Purpose: The purpose of this study is to understand the general nurses's experiences of missing patient identification. Methods: Participants were 12 nurses who experienced missing patient identification in general wards in hospitals. Data were collected with focus group interviews and individual in-depth interviews and data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis. Results: As the results of this study, 128 statements, 4 themes and 13 sub-themes were derived. The four themes derived were ‘Situations that we had not to check patient identification properly’, ‘Fear and pressure from the result of missing patient identification’, ‘Feeling guilty to the results of missing patient identification’and ‘Efforts to reassuring patient identification’. Conclusion: In order to prevent the failure of patient identification, we need specialized programs to cultivate patient safety culture not only for nurses, also patients and caregivers, and all departments of hospital. We also need institutional efforts and effective hospital investment and supports for accomplishing the goal.
This study aimed to investigate the use of environmentally friendly agricultural products (EFAPs) in Chungcheongbuk-do and the perception and satisfaction of school dietitians with EFAPs. The study survey was conducted from April to Jun 2018. Among 195 dietitians, 54.4% were nutrition teachers and 51.3% were working in elementary schools. Of the participants, 65% answered that the percentage of EFAPS in the total food cost was 10~30%. The most used EFAP food group was grains (64.6%), followed by vegetables (26.2%). The main reasons for using EFAPs were subsidies for EFAPs from local governments (85.1%) and students’ health (52.3%). The average daily subsidy for EFAPs from the local governments was 201~500 won at 45.1%, and 200 won or less at 34.9%, which was based on one meal per student. In questions on satisfaction with using EFAPs, satisfaction with safety (3.93 out of 5 points) scored the highest, followed by nutrition (3.74), freshness (3.70), appearance (3.32), diversity (2.85), and price (2.78). Therefore, to expand the use of EFAPs in school food service, it is necessary to expand the provision of subsidies and increase EFAP production diversification.
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between eating speed and nutritional status among Korean high-school students using Nutrition Quotient for Korean Adolescents (NQ-A). In this study, a questionnaire survey was conducted in 453 high-school students (227 boys and 226 girls) from September 2019 to October 2019 in Chungbuk area. Based on the self-reported speed of eating data, subjects were classified into a fast group (n=180), a medium group (n=184), and a slow group (n=89). NQ-A scores for each group were measured in each speed group. In the environment section, girls showed a significant difference in usage time of electronic devices, such as TVs and smartphones: the fast group spent significantly more time than the medium group (p=0.035). In the practice section, among boys, the slow group had significantly higher scores for washing hands before eating than the medium and the fast groups (p=0.022). This study suggested that eating speed of high school students is associated with health-related environment factor and practice factor of NQ-A, such as time spent on smart devices or washing hands before eating. The study results can provide baseline data for nutrition education on health management of high school students.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the regular selling price and nutrient contents of foods used for special medical purposes in Korea. This study investigated the regular selling price and nutritional composition of 114 enteral nutrition (EN) foods on the manufacturer’s internet homepage. The average price of the total products was 1,156.0 won/100 mL. The price of foods used for calorie and nutrient supplementation (CNS) was significantly higher compared to that of the other EN food types (p<0.01). With respect to the nutritional content per 100 mL of the product, EN foods for CNS had significantly higher contents of energy, protein, 5 minerals, and 7 vitamins than the other EN food types. On comparing the nutritional contents of foods according to the price, the balanced nutrition foods showed significantly higher contents of energy, carbohydrate, protein, 3 minerals, and 7 vitamins in high-priced products than in low-priced foods. Summarizing these results, foods for CNS were approximately twice as expensive as the other EN foods, and the energy, protein, mineral, and vitamin contents were also high. Balanced nutrition foods had higher nutrient contents in high-priced products, which showed the relationship between the product price and nutrient content.
금강 수계의 대형보가 2017년 6월부터 수문을 개방하기 시작하면서, 보의 상·하류에 다양한 모래톱이 드러나거나 새롭게 만들어지면서, 하천사주 지형의 생태계 가치를 파악하는 연구가 요구되었다. 본 연구는 세종보, 공주보, 백제보 구간을 대상으로, 광학 위성영상 공간분석을 통하여 보 건설 전, 보 건설 이후, 보 수문개방 후의 하천의 수변 서식처 지형 변화를 분석하였다. 위성영상은 물의 난반사로 인하여 수중공간을 구분할 수 없는 한계로 인하여, 수역은 단일 분류하고, 육상역인 하안사주와 하중도를 나지 부, 초본부, 목본부, 웅덩이 등으로 세분류하여 총 9개의 서식처로 분류하였다. 그리고 이러한 분류 기준을 적용하여 위성영상을 공간분석하여 단위서식처를 추출하고 그 면적비를 산출하였다. 보 건설 전·후를 비교한 결과, 보 건설 전에는 3개보 모두에서 전구간에서 사주가 폭넓게 발생하였지만, 보 건설 후에는 대부분의 사주면적이 급감하였으며, 특히 나지형 사주는 거의 사라졌다. 이러한 효과는 하류 공주보와 백제보로 갈수록 더욱 두드러진 경향을 보였다. 그러나, 수문개방 이후에는 다시 사주의 면적비는 증가하였고, 이 가운데 나지형 사주가 높은 비율을 차지하였다. 이는 상류 세종보에서 가장 효과가 크게 나타났다. 이러한 연구결과를 통해서 우리는 금강수계에서 보 건설에 의한 서식처 감소효과는 수계의 하류로 갈수록 크고, 보 개방에 따른 서식처 회복은 수계의 상류로 갈수록 효과가 크게 나타난 것을 발견하였다. 앞으로 서식처다양성과 생물다양성 간의 관계 연구를 통하여 조절하천의 자연성 회복과정을 체계적으로 규명할 수 있기를 기대한다.
