This study investigated the association between dietary intake and 10-year risk for CHD predicted from Framingham risk score in Korean adults using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2019-2020. Eight thousand subjects (3,382 men and 4,618 women) aged 30 years or older were classified into three groups according to the 10-year CHD risk (%). The sociodemographics, anthropometrics indices, blood profiles, and dietary intake were collected. After adjusting for confounding variables, the mean adequacy ratio (MAR) decreased for both men and women as the disease risk increased. The high–risk group was below the MAR criteria, indicating that the overall quality of the meal was not good. The highest consumers of legumes (OR 0.56, 95% CI 0.37-0.84), fruits (OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.48-0.93), and fish (OR 0.60, 95% CI 0.42-0.87) had a 44%, 33%, and 40% lower 10-year CHD risk than lowest consumers in men, respectively. In women, there is no significant relationship between food groups and disease risk. Therefore, improving lifestyle habits such as weight control, increased activity, and adequate food intake, especially legumes, fruits, and fish rich in antioxidant nutrients and bioactive substances, appears to have a potential association with preventing coronary heart disease in Korean adults.
This study aimed to investigate the association between interest in beauty care and dietary behaviors of 581 (analysis rate 96.0%) high school girls in Incheon using a survey done in May 2019. Based on the degree of interest in beauty care, subjects were classified as “Beauty care group (n=346)”, and "Non-beauty care group (n=235)”. The mean age of the subjects was 16.5 years old. The beauty care group had significantly lower BMI than the non-beauty care group (p<0.01). The beauty care group showed a significantly higher interest in weight control than the non-beauty care group (p<0.001). The most time-consuming preschool morning activity in the beauty care group was beauty care, while that of the non-beauty care group was eating breakfast (p<0.001). The beauty care group had significantly higher frequency of exercise than the non-beauty care group (p<0.05). The number of individuals who skipped breakfast was significantly higher in the beauty care group. In addition, the beauty care group had a significantly higher frequency of taking morning snack, convenience food (p<0.01), sweet snacks (p<0.05), and processed beverages (p<0.05) than the non-beauty care group. Our result findings provide important information on the priority groups for nutrition education based on beauty care interest.
Diet is important for muscle health and offers a protective effects against the loss of skeletal muscle mass and physical functions with advancing age. We analyzed the relationship between diet, metabolic disease risk, and sarcopenia in Korean female adults using the 2009-2011 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). A total of 2038 adult women aged 50-64 years were classified into four groups based on the diagnosis of menopause and sarcopenia. The groups were the non-menopause and non-sarcopenia group (NMNS, n=249), the non-menopause and sarcopenia group (NMS, n=14), the menopause and non-sarcopenia group (MNS, n=1,653), and the menopause and sarcopenia group (MS, n=122). The socio-demographics, anthropometrics, blood profile, and dietary data of the subjects were collected. Those who were in both the sarcopenia groups were more obese (p<0.001), had greater waist circumferences (p<0.001), higher body mass index (p<0.001), and higher obesity rates (p<0.001) after adjustment for covariants. Both the sarcopenia groups also had higher plasma levels of total cholesterol (p<0.001), HbA1c (p=0.001), and vitamin D (p=0.020) than both the non-sarcopenia groups. Both the sarcopenia groups demonstrated a decreased intake of calcium (p=0.05), potassium (p=0.008), and niacin (p=0.008) than both the non-sarcopenia ones. Among the four groups, the NMS group showed the highest levels of total cholesterol, obesity, and lowest intake of micronutrients such as calcium, niacin, and potassium. Thus, muscle mass maintenance through weight control and adequate nutrient intake appears to demonstrate a potential association with preventing sarcopenia in Korean middle-aged women.
