days, serum triglyceride and non-esterified fatty acid concentrations in diabetic mice fed kefir decreased significantly compared to those of the saline and skim milk groups(p<0.05). Both high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein concentrations were not significantly different among the three treatment groups. In conclusion, the symptoms of diabetic mice improved when kefir was fed for >45 days.
Job`s tears(Coix lachryma-jobi L.) chungkukjang powder and wheat bran powder were added to American cookies for practical use as healthy compounds. We examined the antioxidant activity and quality characteristics of cookies prepared with different amounts(as ratios of 10%, 20%, 25% to the flour quantity) of Job`s tears chungkukjang & wheat bran powder. The antioxidant activity was estimated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity, the total phenolic compounds content and flavonoid content in Job`s tears chungkukjang & wheat bran powder and cookies. The quality characteristics of Job`s tears chungkukjang & wheat bran powder American cookie were estimated in terms of bulk density, pH of the dough, spread ratio, color, texture profile analysis, proximate composition, and sensory evaluations. While the spread ratio and the total polyphenol contents, flavonoid contents and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of cookies significantly increased, pH, hardness and L value of the cookies decreased with increasing Job`s tears chungkukjang & wheat bran powder(p<0.01). The consumer acceptability score for the 10~20% Job`s tears chungkukjang & wheat bran powder American cookie ranked significantly(p<0.05) higher than those of the other groups in texture andoverall preference. This suggests that Job`s tears chungkukjang and wheat bran powder are good ingredient candidates for increasing consumer acceptability and functionality of cookies.
This study identified the formula of the antioxidant substance separated from the ethyl acetate and the butanol extract and tested the antioxidant properties with the electron donating ability(EDA). Each phase with the fractionated methanol extract from mulberry leaf was screened in advance for the antioxidant substance with EDA. As the result, activity appeared in the ethyl acetate and butanol phase and the antioxidant component was separated. As the consequence, 2 components from the ethyl acetate phase and 1 from the butanol phase were separated, among which the structures of the components from ethyl acetate were determined by wogonin and linarin, whereas the structure of the component from the butanol phase was determined by pectolinarin. In the screening of antioxidant activity by the scavenging effect of the DPPH radical, the wogonin and linarin components from ethyl acetate phase showed more powerful antioxidant property than the component from butanol. The results from this study indicate that the chemical compound separated from the ethyl acetate extract has more powerful antioxidant property than the one separated from the butanol extract. The components separated from the ethyl acetate extract were wogonin and linarin, which are flavonoids, whereas the component from butanol was pectolinarin. Therefore, this study suggested that the feasibility of mulberry leaf as a functional food additive and its value as a natural antioxidant is very high.
The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the consumption behavior and perceptions of environment-friendly agricultural products(EAPs) by university students in the Chonbuk area, Korea. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 309 university students(male 33.0%, female 67.0%). Descriptive and comparative statistical analyses was completed using SPSS v. 12.0. The percentage of subjects who purchased EAPs was 70.9%. Of those, 87.2% had EAPs purchased by their mothers. The most purchased EAPs were vegetables, the primary reason for which was the perception of ``good for health``(73.1%). The main information source about EAPs was ``familes/freinds``. The average scores of ``attitude toward EAPs``, ``knowledge toward EAPs``, ``concern toward EAPs`` were 3.76±0.57, 2.91±0.61 and 3.29±0.43, respectively. With regards to ``attitude toward EAPs``, the scores were significantly affected by ``self-reported health status``(p<0.05). With regard to ``knowledge toward EAPs`` and ``concern toward EAPs``, the scores were significantly affected by ``supplements for health`` (p<0.05; p<0.001). For university students` right choices of EAPs, information and consumer education wthin the university curriculum on these products are necessary.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the optimum ratio of coffee waste to chocolate for the preparation and investigation of the sensory characteristics of coffee chocolates. Color values(L-value, redness, and yellowness), total flavonoids, radical scavenging activity, and sensory characteristics of coffee chocolates made with various concentrations of additives were measured. The coffee waste powders were added at weight percentages of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4%. As the ratio of coffee powder to chocolate increased, total flavonoid content and radical scavenging activity increased. In sensory evaluation, significant differences(p<0.05) were shown in taste, bitterness, texture, and overall acceptability depending on the amount of coffee waste powder added. The optimal ratio for sensory acceptability of coffee chocolate was 2% added coffee waste powder.