The purpose of this study was to investigate dietary behavior and nutritional knowledge related to sodium intake in high school students. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 400 high school students (200 boys) in Incheon, Korea. Survey data were analyzed according to gender and degree of obesity. The distribution of the degree of obesity was the highest in 231 normal weight individuals (57.8%), followed by 89 underweight (22.3%), 41 overweight (10.3%), and 39 obese (9.8%). The sodium-related undesirable dietary behavior score was 2.9 points out of 5 points. The detailed dietary behavior scores of ‘I eat kimchi when I eat instant noodles or noodles’ and ‘I like dried fish with salt’ were significantly higher in boys than in girls (p<0.05). It was found that boys consumed more frequently high sodium foods, such as pizza, hamburger, and hotdog than girls. According to the degree of obesity, the underweight group consumed more kimchi fried rice and potato chips frequently than the other groups (p<0.05). Preference for salty taste was not significantly different among the groups by gender and degree of obesity. Sodium-related nutritional knowledge score was 5.3 points out of 10 and which was significantly higher in girls or normal weight group than in boys or obesity group. These results suggest that nutritional education on sodium intake is needed because the nutritional knowledge of adolescents is relatively low. Moreover, intensive nutritional guidance is required, especially in boys or adolescents with undesirable degree of obesity.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional knowledge and dietary behaviors of middle school students according to their mother’s employment status. Of all 453 subjects, 52.1% were boys, and 67.5% of the mothers were employed. The total score of nutritional knowledge was 8.0 out of 10 for students with a non-working mom and 7.7 for those with a working mom, showing no significant difference. Among the 20 nutritional knowledge questions, correct answer rates for “lots of fruits may be eaten because of not gaining weight” (72.6% vs. 81.6%, p<0.05) and “eating raw carrots is better than eating fried ones with oil” (34.6% vs. 44.9%, p<0.05) were significantly higher in students with a working mom. The regularity of meals showed a significant difference according to the mother’s employment, indicating that responses of “very regular” (62.4% vs. 72.1%) were high among students with a non-working mom and responses of “skipping breakfast” (31.4% vs. 19.7%) were higher in students with a working mom (p<0.05). The number of snacks a day was also significantly different according to the mother’s employment, showing that 12.8% of the students with a working mom and only 3.4% of them with a non-working mom did not eat snacks at all (p<0.05). These results reveal no significant difference in middle school students’ nutritional knowledge according to their mother’s employment status; however, the students whose mother had a job were more likely to have more undesirable dietary behaviors such as irregular meals and snacking.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the satisfaction with school meal service and the food preference in elementary school students who are in their growth period. A total of 484 students (242 boys) participated and completed a questionnaire survey. The results indicated that the merit of school meals was the highest in ‘balanced diet’. 'Food hygiene' and 'delicious food' were the most important factors in school meals. Most of the students wanted ‘balance between eastern and western foods’ and ‘new dishes’ for the menu of school meals. For the distribution of meals, ‘various kinds of side dishes’ and ‘warmth of dishes’ were mainly required. The main problems of the current environment of school meals were ‘long waiting time’ and ‘noise of the cafeteria’. In satisfaction with the school meal service, the highest satisfactory factor was 'staffs’ cleanliness', following 'arrangement of furniture in cafeteria' and 'nutrition information-providing'; whereas, the lowest factor was 'staffs’ kindness'. In the preference of foods, students preferred ‘white rice’; whereas they did not like ‘bean rice’; and ‘fried rice' was preferred. In side dishes with meat and fish, most of the meats including ‘Tangsuyuk’ and ‘Bulgogi’ were preferred. For fish, ‘fried hairtail’ was preferred; whereas, ‘fried Spanish mackerel’ was not. In case of kimchi, ‘Chinese cabbage kimchi’ and ‘cubed radish kimchi’ were especially preferred. Considering these results, intensive improvement is required to increase school meal satisfaction by understanding the students' needs. An effort to allow the students’ preferences to be reflected in the menu is also needed