This study aimed to investigate the use of environmentally friendly agricultural products (EFAPs) in Chungcheongbuk-do and the perception and satisfaction of school dietitians with EFAPs. The study survey was conducted from April to Jun 2018. Among 195 dietitians, 54.4% were nutrition teachers and 51.3% were working in elementary schools. Of the participants, 65% answered that the percentage of EFAPS in the total food cost was 10~30%. The most used EFAP food group was grains (64.6%), followed by vegetables (26.2%). The main reasons for using EFAPs were subsidies for EFAPs from local governments (85.1%) and students’ health (52.3%). The average daily subsidy for EFAPs from the local governments was 201~500 won at 45.1%, and 200 won or less at 34.9%, which was based on one meal per student. In questions on satisfaction with using EFAPs, satisfaction with safety (3.93 out of 5 points) scored the highest, followed by nutrition (3.74), freshness (3.70), appearance (3.32), diversity (2.85), and price (2.78). Therefore, to expand the use of EFAPs in school food service, it is necessary to expand the provision of subsidies and increase EFAP production diversification.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between the regular selling price and nutrient contents of foods used for special medical purposes in Korea. This study investigated the regular selling price and nutritional composition of 114 enteral nutrition (EN) foods on the manufacturer’s internet homepage. The average price of the total products was 1,156.0 won/100 mL. The price of foods used for calorie and nutrient supplementation (CNS) was significantly higher compared to that of the other EN food types (p<0.01). With respect to the nutritional content per 100 mL of the product, EN foods for CNS had significantly higher contents of energy, protein, 5 minerals, and 7 vitamins than the other EN food types. On comparing the nutritional contents of foods according to the price, the balanced nutrition foods showed significantly higher contents of energy, carbohydrate, protein, 3 minerals, and 7 vitamins in high-priced products than in low-priced foods. Summarizing these results, foods for CNS were approximately twice as expensive as the other EN foods, and the energy, protein, mineral, and vitamin contents were also high. Balanced nutrition foods had higher nutrient contents in high-priced products, which showed the relationship between the product price and nutrient content.
Dietary components can modulate stress, inflammatory indicators, and health risk. This study examined the relationship among diet, metabolic disease risk, and perceived stress in Korean adult females using the 2017-2018 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. A total of 4,353 adult women aged 19-64 years were classified into four groups according to perceived stress level: very high stress group (VHSG, n=225), high stress group (HSG, n=1,079), moderate stress group (MSG, n=2,532), and low stress group (LSG, n=517). Data collection included the sociodemographics, anthropometrics, blood profile, and dietary survey. After adjusting for covariates, those in the VHSG had a higher body mass index (p=0.013) and obesity rate (p=0.053) with a shorter sleep time than the LSG group. The VHSG also tended to have a higher plasma LDL-cholesterol, hsC-reactive protein and lower levels of HDL-cholesterol, vitamin A, and vitamin E than the low stress group. High stress subjects demonstrated increased breakfast skipping frequency (p<0.0001), decreased fiber intake (p=0.001), potassium (p=0.041), and vitamin A (p=0.011) than the low stress ones. Therefore the perceived stress level was associated with the inflammatory indicators, obesity, and lack of anti-inflammatory or antioxidant nutrients. The dietary components may be an important mediator of stress and metabolic disease.
This study examined the dietary behaviors and dietary quality of high school students according to the number of times they skipped breakfast. A total of 474 high school students (225 boys and 249 girls) residing in Incheon participated in this survey. The subjects were divided into the three groups according to the frequency of eating breakfast; Regualr (eating breakfast everyday, n=226), Irregualar (eating breakfast 1~6 times/week, n=143, and Skipping (skipping breakfast everyday, n=105). The dietary quality was assessed using a nutrient quotient for adolescents (NQ-A). A higher monthly allowance and a higher rate of working mothers were significantly associated with a higher frequency of skipping breakfast. A higher intake frequency of processed beverages, and street food was significantly associated with a higher frequency of skipping breakfast. Students who had a higher rate of breakfast skipping had significantly lower intake frequency of fruits, white milk, bean and bean products, and fish. The high frequency of skipping breakfast among high school students was associated with lower dietary quality, as illustrated by the low total NQ-A score and sub group score including balance, environment, and practice. This information can inform efforts to provide nutrition education program to promote breakfast consumption and guidelines to students who skipped breakfast frequently.
