우엉을 9번 찌고 9번 말려서 차를 제조한 다음 M사의 우엉차와 성분 및 기능성을 비교 분석하였다. 개발한 우엉차는 칼로리 346.48kcal, 탄수화물 72.75g/100g, 단백질 11.98g/100g, 회분 5.01g/100g이었다. 무기물 함량은 칼륨 1,476.21 mg/100g, 칼슘 255.96 mg/100g, 마그네슘 311.41mg/100g 이었다. 유리당 총량은 31.93 mg/100g이었고 그중 fructose 26.27mg/100g , glucose 4.39 mg/100g, sucrose 1.27 mg/100g이었다. 포화지방산은 40.73 mg/100g, 불포화지방산은 59.28 ㎎ /100g이고 그 중 linoleic acid 41.28 mg/100g, palmitic acid 33.11 mg/100g, oleic acid 10.07 mg/100g , linolenic acid 7.92 ㎎/100g이었다. DPPH 라디컬 소거력은 개발한 차 33.9%, 비교용 M사 차 2.3%, 지표물질 37.2%였다. ABTS 라디컬 소거력은 개발한 차 90.7%, M사차 85.9%, 지표물질 47.6%였다. SOD 유사활성은 개발한 차 11.3%, 비교용차 50.5%였다. 플라보노이드 함량은 개발한 차 2.6 fold, M사차 2.9 fold, 지표물질 1.7 fold였다. 폴리페놀 함량은 개발한 차 33.8 fold, M사차 38.9 fold, 지표물질 13.4 fold였다. 기호도는 1회 우린 것과 5회 우린 것을 비교하였다. 1회 우린 것을 기준으로 할 때 5회 우린 것의 기호도 중 색은 개발한 차 65.9%, M사차 12.8%, 향기는 개발한 차 78.0%, M사차 33.3%, 맛은 개발한 차 71.4%, M사차 20.7%, 나타났다. 이같이 비교용 M사차는 우릴수록 추출 성분이 감소하여 5회 후에 종합적인 기호도는 21.4%로 감소한 반면 개발한 차는 감소폭이 적어서 72.1%를 나타냈다. 이같이 개발한 우엉차는 비교용 M사차 및 지표물질보다 항산화 작용이 강하고 유효 물질 함량도 더 많고, 기호성도 높으므로 질병 예방 및 개선 효과가 클 것으로 생각한다.
돼지감자를 9번 찌고 9번 말려서 차를 제조한 다음 M사의 돼지감자차와 성분 및 기능성을 비교 분석하였다. 개발한 돼지감자차는 칼로리 342.27kcal, 탄수화물 73.87g/100g, 유리당 32.66mg/100g, 회분 6.80g/100g, 단백질 8.21g/100g이었고 무기물 총량은 2,785.67mg/100g, 칼륨 2,563.93mg/g, 칼슘 97.52mg/g, 마그네슘 88.78mg/g 등이었다. 돼지감자차의 유리당 총량은 32.66mg/100g이고 그중 fructose 17.40mg/100g, sucrose 9.03mg/100g, glucose 6.05mg/100g이었다. 돼지감자차의 포화지방산은 30.34mg/100g, 4 불포화지방산은 69.66㎎/100g이었고 그 중 linoleic acid 47.00mg/100g, palmitic acid 25.31mg/100g, linolenic acid 8.61㎎/100g이었다. DPPH 라디컬 소거력은 개발한 차 34.2%, 비교용 M사차 5.2%, 지표물질 44.0%였다. ABTS 라디컬 소거력은 개발한 차 93.0%, M사차 61.9%, 지표물질 47.6%였다. SOD 유사활성은 개발한 차 2.7%, M사차 1.6%였다. 플라 보노이드 함량은 개발한 차 2.8 fold, M사차 2.0 fold, 지표물질 1.7 fold 였다. 폴리페놀 함량은 개발한 차 38.2 fold, M사차 8.92 fold, 지표물질 14.0 fold였다. α-Glucosidase 저해율은 개발한 차 9.83%, M사차 8.92%였다. 기호도는 1회 우린 것과 5회 우린 것을 비교하였다. 1회 우린 것을 기준으로 할 때 5회 우린 것의 기호도 중 색은 개발한 차 83.7%, 비교용 차 50.0%, 향기는 개발한 차 78.0%, 비교용 차 42.5%, 맛은 개발한 차 66.7%, 비교용 차 37.5%, 종합적인 기호도는 개발한 차 73.3%, 비교용 차 47.5%로 나타났다. 이같이 비교용 M사차는 우릴수록 추출 성분이 감소하여 5회 후에 종합적인 기호도는 46.3%로 감소한 반면 개발한 차는 감소폭이 적어서 73.3%를 나타냈다. 이같이 개발한 돼지감자차는 비교용 M사차 및 지표물질보다 항산화 작용이 강하고 유효 물질 함량도 더 많고, 기호성도 높으므로 질병 예방 및 개선 효과가 클 것으로 생각한다.
