The purpose of this study was to compare convenience food purchasing behaviors and food habits. The study, which asked surveyed 131 female college students in Daejeon, in 2011, on how they used nutrition labels. The subjects were divided into two groups, in terms of the way they checked examined nutrition labels: a "Check" group(n=62, 47.3%) and a "No check" group(n=69, 52.7%). Reasons given for not reading nutrition labelings were "a habit of buying" for 72.2%, and "too small or rude" for 19.1%. The "Check" group reported higher interest in nutrition(p<0.001) and hygiene(p<0.01) than the "No check" group. Those who used the labels had higher cereal(p<0.01) and vegetable(p<0.01) consumption and a lower intake of fast foods(p<0.05). But however, most of the subjects(65.6%) chose by taste, at the time they purchased the convenience foods. The subjects considered "expiry date"(n=87, 66.4%) to be more important information on food labels than "nutrient composition"(n=11, 8.4%). The number of products whose nutrition labels were checked by over 50% was five out of 12. In conclusion, our study suggests that proper use of nutrition labeling may improve food choices and enable healthy dietary practices. Further efforts are needed to provide the public with nutrition education programs on how to read nutrition labeling. Modifying nutrition labels to make them easier for the public to understand should also be considered.
The purposes of this study were to develop value-added sauce(ketchup) products with Korean advanced chile peppers (Capsicum annuum L.), determine their physicochemical characteristics, and conduct a sensory evaluation. American chile ketchup products were collected from American local favorites and analyzed based on their compositions. The Korean chile ketchup contained tomato paste(37.5%), Korean chile pepper(14.1%), sugar(14.8%), vinegar(14.1%), garlic(8.5%), herbs, plum extract, and oligosaccharide. Its physiochemical analysis showed: moisture 59.61±0.28%, crude protein 2.18±0.11%, crude lipid 1.99±0.04%, crude ash 9.26±0.13%, crude carbohydrate 26.97±0.48%, reducing sugar 35.19±0.97%, salt 3.04±0.04%, acidity 2.22±0.01%, pH 3.7±0.01, and °brix 36.3±0.14. Korean chile ketchup showed higher overall acceptability compared to American local favorite chile ketchup. This result suggests the possibility for replacing chile ketchup products imported from foreign countries(USA and Europe).
이 연구는 블루베리 즙을 첨가하여 젤리의 제조조건을 최적화하고자 하였다. 16개의 블루베리 즙을 이용한 젤 시료는 Design Expert 프로그램을 이용하여 제조하였으며, 최적화를 위해 블루베리 즙(100～200 g), 설탕(40～160 g), 젤라틴(8～20 g)의 양을 독립변수로, 텍스처, pH, 관능평가 항목을 종속변수로 각각 선정하였다. 반응표면 분석법을 사용하기 위한 실험설계로 중심합성계획을 이용하였다. 각 항목별 최적조건은 Canonical 모형의 수치 최적화(numerical optimization)과 모형적 최적화(graphical optimization)를 통하여 선정하였으며, 그 중 가장 높은 desirability를 갖는 최적점을 선택하여 지점 예측(point prediction)을 통해 도출한 결과, 각 독립변수의 예측된 블루베리 즙을 첨가한 젤리의 최적값은 블루베리 주스 133.63 g, 설탕 160.0 g, 젤라틴은 12.78 g이었다.
For the purpose of production of GABA-rich tomato paste, this study was carried out to investigate GABA producing lactic acid bacteria from Korean traditional fermented food, Kimchi and optimize the culture conditions. As a result of fermentation, Lactobacillus brevis B3-20 among lactic acid bacteria isolated at the pre-experiments was the best producer of GABA at the tomato paste medium with 50%(wet-base) levels of dionized water. At the result of fermentation on the tomato paste medium with 0.5%(w/w) yeast extract, as a source of nitrogen, 3%(w/w) MSG(monosodium glutamate) and dionized water(the ratio of tomato paste and water was 2:8), Lb. brevis B3-20 produced the maximum GABA concentration, 143.38 mM. GABA-rich tomato paste showed the activity of free radical scavenging. Because GABA-rich tomato paste have functional ingredients such as ascorbic acid, lycopene, carotenoid, as well as GABA by lactic acid bacteria fermentation, GABA-rich tomato paste can be considered high functional materials.