본 연구는 국내에 진출해 있는 외국인투자기업 본사의 경영자 파견여부가 해외자회사의 성과에 미치는 영향에 대해 관찰하였다. 이에 더하여 연구개발 활동 수준, 기업 규모, 합작설립 여부와 같은 자회사 수준 변수들의 조절 효과를 규명해 보고자 하였다. 다국적 해외진출기업 총람을 통하여 획득한 338개의 외국인투자기업을 표본으로 2011년부터 2015년까지의 5개년도 패널자료를 분석한 본 연구의 실증 결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째, 국내진출 외 국인투자기업의 최고경영자가 본사에서 파견한 외국인일 경우 성과에 긍정적인 영향을 미치는 것을 확인하였다. 둘째, 외국인투자기업 해외 자회사의 연구개발 활동이 활발할수록 본사에서 파견된 최고경영자가 해외자회사의 성과에 미치는 영향력이 강화되는 것으로 나타났다.
The purpose of this study was to investigate dietary behavior and nutritional knowledge related to sodium intake in high school students. A questionnaire survey was conducted in 400 high school students (200 boys) in Incheon, Korea. Survey data were analyzed according to gender and degree of obesity. The distribution of the degree of obesity was the highest in 231 normal weight individuals (57.8%), followed by 89 underweight (22.3%), 41 overweight (10.3%), and 39 obese (9.8%). The sodium-related undesirable dietary behavior score was 2.9 points out of 5 points. The detailed dietary behavior scores of ‘I eat kimchi when I eat instant noodles or noodles’ and ‘I like dried fish with salt’ were significantly higher in boys than in girls (p<0.05). It was found that boys consumed more frequently high sodium foods, such as pizza, hamburger, and hotdog than girls. According to the degree of obesity, the underweight group consumed more kimchi fried rice and potato chips frequently than the other groups (p<0.05). Preference for salty taste was not significantly different among the groups by gender and degree of obesity. Sodium-related nutritional knowledge score was 5.3 points out of 10 and which was significantly higher in girls or normal weight group than in boys or obesity group. These results suggest that nutritional education on sodium intake is needed because the nutritional knowledge of adolescents is relatively low. Moreover, intensive nutritional guidance is required, especially in boys or adolescents with undesirable degree of obesity.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association nutrition education experience in regards to metabolic risk and nutrition intake in Korean adult male using the 2016~2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey as the reference. The study involved a total of 1,978 male subjects aged 40~64 who were classified into the 2 groups based on their nutrition education experience: Educated group (n=88) and non-educated group (n=1,890). The household income and education level of educated group were higher than those of the non-educated group. The two groups showed no significant difference in the level of fasting blood sugar, blood lipid profile including total cholesterol and triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, and hypertension. Vitamin C intake of the educated group (127.5 mg) was higher compared to the non-educated group (88.2 mg) (p<0.05). The percentage of the subjects utilizing nutritional labels was higher in the educated group. The nutrition education experience was inversely proportional to lower Odds Ratio in hyperLDL-cholesterolemia (OR: 0.47, 95% CI: 0.36, 0.84) and HypoHDL-cholesterolemia (OR: 0.57, 95% CI: 0.37, 0.87). This result indicates that nutritional education can be used as an effective tool to avert chronic diseases and develop healthy eating habits.
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a nutrition education program that was designed to increase the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of Korean adults regarding nutrition labeling. The education program was 45 minutes of short-term training, which was conducted in the form of lectures and exercises. The contents of the program were as follows: in the introduction stage, talking about status and reasons for checking nutrition labels; in the development stage, explanation of nutrition labeling and their content, reading, and identifying sample nutrition labels, as well as comparing nutrition labels and selecting better foods; in the closing stage, summary of nutrition labeling and a pledge to check nutrition labels when purchasing processed food. A total of 53 adults (88.5% female) aged 30 years and over participated in this study. The nutrition labeling awareness of the subjects was increased significantly from 55.8 to 96.2% after the education. After the education, the correct recognition rate of a nutrition label was increased significantly from 26.9 to 78.8% for the amount of food, from 25.0 to 73.1% for the calorie content, from 36.5 to 69.2% for the nutrient contents, and from 30.8 to 82.7% for the percent daily value. The self-efficacy of checking nutrition labels was also increased significantly compared to that before the education. The overall satisfaction score of the nutrition education program was 4.2 out of 5. The outcome showed that the nutrition education program of nutrition labeling improved the participants’ awareness and self-efficacy towards checking nutrition labels.