This study was to investigate the perception about the popularization of temple food, known as health food and adult disease prevention food as an object of total 248 residents in Youngnam region. From the result of this research above, it may be summed up as follows. This study has found out that the advantages of temple food showed the statistical significant difference according to the gender, age, and size of family (p<0.01). The reason 'because of health food' (66.7%) had such high percentage. The necessity of popularization of temple food had big difference according to the gender and age (p<0.01). In addition, this study has shown the statistical significant difference in the cooking form for popularization by age, and future improvement for popularization by age and size of family (p<0.001). And, this study has found out that the 'traditional way as it is' (57.3%) was high in the cooking form, and 'use of various materials' (27.4%) in the improvement. Furthermore, the necessity of using meat for temple food had significant difference according to the gender and age, and 'need' (33.9%) showed rather higher tendency. The necessity of using osinchae, five forbidden pungent roots like garlic, green onions, Korean leeks, wild chives, and asafetida had significant difference according to the gender, age and size of family (p<0.05, P<0.001). The 'need' (61.3%) was considerably high. Based on the above results, general customers thought that the need for popularization of temple food and use of osinchae was very positive.
This study was a report on 60 heads of Hanwoo steers(5 treatments⨯4 heads⨯3 repeats). Their start weights were 361.2±14.39 kg to 380.5±27.33 kg; 12.7 to 13.6 months of age. The aim was to investigate the effect of herbal probiotic supplementation on the weight, blood composition, meat quality and immunity in beef. In case of body weight gain, con. 1 plot(183.8 kg) in the early fattening stage, T3 plot(115.1 kg) in the middle fattening stage, and T2 plot(163.3 kg) in the late fattening stage significantly increased(p<0.05). There was a statistically significant difference in the blood content of T-Cho and IgG: con. 1 plot and T1 plot in the early fattening stage, T3 plot and T2 plots in the middle fattening stage, and con. 2 plot and T1~T3 plots in the late fattening stage had higher blood content than that of other treatment plots (p<0.05). In addition, the carcass weight was highest in the T1 plot and T2 plot among the total treatment plots(p<0.05). However, no statistical significant difference was observed in the different treatments; all individual treatment plots(T1~T3 plots) were somewhat higher than the control plots(con. 1~con. 2 plots) with respect to the carcass quantity and carcass quality. Combining and analyzing all results revealed that the dietary addition of herbal probiotics for Hanwoo steers had a positive effect on the improvement of weight, amount of meat, meat quality and immunity
In this study, we analyzed the utensils, covers and mats that were used for making meju, the shape of meju, and the heating method used for making meju from the 225 ways of preparing jang mentioned in the 32 volumes of the ancient cook books from 530 AD to 1950. The heating method of traditional meju bean and starch included 57 kinds of steaming, 59 of boiling, 21 of roasting + boiling, and 2 of cooking. The shape of meju included 41 kinds of egg, 27 of ball, 22 of lump, a kind of doughnut, 8 kinds of hilt, 6 of flat, 4 of chip, and a kind of square. Among the 72 gochoojang meju, the heating method of bean included 9 kinds of boiling, and 6 kinds of steaming; whereas the heating method of starch included 19 kinds of steaming of dough, 11 of rice cooking, and 5 of boiling of dough. The utensils for molding of bean meju were 49 kinds of straw sack, 14 of round straw container, 11 of heating bed, 7 of large straw bowl or Japanesesnailseed, 5 of jar, 4 of ditch, 3 of straw bowls, 2 of pottery steamer of dough, 2 of gourd, and a kind of long round bamboo bowl and sack of straw. The cover and the mat used for molding of meju included 36 kinds of straw, 17 kinds of paper mulberry leaf, 15 of wide straw seat, 14 of mugwort, 11 of pine tree leaf, 10 of soybean leaf, 6 of cocklebur leaf, 6 of sumac leaf, 6 of barley straw, 6 of mulberry leaf, 5 of fallen leaf, 5 of cogon grass, 4 of reed seat, 3 of scrap of cloth, 2 of Indian bean tree leaf, a kind of reed. There were only 5 kinds of hanging.