This paper reviews 14 studies of the Joseon Dynasty(1392～1909) to examine the traditional Korean foods in Korean festivals. A total of 12 studies mentioned Seollal, Daeboreum, Dongji, Nappyeng as festivals involving. Traditional foods 10, Yudu, 9, Sambok and Junggujeol, 8, Chuseok and Seotdalgeummeum, 7, Samjinnal, Chopail, and Dano, 5, Jungwon, and 4, Hansik. In terms of the types of traditional foods, 13 studies mentioned red bean gruel, 12, Yaksik, 11, Tteokguk, 10, sudan and dog meat, 8, the custom of cracking the outer shell of different types of nuts, 7, Guibagisul(an ear-quickening wine), rice cakes(azalea hwajeon, zelkova rice cake, bean and turnip rice cake), 6, a chrysanthemum cakes, 5, Songpyeon, charunbeung(wagon-wheel rice cake), chrysanthemum wine, and sparrow meat, 4, Gangjeong, red bean grue, wine and snack, Jeonyak, 3, rice cakes, the making of soy sauce, Nabyak, roasted hare meat, foods for guests during, New Year festivities and rice cakes. The most frequently recorded festival foods were rice cakes and wine in various forms. This paper's review of ancient documents from the Joseon Dynasty provides a better understanding of Korea's folk customs, particularly traditional foods. In addition, this paper's findings are expected to help sustain Korea's traditional customs and foods and facilitrate the spread of Korea's food culture worldwide.
This paper examines the effects of various methods of soft steaming(i.e., forced convection-boiler, forced convection-fan, and natural convection) on the quality of potatoes. In particular, the paper investigates the effects of cooking conditions (the steaming method, the treatment time, and the temperature) on the color(L, a, b), moisture content, texture profile, and ascorbic acid of potatoes. The results indicate that not only the cooking method, the treatment time, and the temperature but also the heat transfer mechanism had considerable influence on potato quality. In addition, natural convection steaming was superior to other treatment methods in terms of nutrient retention and texture maintenance. The results of this study should be useful for establishing commercial standards for processing potatoes and improving the quality of thermally processed foods.
This paper analyzes phenolic compounds, carbon isotopes, and sugar components of whiskys based on the maturation period. For this, the paper considers a total of 40 whiskys(mainly imports) distributed in Korea. It is important to analyze the presence phenolic compounds(e.g., furfural, syringaldehyde, vanillin, syringic acid, and vanillic acid) because these are found only in whiskys ripened in oak. The results indicate that the total content of phenolic compounds increased with the increase in the storage period regardless of the type of whisky. In terms of vanillin/syringaldehyde(V/S), Scotch whiskys had 0.4～0.5; American whiskies, 0.30～0.34; and Canadian whiskies, 0.31～0.33. In terms of Scotch whiskys, Macallan had 0.25～0.34, making it unique among Scotch whiskys. In terms of the ratio of carbon isotopes, there were clear differences between malt Scotch whiskys, blended Scotch grain whiskys, American whiskys, and Canadian whiskys: －23.4～－24.3, －16.8～－21.0, －11.0～－11.5 and －9.5～13.9, respectively. In addition, malt Scotch whiskys contained 40～230 ㎎/ℓ of fructose; blended Scotch whiskys, 20～120 ㎎/ℓ; American whiskys, 50～70 ㎎/ℓ; and Canadian whiskys, 20～100 ㎎/ℓ, demonstrating that the fructose content of single-malt whiskys was twice the average fructose content. On the other hand, malt Scotch whiskys contained 30～170 ㎎/ℓ of glucose; blended Scotch whiskys, 20～120 ㎎/ℓ; American whiskys, 20～30 ㎎/ℓ; and Canadian whiskys, 10～110 ㎎/ℓ, demonstrating that the glucose content of single-malt whiskys exceeded the average glucose content. This study’s results can be used as a database of classification for whiskys based on the fermentation of raw ingredients and the period of maturation for distinguishing between different types of whiskys. In addition, the results can facilitate the verification of genuine whiskys by allowing for the identification of different types of whiskys based on the period of maturation.