This study analyzed and discussed the competition relation between various media platforms, particularly fashion magazine, the Internet portal, and social networking (SNS) that provide fashion contents. The following results were obtained through this study. First, the Internet portal ranks the highest in all factors, followed by SNS, and fashion magazine as the lowest. Second, the Internet portal was competing with fashion magazine and SNS because there is an overlap between the two platforms. By contrast, SNS has a relatively low degree of overlap with fashion magazines, and they are complementary to each other. Third, the Internet portal has a strong advantage over fashion magazine and SNS in all factors. On the basis of the results of this study, we can summarize remarkable points in strategy formulation as follows. First, the Internet portal, which is popularized by “usage accessibility,” is expected to continue to dominate the competition over other media platforms while providing greater gratification to users of fashion contents. Second, the competitiveness of fashion magazines, which has been shrinking dramatically, lies in the diversity and quality of fashion contents. Innovating ways to develop creative fashion content and improve the quality through more in-depth analysis of the reader is essential. Third, SNS is slightly behind the Internet portal as a whole; however, it is one of the emerging platforms in the fashion content market because of its competitive advantage in terms of gratification opportunities.
본 연구는 어린이급식소를 대상으로 체계적인 위생관리 및 영양관리를 지원하고 있는 어린이급식관리지원센터 기반 유아 당류 줄이기 교육프로그램 개발 및 운영을 위한 기초자료 마련의 일환으로 센터의 예산규모에 따른 유아 당류 교육실태 및 요구도를 비교․분석하였다. 본 조사는 2015년 10월 온라인 설문조사를 통하여 전국 115개 어린이급식관리지원센터의 팀장 또는 팀원을 대상으로 이루어졌다. 센터의 예산규모에 따라 1~2억원 센터(21.7%), 3~4억원 센터(52.2%), 5~7억원 센터(26.1%)로 분류하였다. 1~2억원 센터는 읍면지역이 72.0%로 가장 많았고, 3~4억원 센터와 5~7억원 센터는 대도시가 각 46.7%, 56.7%로 가장 높아 유의적인 차이를 보였다(p<0.001). 유아 대상 당류 섭취 줄이기 교육 실태조사 결과, 교육을 실시하는 비율은 1~2억원 센터 8.0%로 낮았고, 3~4억원 센터의 경우 16.7%, 5~7억원 센터의 경우 16.7%로 예산규모에 따른 유의적인 차이를 보였다(p<0.05). 유아의 당류 섭취 관련 영양교육을 실시하지 않는 이유에 대하여 조사한 결과, 1~2억원 센터는 ‘영양교육 자료 부족’이 47.1%로 가장 많았고, 3~4억원 센터와 5~7억원 센터는 ‘당류 교육보다 더 시급한 영양교육 내용이 많음’이 각각 66.7%와 50.0%로 높게 타났다. 유아의 학부모를 대상으로 한 유아 당류 섭취 관련 영양교육 실시여부를 조사한 결과, 실시 비율은 1~2억원 센터가 8.0%로 가장 낮았고, 3~4억원 센터 28.3%, 5~7억원 센터 23.3%로 예산규모에 따른 유의적인 차이를 보였다(p<0.05). 유아 당류 줄이기 교육의 필요성에 대한 조사에서 ‘매우 필요하다’와 ‘필요하다’의 비율이 예산규모에 따른 유의적인 차이 없이 90% 이상 높게 나타났다. 유아를 대상으로 한 효과적인 교육방법에 대한 질문에 대하여 예산 규모에 상관없이 75% 이상의 높은 비율을 보인 것은 동화나 인형극을 활용한 교육 방법이었고, ‘영양교육 활동지를 통한 교육’은 1~2억원 센터에서 낮았고(p<0.05), ‘실험활동을 통한 교육’은 3~4억원 센터에서 낮았다(p<0.05). 효과적일 것으로 생각하는 유아 대상 교육 담당자로는 모든 센터에서 ‘어린이급식관리지원센터 영양사+담임교사’가 80.0% 이상으로 나 타났다.