This study was conducted to establish process conditions for plant-originated lactic acid production using a mixed culture of plant originated lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus sakei B2-16, and Lactobacillus plantarum P23, which were isolated from kimchi, and Bacillus subtilis, which was TP6 isolated from Denjang. Soybean medium was pretreated for 10 minutes at 110℃ and hydrolyzed with 0.2%(w/v) cellulase at 55~60℃ for at least 2 hrs. The quality of the final fermentation product was influenced by the inoculation ratio of the Lactobacillus sakei B2-16, Lactobacillus plantarum P23, and Bacillus subtilis TP6. The optimum microorganism inoculation ratio was 1:0.7:0.3, Lactobacillus sakei B2-16: Lactobacillus plantarum P23: Bacillus subtilis TP6, respectively. The sensory characteristics of the product were a refreshing sourness and a soft flavor.
We analyzed content and peptides in order to investigate the productivity from Cheonggookjang(fast-fermented soybean paste), fermenting it for 180 hours at 40℃. Results showed that pH was 7.07 at the start and became 7.41 in 24 hours, it eventually increased to 8.63 after 180 hours. Acidity was 0.2 in 12 hours, 0.5 in 12 hours, and then remained on 0.1 thereafter. Total sugar was 1.54㎎/㎖ at the start, but it gradually decreased to 0.76㎎/㎖ after the lapse of 48 hours, and 1.0㎎/㎖ in 120 hours, and finally 0.8㎎/㎖ in 180 hours. Reducing sugar was 0.14㎎/㎖ at the start, and 0.88㎎/㎖ after the lapse of 24 hours, 0.64㎎/㎖ in 48 hours, 0.26㎎/㎖ in 72 hours, and showed no definite change untill 180 hours. The amount of free amino acid was 0.19μM/ℓ at the start, and 4.88μM/ℓ after the lapse of 72 hours, 4.5μM/ℓ in 120 hours, and then it rapidly decreased to 0.23μM/ℓ after180 hours. Absorbance of soluble protein and peptide at 280 ㎚ was 12.4 in 48 hours, 31.12 in 120 hours, and 31.12 in 180 hours. HPLC revealed that in the fermentation process, large molecular proteins are hydrolyzed into small peptides and amino acids, and after the lapse of 48 hours the pattern became almost the same. The protease activity of Cheonggookjang was 0.011 unit/㎖ after the lapse of 36 hours and then it decreased. The result shows as Cheonggookjang started its deamination of amino acid in 100 hours, it is desirable to produce peptide within 100 hours of its fermentation.
The objective of this study was to develop mixed seasoning products with Korean chili peppers(Capsicum annuum L.) and examine their characteristics based on a sensory evaluation. One-hundred chili pepper-related products were collected from American local favorites and analyzed for composition. Four different seasonings were prepared for the value-added seasoning products, and their sensory characteristics were measured. The Korean fish chili seasoning product showed higher overall acceptability, compared to local American seasoning(McCormick). The completed Korean chili seasoning products contained red pepper(20%), various herbs(31.7%), salt(11.5%), mushroom(8.6%), garlic(8.5%), curry, paprika(5.7%), and citron(2.8%). These results suggest the possibility of substituting mixed seasonings from foreign countries into Korean dishes.
This study analyzed the maltol quality, composition ratio of fatty acids, and contents of phenolic compounds in white ginseng extracts(four types), red ginseng extracts(five types), Black ginseng extracts(two types), and Chinese ginseng extracts(nine types). By examining patterns in these measurements, we determined the characteristic factors of the extracts and measured the possibility of qualitative analysis. In the analysis of maltol using TLC, white ginseng extracts were not detected while red and Black ginseng extracts were detected, so the possibility of detection was considered as a characteristic factor for qualitative analysis. Regarding the composition of fatty acids, palmitic and linoleic acids were the main fatty acids in theginseng extracts palmitic acid was high in white ginseng extracts while linoleic was low in red ginseng extracts. Regarding the ratio(Pal/Lin) of the two fatty acids, there was a large difference between white ginseng extracts(56.7~64.3%) and red ginseng extracts(32.0~38.5%), and these figures seemed to be characteristic factors for the analysis. For the phenolic compounds, extracts contained maltol, caffeic acid, syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and cinnamic acid. White ginseng extracts contained similar percentages of phenolic compounds while red ginseng extracts had high maltol content. According to the measurement results of the percentages of maltol and cinnamic acid, white ginseng extracts showed values below five, whereas red and Black ginseng extracts showed 53~289, which was also a characteristic factor for qualitative analysis. Consequently, we found that we can differentiate between ginseng extracts using characteristic factors that we analyzed in an experiment on white ginseng extracts from China.