It has been suggested that Helicobacter pylori(H. pylori) infections can promote the development and progression of gastric cancer through the modulation of cell cycle regulators such as p27Kip1 and Skp2. p27Kip1 is a cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor that blocks the G1/S transition necessary for cell cycle progression. Skp2 is a component of the ubiquitin ligase complex called SCFSkp2(SKP1-Cullin-F-box), which specifically binds and promotes the degradation of p27Kip1. A low level of p27Kip1 and a high level of Skp2 have been reported in many types of cancers, including gastric cancer. In addition, a decrease in p27Kip1 has been reported in H. pylori-infected specimens. However, data on Skp2 in H. pylori infections are limited. This study examines the changes in the status of Skp2 in H. pylori-infected gastric epithelial AGS cells. For this, we stimulated AGS cells with H. pylori(NCTC 11637) at the ratio of 300:1(bacterium:cell) for 6 hours. The results of an immunoprecipitation analysis, followed by a western blot, indicate that the interaction between Skp2 and 14-3-3 was elevated 3 hours after the H. pylori treatment. In addition, there was an increase in cytoplasmic Skp2 after 3 hours, whereas there was no change in the nuclear level. Since it has been reported that interaction with 14-3-3 and the subsequent cytoplasmic translocation of Skp2 can increase its protein stability, increases in the interaction with 14-3-3 and the cytoplasmic Skp2 after the H. pylori treatment can increase the level of Skp2 in AGS cells. This phenomenon may explain, at least to some extent, the mechanism underlying the relationship between H. pylori infections and gastric carcinogenesis.
Intense pulsed light(IPL) has been highlighted as an innovative nonthermal sterilization technology that can kill spoilage or pathogenic microorganisms by using short-duration pulses of intense broad-spectrum electromagnetic radiation. This paper examines the inactivation effects of IPL on Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli O157:H7, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa inoculated on seafood products such as salmon, flatfish, and shrimps and evaluates the possibility of extending the shelf-life of seafood products. The results indicate that the inactivation of microorganisms increased with an increase in IPL energy density(J/㎠) and a decrease in the distance between the sample surface and the lamp. In addition, temperature increases on the fish fillets during the treatments were well controlled within the range of 5.7～9.8℃. The IPL treatment had a significant positive effect on the storage stability of seafood products at the storage temperature of 4℃ for 12 days. These results suggest that the storage period for fish fillets can be extended from 4 days to 6～8 days through the IPL treatment.
This study was carried out to optimize the production of immature green cherry tomato pickles and to produce green cherry tomato pickles of good sensory quality. The composition of immature green cherry tomato pickles was optimized using a central composition design with 3 variables and 3 levels. The overall acceptability score, based on sensory evaluation, was best, when the immature green cherry tomato pickles contained 231 g of vinegar, 52.6 g of salt, 168.3 g of sugar, 204 g of tomatoes, and 231 ㎖ of water. The statically predicted optimal formulation of immature green cherry tomato pickles on overall acceptability value was 33.54%(w/w) of vinegar, 7.64%(w/w) of salt, 25.28%(w/w) of sucrose, 33.54%(w/w) of water. The optimal conditions for producing immature green cherry tomato pickles should consider the factors of time and temperature of storage.
In this study red ginseng was extracted with ethanol and then fermented by yeasts including Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium longum. Fermented red ginseng extracts(FRGE) were found to be more effective antioxidants in vitro with regards to 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) radical scavenging activity than red ginseng extracts(RGE). In FRGE, the contents of ginsenosides Rb1, -Rb2 and -Rc were much lower than in RGE, however, the contents of ginsenosides 20(S)-Rg3, 20(R)-Rg3 and compound K were higher than RGE. FRGE was added to Yanggaeng(0, 5, 10, 15, 20%), and physicochemical and sensory evaluations of the Yanggaeng were conducted. The L and b values of Yanggaeng with added FRGE were decreased by increasing the ratio of FRGE, while the a value was increased. Sensory evaluations for, taste, color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability of Yanggaeng with addition of FRGE (10%) were applicable for improving the Yanggaeng product.