이상을 통해 어린이급식관리지원센터에서의 유아 당류 섭취 관련 교육에 대한 필요성과 효과적일 것으로 생각하는 교육 방법 및 시간 등에서는 사업 규모별 차이가 없었지만, 교육 실태는 사업 규모에 따라 유의적인 차이를 보여, 1~2억원 규모의 소규모 센터의 경우 유아 당류 섭취 관련 교육의 실시율이 낮고, 교육 자료의 부족을 느끼고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 현재 어린이급식관리지원센터의 사업비 분배는 회원 어 린이집의수에 따라 1억원 단위로 비례적으로 정해지고 있다. 비록 본 연구는 영양교육 프로그램에 한정된 결과를 보여주고 있기는 하지만, 1~2억원 규모의 소규모 센터의 경우 예산 및 인력부족으로 사업의 운영에 어려움을 보이고 있고, 이로 인해 큰 센터에 비하여 상대적인 사업의 질 저하를 초래할 가능성이 높음을 보여준다. 그러나 소규모 센터의 경우, 인구가 적은 읍면 지역에 위치하는 경우가 많기 때문에 대상자가 여러 가지 사회․문화적 혜택으로부터 소외되어 있는 계층일 가능성이 높다. 따라서 국가에서 시행하는 사업에서 이러한 부분을 보완해야 할 책임 또한 더 클 것으로 사료된다. 따라서 사업의 규모에 따른 차이 없이 질적으로 평준화된 교육프로그램의 제공 및 소규모 센터의 예산 및 인력부족으로 인한 교육프로그램 개발 및 운영의 어려움을 해결하기 위해서 표준화된 유아 당류 섭취 줄이기 관련 교육프로그램의 개발 및 보급과 함께 어린이급식관리지원센터 사업 예산 분배에 대한 재고의 필요성이 큰 것으로 생각된다.
This study aimed to develop and evaluate a sugars intake reduction program (SIRP) that was designed to increase the knowledge, attitude, and skills of Korean children aged 5 years regarding sugars intake reduction. A total of 101 children aged 5~6 years from 6 preschools participated in SIRP. SIRP consisted of 4 sessions including 10 activities (e.g., story-telling, arts, experiment, checking nutrition facts, pledge), delivered to children at preschools by nutritionists over a one-month period. Three letters were sent to parents throughout the program to inform them of the children’s activities at the preschools and to provide additional information on reducing children’s sugars intake. A total of 90 children completed the program; 83 parents of these children completed the SIRP evaluation survey. The children’s sugars intake reduction score was significantly increased after attending SIRP. Teachers (n=6) who participated in this program agreed to improve their students’ attitudes on reducing sugars intake and to decrease students’ behaviors related to sugars intake. Parents agreed to improve their children’s attitude on reducing sugars intake and to decrease children’s behaviors related to sugars intake. The outcome showed SIRP improved participants’ attitudes towards sugars reduction and increased the skills to reduce the sugars intake of children aged 5~6 years. Future studies should examine whether SIRP reduces actual sugars intake among children.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the nutritional knowledge and dietary behaviors of middle school students according to their mother’s employment status. Of all 453 subjects, 52.1% were boys, and 67.5% of the mothers were employed. The total score of nutritional knowledge was 8.0 out of 10 for students with a non-working mom and 7.7 for those with a working mom, showing no significant difference. Among the 20 nutritional knowledge questions, correct answer rates for “lots of fruits may be eaten because of not gaining weight” (72.6% vs. 81.6%, p<0.05) and “eating raw carrots is better than eating fried ones with oil” (34.6% vs. 44.9%, p<0.05) were significantly higher in students with a working mom. The regularity of meals showed a significant difference according to the mother’s employment, indicating that responses of “very regular” (62.4% vs. 72.1%) were high among students with a non-working mom and responses of “skipping breakfast” (31.4% vs. 19.7%) were higher in students with a working mom (p<0.05). The number of snacks a day was also significantly different according to the mother’s employment, showing that 12.8% of the students with a working mom and only 3.4% of them with a non-working mom did not eat snacks at all (p<0.05). These results reveal no significant difference in middle school students’ nutritional knowledge according to their mother’s employment status; however, the students whose mother had a job were more likely to have more undesirable dietary behaviors such as irregular meals and snacking.