During the Joseon period, kimchi was mostly made by heating the ingredients. Since salt was pricey at the time, in order to save salt and time, people used a method that involved destroying the cell wall by heating the vegetables. However, this method is no longer passed down. Thus, in this paper, we re-discovered how kimchi was made through heating while analyzing the recipes for kimchi during the Joseon period. There were 27 kinds of kimchi made through blanching. To keep the vegetables from becoming soggy, 2 kinds of kimchi were made by putting the ingredients in potassium aluminum sulfate water and 3 kinds were made through blanching the ingredients in limewater. There were 7 kinds of kimchi made by heating in vinegar, 5 kinds by boiling the ingredients, 6 kinds by stir-frying the ingredients, 2 kinds by stir-frying the ingredients with salt, and 3 kinds by steaming the ingredients. In order to eradicate unwanted germs, leaving only Lactobacillus, 25 kinds of kimchi were made by draining the boiled mixture. A total of 17 kinds of kimchi were made by heating the kimchi pot with compost including that of horses. For elders with weak teeth and poor digestion, 7 kinds of kimchi were made after heating, including 3 kinds of sukkkakdugi (cubed radish kimchi made with boiled radish). 3 kinds of chaekimchi (julienned kimchi) and 3 kinds of chaekkakdugi (kimchi with julienned radish) for elders existed as well.
즙장은 중국의 조리서에 수록되지 않은 순수 우리나라 속 성장으로 많은 종류가 있었으나, 보존성 문제로 대부분 맥이 끊겨서 전해지지 않기 때문에 조선시대 및 1950년 이전 조리 서의 즙장을 조사하여 밝혔다. 그 중 가지와 오이 등의 채소를 넣는 즙장은 34 가지, 넣지 않는 즙장은 9가지였다. 즙장의 주 재료는 콩과 밀기울이며, 보리, 메밀도 쓰였다. 즙장메주는 빨 리 뜨게 하기 위하여 일반메주보다 작게 만들었는데, 작은 알 형태가 가장 많고, 납작하거나 둥근 칼자루 형태도 있다. 즙장 은 메주가루를 소금과 물로 이겨서 담그는 것이 가장 많다. 함께 쓰는 것으로는 누룩가루, 밀기울, 밀가루, 술, 말장, 간장, 엿기름, 탁주 등이 있다. 즙장메주는 용기에 넣어서 띄우는 것 도 있고, 넣지 않고 띄우는 것도 있는데, 용기는 섬과 둥구미 가 가장 많고, 버드나무그릇, 치룽, 독도 사용하며, 즙장메주 의 깔개 및 덮개는 닥나무 잎을 가장 많이 사용하고, 그 외에 짚, 북나무잎, 뽕잎, 가랑잎, 솔잎, 콩잎도 사용한다. 즙장은 다 른 장과 달리 말똥, 두엄, 풀더미에 묻혀서 이들이 썩으면서 내는 60~65℃의 열로 가열하여 숙성시킨다. 즙장은 맥이 끊기 거나 쩜장, 지례장, 무장, 빠금장, 막장, 집장, 토장 등의 형태 로도 변하였다. 이들 장은 즙장에서 사용하지 않는 쌀, 엿기 름, 고춧가루 등을 사용하고 있는 점에서 다르다.