With the addition of ethanol to wax gourd extract and by acetic fermentation, 5.0% acidity vinegar was produced. After putting 10% extract(10% concentration) of Chrysanthemum zawadskii in this, and by dissolving shell, Chrysanthemum zawadskii-pearl vinegar was produced. When a 1% of ark shell, oyster shell, or ear shell was added to wax gourd vinegar, 95.6～98.4% of the shell dissolved, and when a 2% content of shell was added, 97.2～98.4% was dissolved. The acidity of vinegar which dissolved 1% shell was pH 3.0～3.17, and the acidity of vinegar which dissolved 2% shell was pH 1.11～1.20. The pH values of vinegar which dissolved 1%, and 2% shell contents were 4.54～4.55, and 4.86～4.95, respectively. When 1% shell was dissolved, the acidity was higher than that of commercial vinegar, with a high pH value and low level of free acid. This shows that when Chrysanthemum zawadskii 1% is added during acetic acid fermentation, the inhibition was 44.4%, and 22.2% respectively. In this regard, Chrysanthemum zawadskii should be added after the fermentation of acetic acid. The calcium content of 1% shell vinegar is 0.4%, and that of 2% vinegar is 0.78%. Non-heated native wax gourd shows an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition rate of 21.7%, an antioxidant activity of 5.23%, and a tyrosinase inhibition rate of 5.5%. In the case of heated-extracted wax gourd, the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition rate was 16.1%, superoxide dismutase activity was 20.5%, antioxidant activity was 23.2%, and the tyrosinase inhibition rate was 7.1%. Also, in the case of Chrysanthemum zawadskii, the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition rate was 28.8%, the xanthine oxidase inhibition rate was 28.2%, the superoxide dismutase activity was 14.5%, the antioxidant activity was 3.2%, and the tyrosinase inhibition rate was 9.2% Data also revealed that when a 10% sample of the heated-wax gourd extract was added to A549 human lung cancer epithelial cells of, the number of cancer cells declined by 80% in 72 hours, When a 10% native extract was added, the number of cells declined by, 74% in 48 hours, and when a heated-extract of Chrysanthemum zawadskii was added, 100% of the cells died after 72 hours.
The goal of this study was to examine the ameliorative effects of black ginseng(BG) in male obese diabetic C57BLKS/ J-db/db mice. Ten-week-old male db/db mice were administrated 300 ㎎/㎏ of F-BG daily for 6 weeks, The db/db mice where corresponded to the normal group and db/db mice which were the diabetic positive group were not provided BG treatment. The supressive effects of treatment were examined on serum lipids levels, which included total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol and nonesterified fatty acid. Also, weight changes and the relative weight of liver and kidney, organ pathological investigation were measured. The effects of treatment were assessed by comparing the results of the db/db mice that received BG for 6 weeks with that of the diabetic positive group. Significant differences in several biological parameters such as HDL level(p<0.05), TG level(p<0.05) and NEFA level(p<0.05) were observed for the BG group. BG treatment increased the HDL level and decreased the NEFA level, which could ameliorate hyperlipidemia or blood circulation.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the dietary habits and snack consumption behaviors of middle school students with different obesity indexes in the Chungnam area. The survey was carried out using self-questionnaires and included 385 students(119 underweight, 193 normal weight, 66 overweight). The rate of skipping meals was higher for underweight students than overweight students; however, this difference was not statistically significant. The mean time of meal was 10 to 20 minutes and the criteria for choosing to eat a meal were ‘hunger’ and ‘taste’ in all groups. More than half of the subjects ate snacks 1 time a day, which were purchased outside. The typical snack time was ‘between lunch and dinner’. The criteria of for consuming a meal were ‘taste’ and ‘price’ in all groups. In the underweight group, the snack food scores were ice cream(4.4), fruit(4.3), fried chicken(4.1), sports beverage(4.0), fruit juice(4.0), pizza(4.0) and, tteokbokki(3.9). In the normal weight group, the snack food scores were ice cream(4.3), fried chicken(4.2), pizza(4.0), sports beverage(3.9), fruit juice(3.9) and, tteokbokki(3.9) in the overweight group, the snack food scores were ice cream(4.3), fruit(4.3), fried chicken(4.2), yogurt(4.0), sports beverage(4.0), fruit juice(4.0) and, ramen(4.0). In conclusion, the snaking behaviors of the subjects were not significantly different based on their obesity index. However, this study may provide basic information on the snacking behaviors of middle school students, and the findings suggest that nutrition education or counseling can improve snack intake habits and positive behaviors toward healthy adolescents diets.