The purpose of this study was to compare the quantitative and qualitative assessment of dietary intake between patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and healthy subjects and to investigate dietary factors related to MetS. Anthropometric measurements, blood analysis, and dietary intake as assessed by 24-hour recall were conducted in MetS patients (n=15) and healthy subjects (n=25). In order to assess the quantity and quality of dietary intake, daily nutrient intake, nutrient density, nutrient intake to dietary reference intake (DRI), nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR), food intake, dietary diversity score (DDS), and dietary variety score (DVS) were analyzed. The statistical differences between MetS patients and controls were analyzed using the SAS software program. Daily energy intake and food intake were not significantly different between the two groups (2,154.3 kcal vs. 1,872.9 kcal; 1,280.0 g vs. 1,261.6 g). There were also no significant differences in daily nutrient intake, nutrient intake ratio to DRI, NAR, or DVS between the MetS group and the control group. However, daily intake of eggs and milk in MetS patients was significantly lower than in the control group (9.0 g/day vs. 30.3 g/day, p<0.05; 0 g/day vs. 49.7 g/day, p<0.05). These results indicate that low intake of eggs and dairy products may be related to the development of MetS.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the dietary life status according to smart device use among university students. In 2015, data was collected during a 3 month survey of the eating behaviors, lifestyles, eating habits, and use of smart devices of 550 university students, as well as their dependency on smartphones. Ultimately, 520 subjects (94.5% analysis rate) were divided into three groups based on their daily use time of smart device: low-use group (<4.7 hours, n=173), medium-use group (≥4.7 hours and <6.4 hours, n=174), and high-use group (≥6.4 hours, n=173). The more frequent use groups showed a higher level of dependency on the smartphone. Breakfast was found to be the most commonly skipped meal; and the high-use group showed a higher response of irregular meals than low-use group. In assessment of eating habits, the subjects with less smart device usage ate more regularly and at fixed times, did not overeat, drank milk everyday, and did not consume processed food as often. To sum up, more irregularity of meal and undesirable eating habits were found among university students with higher use of smart devices. These results suggest that a control of smart device usage would lead to a more desirable dietary life in university students.
This study aimed to evaluate the health concern, eating habits, dietary behavior, and psychological stress among middleaged adults in Chungnam according to their exercise status. A total of 437 adults with a mean age of 42.6 years participated in this study and completed a questionnaire survey. The subjects were divided into one of three groups according to their exercise status: never doing exercise (NDE; n=144), doing exercise once a week (DEO; n=186), and doing exercise twice a week or more (DET; n=107). Results demonstrated significant differences in concern about health, subjective health status, meal regularity, dietary problems, and stress score among the three groups. The DET and DEO groups were more concerned about their health (p<0.001), and had a perception that their health status was better than that of the NDE group (p<0.01). A larger percentage of the DET group had breakfast everyday (p<0.05) and a smaller percentage of the DET group had dietary problems such as irregular mealtime and skipping meals (p<0.01), compared to the other groups. The average stress score of the DET group was significantly lower than that of the DEO and NDE groups (p<0.05). The results reveal that doing regular exercising at least twice a week is associated with higher health concern, more desirable dietary habits, and lower psychological stress in middle-aged adults. These findings support the beneficial effects of regular exercise for health, dietary habits, and stress control.
24-hour recall is the dietary assessment method most frequently used to evaluate dietary intake; however, accuracy is an issue when using this method, especially in large-scale studies. The purpose of this study was to assess the validity of dietary intake estimation using one serving size. Estimates of energy and nutrients taken in over a 24-hr period based on actual intake amount (24HRAI) and based on estimates of one serving size (24HRSS) were compared. Data were analyzed using a paired t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficients, and a cross-classification method. In male subjects, intake levels of energy, fat, vitamin C, vitamin B1, Zn, and total food measured using 24HRAI were significantly higher than those measured using 24HRSS. In female subjects, intake of carbohydrates, fiber, fat, vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin B complexes, various minerals, and total food measured using 24HRAI were significantly lower than those measured using 24HRSS. Energy-adjusted Pearson’s correlation coefficients revealed that intake of all nutrients showed a significant positive relationship between the two measurement methods in both males and females. Cross-classification analysis revealed that 50.5~67.6% of women and 40.3~71% of men were classified in the same quartile of intake of each nutrient when comparing data from 24HRAI and 24HRSS. We conclude that using one serving size in 24-hr recall analysis was valid and therefore may be used in studies to assess food consumption in the general adult population. Also, this method can be used to classify energy and nutrient intake into quartile, which is useful in examining the association between diet and chronic diseases.