동아(冬瓜, wax gourd, Benincase hispida) 추출물과 프로바이오틱 유산균(Lactobacillus casei와 Bifidobacterium bifidum) (이하 유산균이라 한다)의 생리활성을 분석하였다. 동아 추출물은 안기오텐신전환효소의 활성을 47.9%, 티로시나제의 활성을 13.2% 저해하였고, 항산화 활성을 23.4% 나타냈다. 설사 증세자 120명에게 동아 추출물 제제를 72시간 복용시킨 결과 117명이 개선되었고, 6∼12시간째에 개선율이 가장 높았다. 개선율은 80%가 치료되는 상태를 기준하였다. 유산균제제는 안기오텐신전환효소의 활성을 21.4% 저해하였다. 설사 증세자 120명에게 유산균 제제를 72시간 복용시킨 결과 108명이 개선되었고, 24시간째에 개선율이 가장 높았다. 이들 결과를 바탕으로, 과민성대장증후군 개선을 위한 동아 추출물과 유산균을 함유한 제제(tablet)를 개발하였다. 이 제품은 안기오텐신전환효소의 활성을 27.1% 저해하였고, 항산화 활성을 20.3% 나타냈다. 인체폐암 A549 세포에 100 ㎍/㎖ 및 250 ㎍/㎖ 농도로 이 제제를 가하여 24시간 반응시킨 결과, 세포 증식을 67% 억제하였고, 동아 추출물 제제나 프로바이오틱 유산균 제제 단독으로 작용시킨 것보다 억제율이 높았다. 또 이 제제를 인체대장암 HCT116 세포에 100 ㎍/㎖ 농도로 가한 결과, 24시간 후 세포 증식이 70% 억제되었고, 동아 추출물 제제나 유산균 제제 단독으로 작용시킨 것보다 개선율과 개선 속도가 높았다. 이 제제를 설사형, 변비형, 일반형의 과민성대장증후군 증세자 164명에게 72시간 복용시킨 결과 100% 개선시켰으며, 개선율은 3∼6시간째에 가장 높았고, 동아 추출물 제제나 유산균 제제 단독으로 사용한 것보다 개선율과 개선속도가 높았다.
On the basis of the cookbooks and Data Base of the Korean Classics(http://db.itkc.or.kr/itkcdb/mainIndexIframe.jsp), this paper analyzed the fermented soybean listed in the general documents of the Chosun Dynasty(1392～1897) and the Goryeo Dynasty(918～1392). In the Goryeo Dynasty, there are 15 kinds of Jang(soybean paste or solution), among which are Jang (soybean paste fermented by mold)(6 documents), Yeomgjang, Yeomshi(2), and Gaejang(1). However, the cookbook at that time is defunct. The Goryeo Court relieved the famine-stricken people by proving them with Jang. In the Chosun Dynasty, 111 kinds of Jang were listed in the general documents, and 153 kinds in cookbooks. There were 55 kinds of general Jang, such as Jang(204), Yeomjang(63), Chojang, Goojang(7), and Gaejang(6), are listed in the general documents, and in the cookbooks, there are 55 kinds of Jang, such as Sookwhangjang(9 cookbooks), Daemaekjang(8), Myeonjang(8), Saengwhangjang (8), and Yooinjang(8), and among them, 13 kinds belong to the Chinese origin. A total of 9 Kinds of Ganjang(soybean solution fermented by mold), such as Soojang(30), Cheongjang(23), Gamjang(8), and Ganjang(3) are found in the general documents. In the cookbooks, 12 kinds of Jang, as Cheongjang(10), Cheonrijang(4), Ganjang(3), and etc., are listed. There were 9 kinds of Gochoojang(red pepper-soybean paste), such as Chojang(12), Gochojang(3), and etc., are listed in the general documents, and 9 kinds as Gochojang(7), Manchojang(7), rapid Manchojang(4), and etc., are in the cookbooks. In addition, 16 Kinds of Yookjang(fermented soybean-meat paste) as Haejang(15), Hyejang(11), Yookjang(11), and etc., are found in the documents, and 22 kinds as Nanjang(9), Gejang(6), Yookjang(5), Shoigogijang(4), and etc., are in the cookbooks. Eighteen Kinds of Shi(soybean paste fermented by bacteria) as Yeomshi(40), Shi(35), Shijang(6), and etc., are recorded in the documents, and 19 kinds as Jeonkookjang(6), Shi(4), Sooshijang(4), and etc., are in the cookbooks, and among them 11 kinds belong to the Chinese origin. Six kinds of Jipjang(aqueous soybean paste) as Jipjang(7), Uoopjang(4), Pojang (2), Jangzoop(2) are recorded in the documents, and 15 kinds as Jipjang(9), Zoopjeo(7), and Hajeoljipjang(5) are in the cookbooks. Soybean paste, or solution for relieving hunger is not recorded in the documents. However, the Chosun court, for the purpose of relieving famine-stricken people, used general Jang. Such 21 Jang to relieve the famine-stricken people as Pojang(7), rapid Jang(6), and Sasamgilgyeongjang(4) are listed in the cookbook. Geonjang(dried soybean paste), Nanjang (egg-soybean paste), Doojang(soybean paste), Maljang(random soybean paste), Myeonjang(wheate-soybean paste), Sodoojang (red bean-soybean paste), Yookjang(soybean-meat paste) and Jang(soybean paste) are recorded in the documents, as well as in the cookbooks. Chinese-original Jang and Shi are recorded in the cookbooks, with no list in the general documents. Therefore, it seems that it didn't pass down to the general public.