The objective of this study was to address the issues associated with the solubility of the pork meat oligopeptide, while maintaining its original nutritional value and improving its digestibility. The pork meat oligopeptide was used to produce an oral liquid supplement that was contained in a 200 ㎖ can. The formulation was designed to satisfy 20% of the daily recommended nutrition intake of an adult male aged between 20 and 29. Analysis of the quality characteristics showed that this formulation was highly homogenized as an oral liquid supplement with advanced solubility. In addition, based on the viscosity, pH, color value, turbidity, and brix, the product was shown to advanced processing quality with great solubility; however, there was some concern that the taste would be deteriorated due to the bitter taste of the peptide. Thus, further studies need to be performed before this formulation can be commercialized.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the potential antidiabetic and antioxidant effect of the ethanol extract from Chrysanthemum cornarium L. var. spatiosum(CSE) against alloxan-induced oxidative stress in pancreatic β-cells, HIT-T15. In this study, the antidiabetic effect of CSE was examined using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazoliu bromide(MTT) cell proliferation assay, lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) release assay, NAD+/NADH ratio and insulin secretion. To further investigate whether CSE is involved in the antioxidant activity of alloxan-damaged HIT-T15 cells, its antioxidant effect against alloxan-induced oxidative stress was measured in HIT-T15 cells by determining the levels of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase(SOD), glutathione S-transferase(GST), glutathione reductase(GR) and glutathione peroxidase(GPx). The results of this analysis showed that alloxan significantly decreased cell viability, increased LDH leakage, and lowered NAD+/NADH ratio and insulin secretion in HIT-T15 cells. However, CSE significantly increased the viability of alloxan-treated cells and lowered LDH leakage. The intracellular NAD+/NADH ratio and insulin secretion were also significantly increased by 1.7-fold and 1.3-fold, respectively, after treatment with 100 ㎍/㎖ CSE. The HIT-T15 cells treated with alloxan showed significant decreases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, while CSE significantly elevated the levels of antioxidant enzymes. These findings suggest that CSE could have a protective effect against cytotoxicity and dysfunction of pancreatic cells in the presence of alloxan-induced oxidative stress.
This current survey was conducted to examine consumer attitudes toward factors determining beef purchasing and improving distribution systems. The frequency of beef purchasing was shown to reflect social and economic status, where inhabitants in large cities, such as Seoul, with higher salaries showed a higher frequency. In addition, consumers that were in their forties bought beef more frequently than consumers that were in their twenties. Consumers in Seoul and the megalopolis with a monthly income of higher than 200 million won preferred to purchase meat from department stores and discount markets. In contrast, people in small cities with lower incomes tended to buy meat from butcher shops and brand shops. In a question regarding unsatisfaction factors of retail beef, individuals that were in their thirties with a high income had concerns associated with packaging problems. For people under thirty with low income, the consistency of quality and price were the prime concerns. In regards to the beef grading system, consumer response varied between inhabitants, monthly income and age group, where consumers from small cities that were in their twenties and forties with a low income had a negative viewpoint. For the differential beef distribution system, housewives between the ages of 30 and 40 from a small city with an income higher than 200 million won had a positive response; however, a large number of consumers were not familiar with this system. The most demanding beef cuts were in the following order: loin, flank and rib. In addition, the most important factors determining purchasing beef were as follows: price, breed and portion.