This paper investigated the system that is relevant to Jang(fermented soybean paste or solution), the relief of hunger- stricken people by Jang, 33 kinds of Jang, and its consumption in the documents, such as the annals of the Chosun Dynasty, Ihlseong-document, Seungjeongwon daily, Uigwe(record of national ceremony), official documents on the basis of Kyujanggak institute for the Korean studies and data base of Korean classics. There are lots of Jang named after the place of particular soybean's production from the ancient times. Jang, soybean, salt and Meju(source of Jang), during the Dynasty, were collected as taxation or tribute. In the 5th year of Hyeonjong(1664), the storage amount of soybean in Hojo(ministry of finance) was 16, 200 ㎘, and its consumption was 7, 694 ㎘ a year. In the 32nd year of Yongjo(1756), the 1, 800 ㎘ of soybean was distributed to the people at the time of disaster, and in his 36th year(1756), the 15, 426 ㎘ of soybean was reduced from the soybean taxation nationwide. The offices managing Jang are Naejashi, Saseonseo, Sadoshi, Yebinshi and Bongsangshi. Chongyoongcheong(Gyeonggi military headquarters) stored the 175.14 ㎘ of Jang, and the 198 ㎘ of Jang in Yebinshi. There are such posts managing Jang as Jangsaek, Jangdoo, and Saseonsikjang. In the year of Jeongjong(1777～1800), the royal family distributed the 3.6 ㎘ of Meju to Gasoon-court, Hygyeong-court, queen's mother-court, queen's court, royal palace. The 13.41 ㎘ of Gamjang(fermented soybean solution) was distributed to the Gasoon-court, 17.23 ㎘ to Hegyeong-court, 17.09 ㎘ to the queen's mother-court, and the 17.17 ㎘ to the queen's court each. There are 112 Jang-storing pots in the royal storages, and the 690 are in Namhan-hill, where the 2.7 ㎘ of fermented Jang was made and brought back by them each year. At the time of starvation, Jang relieved the starving people. There are 20 occasions of big reliefs, according to the annals of the Chosun Dynasty. In the 5th year of Sejong(1423), the 360 ㎘ of Jang was given to the hunger-stricken people. In his 6th year(1424), the 8, 512.92 ㎘ of rice, bean, and Jang was provided and in the 28th year(1446), the 8, 322.68 ㎘ of Jang was also provided to them. In the Dynasty, Jang was given as a salary. In case that when they were bereaved, they didn't eat Jang patiently for its preservation. They were awarded for their filial piety. In the annals of the Chosun Dynasty, there are 19 kinds of Jang. They are listed in the order of Jang(108), Yeomjang(90), Maljang(11), Yookjang(5), Gamjang(4), and etc., . In Seungjeongwon daily, there are 11 kinds of Jang. Jang(6), Cheongjang (5), Maljang(5), and Tojang(3) are listed in order. In the Ihlseong-document, there are 5 kinds of Jang. They are listed in Jang(15), Maljang(2), Gamjang(2), and etc., . There are 13 kinds of Jang in Uigwe, and the official documents, in the order of Gamjang(59), Ganjang(37), Jang(28), Yeomjang(7), Maljang(6), and Cheongjang(5). In addition, shi are Jeonshi(7), and Dooshi(4). All these are made of only soybean except, for Yookjang. The most-frequently recorded Jang among anthology, cookbook, the annals of the Chosun Dynasty, Ihlseong-document, Seoungjeongwon daily, Uigwe, or officialdocument is Jang(372), and then Yeomjang(194), Gamjang(73), Cheongjang(46), Ganjang(46), Soojang(33), and Maljang(26), which were made of soybean. Jang from China in cookbook is not in anthology and royal palace documents. Thus, traditional Jang made of soybean was used in the daily food life in the royal court, and in the public during the Chosun period.
With the addition of ethanol to wax gourd extract and by acetic fermentation, 5.0% acidity vinegar was produced. After putting 10% extract(10% concentration) of Chrysanthemum zawadskii in this, and by dissolving shell, Chrysanthemum zawadskii-pearl vinegar was produced. When a 1% of ark shell, oyster shell, or ear shell was added to wax gourd vinegar, 95.6～98.4% of the shell dissolved, and when a 2% content of shell was added, 97.2～98.4% was dissolved. The acidity of vinegar which dissolved 1% shell was pH 3.0～3.17, and the acidity of vinegar which dissolved 2% shell was pH 1.11～1.20. The pH values of vinegar which dissolved 1%, and 2% shell contents were 4.54～4.55, and 4.86～4.95, respectively. When 1% shell was dissolved, the acidity was higher than that of commercial vinegar, with a high pH value and low level of free acid. This shows that when Chrysanthemum zawadskii 1% is added during acetic acid fermentation, the inhibition was 44.4%, and 22.2% respectively. In this regard, Chrysanthemum zawadskii should be added after the fermentation of acetic acid. The calcium content of 1% shell vinegar is 0.4%, and that of 2% vinegar is 0.78%. Non-heated native wax gourd shows an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition rate of 21.7%, an antioxidant activity of 5.23%, and a tyrosinase inhibition rate of 5.5%. In the case of heated-extracted wax gourd, the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition rate was 16.1%, superoxide dismutase activity was 20.5%, antioxidant activity was 23.2%, and the tyrosinase inhibition rate was 7.1%. Also, in the case of Chrysanthemum zawadskii, the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition rate was 28.8%, the xanthine oxidase inhibition rate was 28.2%, the superoxide dismutase activity was 14.5%, the antioxidant activity was 3.2%, and the tyrosinase inhibition rate was 9.2% Data also revealed that when a 10% sample of the heated-wax gourd extract was added to A549 human lung cancer epithelial cells of, the number of cancer cells declined by 80% in 72 hours, When a 10% native extract was added, the number of cells declined by, 74% in 48 hours, and when a heated-extract of Chrysanthemum zawadskii was added, 100% of the cells died after 72 hours.
It is said that the reason Bulgarians enjoy longevity is that they have a lot of yogurt, whose Lactobacillus controls intestinal poison-producing germs. In young individuals, the number of bifidobacteria exceeds 10 billion per 1 g of intestinal content, but this number decreases for older or senile individuals, who have a larger number of harmful microorganisms such as Clostridium. In addition, it is well known that artificially increasing intestinal bifidobacteria can help control harmful microorganisms and thus facilitate a healthier and longer life. The microorganisms used for artificial spawn are referred to as probiotic microorganisms, and in general, lactic acid bacteria(LAB) are used. Unlike antibiotics, which kill harmful microorganisms, probiotic microorganisms coexist with and control them, while improving the health of the individual, that is, they can improve and invigorate host cells. Because probiotic microorganisms and its products based on LAB are known to help prevent and treat constipation, diarrhea, intestinal inflammation, and blood cholesterol and generally improve health through the purification of intestines, its market has been continuously expanding. Korea imports approximately 90% of spawn and uses them. It is likely that they are not appropriate for Korean`s physical condition. Thus, considering this problem into account, Entecbio, a biotech firm in Korea, has produced various products by using its proprietary mi-croorganisms. In this paper, the effects, characteristics, and kinds of products from based on proprietary microorganisms, with its prospect for market, etc., are generally examined.