This study compared the quality and antioxidant characteristics of commercial and traditional Doenjangs from various regions of Korea. The pH, salinity, and brix degree of the samples tested ranged from 4.61～6.36, 0.90～1.00% and 0.97～1.10 °Bx, respectively. The pH was highest for Doenjang made in the Jeonnam region. No significant differences in the salinity or brix degree of Doenjang from different regions of Korea were found(p>0.05). The L, a, and b-values for color of the Doenjang samples ranged from 52.92～55.00, 0.03～0.62 and －0.74～2.70, respectively. The total polyphenol content(TPC) ranged from 18.71～25.78 ㎎ GAE/㎖, and the 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl(DPPH) and 2, 2-azinobis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid(ABTS) radical scavenging activities ranged from 6.43～14.38 and 2.46～7.08 ㎎ AE/㎖, respectively. The TPC was highest for Doenjang from Gyeongnam, while that from Gyeongbuk had the lowest content. The DPPH radical scavenging activity was highest for Doenjang from Jeonnam and lowest for Doenjang from Gangwon. The ABTS radical scavenging activities for Doenjang from Gyeonggi and Gyeongbuk were lower in comparison to samples from other regions. Consequently these results should provide better information for standardizing and improving the quality and functional activity of commercial Doenjang in Korea.
Although bacterial outbreaks from ready-to-eat foods such as sprouts have increased, the information on microbial biocontrol by means of sanitizers is limited. Twenty sprouts of red cabbage, baby radish, alfalfa, and broccoli each were collected from the wholesale markets in Seoul. Ethanol and organic acids including acetic acid, citric acid, and lactic acid were used to control the amount of mesophilic bacteria and Bacillus cereus. Sanitizer mixtures of ethanol and organic acids showed a remarkable reduction of viable counts and, in particular, the sanitizer mixture comprised of 20% ethanol and 1% lactic acid seemed to be best by a reduction of 7～8 log CFU/g on the sprouts after a 10 minute exposure. At the same time, the sanitizer comprised of 20% ethanol and 1% lactic acid showed the same reduction for Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, B. cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Enterococcus faecalis, with more effect toward the Gram-negative bacteria. Sensory evaluation by texture, browning, off-flavour, and overall acceptability seemed better just after treatment when compared to one day after treatment with the sanitizer. Therefore, the sanitizers of ethanol-organic acid might be an effective means to control the bacterial contamination of sprouts in palce of sodium hypochloric acid.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and correlation of anthropometric data, eating behaviors, and nutrient intake on the bone mineral density(BMD) of female college students. 349 female college students were surveyed and their age, height, and weight were an average of 20.5 years, 163.2 ㎝ and 54.0 ㎏, respectively. Their average BMI was 20.2, with 66% falling in the normal range, 21.8% classified as underweight, 8.0% as overweight, and obese individuals comprised 3.4% of the sample by BMI classification. Calcaneal BMD was measured and the average T-score was 0.117. The results of BMD measurements were normal in 268 people(76.8%), osteopenia was found in 71 individuals(20.3%), and osteoporosis in 10(2.9%), respectively. There was a significant difference in bone mineral density according to height(p<0.05) and BMI (p<0.01). There were significant differences between BMD and eating behavior, regularity of eating behaviors(p<0.05), instant food intake(p<0.05), eating out(p<0.05) and nutritional supplement intake(p<0.05). In addition, normal the group with normal BMD had a more desirable eating behavior compared to the osteopenia and osteoporosis afflicted groups. BMD had a significant difference according to the nutrient intake of calcium(p<0.05), vitamin A(p<0.05), and vitamin C(p<0.05). In conclusion, BMD showed a good correlation with height(p<0.01), BMI(p<0.01), body composition including total body water(p<0.05), FFM(p<0.05), body protein(p<0.05) and intake of calcium(p<0.05), iron(p<0.05), vitamin A(p<0.05), and vitamin C(p<0.05). Therefore, an education plan and training on balanced diets proper body weight control, and desirable eating behaviors for female college students will be needed.