This study investigated the hotel buffet restaurant`s service quality, emotional reaction of customer, recommendation intention, and defection intention. The survey was conducted from January 3 to February 7 in 2011, and 400 respondents were used in the data analysis. As a results of this study, the hotel buffet restaurant`s service quality was classified by the interaction, outcome, and physical environment quality. The emotional reaction of hotel buffet restaurant`s customer was classified by the positive and negative emotion. The all factors of hotel buffet restaurant`s service quality had a positive impact on positive emotion, while it had a negative impact on negative emotion. The positive emotion reaction of hotel buffet restaurant`s customer had a positive impact on the recommendation intention, while the negative emotion had a negative impact on the recommendation intention. And the negative emotion had a positive impact on the defection intention in hotel buffet restaurants. In addition, there were partially differences in the service quality and emotional reaction by general characteristics. There were significant differences in the recommendation intention by marriage status and monthly income. Therefore, the hotel buffet restaurants have to design a strategy of service for increasing customer`s positive emotion and recommendation intention.
This study was conducted to investigate the changes in saponin content and antioxidant activity of crude ginseng and extruded ginseng by using different solvent extraction methods. Each of the fractions was first extracted by 80% ethanol followed by ether treatment to remove the lipid components. Water soluble components were separated by ethylacetate and water saturated butanol. Four fraction, including 80% ethanol, ethylacetate, butanol and water were obtained from crude and extruded ginsengs to analyze saponin content and antioxidant activity. Saponin content and antioxidant capacity of each of the four fractions were measured by LC/MS analysis and ORAC(Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity) assay, respectively. It was found that a major portion of saponin was present in ethyl acetate and water saturated butanol fractions. When extracted by 80% ethanol, ginsenoside Rb1 and Rg1 were mostly found in crude ginseng, while ginsenoside Re and Rb1 were detected in extruded ginseng. Even though Rh1 and Rg3 were found in a very small quantity in crude ginseng, there was a significant quantity of both in extruded ginseng when extracted by 80% ethanol. Similar tendency was also observed in extruded ginseng fraction when extracted with ethyl acetate and butanol. In crude ginseng, the level of Rg1 was the highest among other ginsenosides upon extraction by ethyl acetate, while Rh1 and Rg3 were predominantly found by employing similar solvent extraction in the extruded ginseng. Also, Rg1, Re and Rb1 were also found in the extruded ginseng with small quantity. Rg1, Re and Rb1 were found in crude ginseng by butanol extraction, while Rb1 and Re were extracted from the extruded ginseng. Overall, there was no difference in the saponin content between crude ginseng and extruded ginseng when extracted by butanol and water, but twice as much of saponin was obtained by 80% ethanol extraction and 6 times more saponin were obtained in ethyl acetate fraction in the extruded ginseng. Antioxidant capacity of crude ginseng as determined by ORAC assay was higher in 80% ethanol(high in many different kinds of biological compounds) and water saturated butanol(high in polar saponin) fractions than the ethyl acetate and water fractions. No difference in antioxidant capacity was observed between crude and extruded ginseng. However, antioxidant capacity of ethyl acetate and water fractions in extruded ginseng was significantly higher than crude ginseng(P>0.05). All the fractions in both, crude and extruded ginseng possessed antioxidant capacity and even water fractions that contained almost no saponin had some antioxidant capacity. While determining correlation coefficient between fractions in extruded ginseng by Pearson correlation, it was observed that 80% ethanol fraction was in correlation with ethyl acetate(P>0.01) and ethanol(P>0.001) and in the case of ethylacetate, correlation was observed only with butanol fraction(P>0.05).