We investigated coffee consumption in relation to the abdominal obesity as defined by waist circumference in Korean women aged 19~64 years, using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2012~2016. The participants to the study were classified according to 3-in-1 coffee consumption level (none-coffee, ≤1 time/day of 3-in-1 coffee, >1 time/day of 3-in-1 coffee) by a food frequency questionnaire. The analysis was conducted by the following age groups: <50 years and 50≤ years. The 3-in-1 coffee consumption group had significantly more smokers and more alcohol consumption frequency as compared to the none-coffee group. The energy intake from the participants in the 3-in-1 coffee consumption of ≤1 time/day of 3-in-1 coffee group, and >1 time/day of 3-in-1 coffee group were 131.2 kcal/day and 123.1 kcal/day. In the 50 years or over age group, >1 time/day of 3-in-1 coffee group was at a lower risk of abdominal obesity as defined by waist circumference, compared with the non-coffee group multivariable adjustment (OR: 0.44, 95% CI: 0.25~0.77). Our findings suggest that the 3-in-1 coffee consumption may be related to abdominal obesity as defined by waist circumference in Korean females aged 50 years or over.
The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a nutrition education program that was designed to increase the knowledge, attitudes, and skills of Korean adults regarding nutrition labeling. The education program was 45 minutes of short-term training, which was conducted in the form of lectures and exercises. The contents of the program were as follows: in the introduction stage, talking about status and reasons for checking nutrition labels; in the development stage, explanation of nutrition labeling and their content, reading, and identifying sample nutrition labels, as well as comparing nutrition labels and selecting better foods; in the closing stage, summary of nutrition labeling and a pledge to check nutrition labels when purchasing processed food. A total of 53 adults (88.5% female) aged 30 years and over participated in this study. The nutrition labeling awareness of the subjects was increased significantly from 55.8 to 96.2% after the education. After the education, the correct recognition rate of a nutrition label was increased significantly from 26.9 to 78.8% for the amount of food, from 25.0 to 73.1% for the calorie content, from 36.5 to 69.2% for the nutrient contents, and from 30.8 to 82.7% for the percent daily value. The self-efficacy of checking nutrition labels was also increased significantly compared to that before the education. The overall satisfaction score of the nutrition education program was 4.2 out of 5. The outcome showed that the nutrition education program of nutrition labeling improved the participants’ awareness and self-efficacy towards checking nutrition labels.
본 연구는 어린이급식소를 대상으로 체계적인 위생관리 및 영양관리를 지원하고 있는 어린이급식관리지원센터 기반 유아 당류 줄이기 교육프로그램 개발 및 운영을 위한 기초자료 마련의 일환으로 센터의 예산규모에 따른 유아 당류 교육실태 및 요구도를 비교․분석하였다. 본 조사는 2015년 10월 온라인 설문조사를 통하여 전국 115개 어린이급식관리지원센터의 팀장 또는 팀원을 대상으로 이루어졌다. 센터의 예산규모에 따라 1~2억원 센터(21.7%), 3~4억원 센터(52.2%), 5~7억원 센터(26.1%)로 분류하였다. 1~2억원 센터는 읍면지역이 72.0%로 가장 많았고, 3~4억원 센터와 5~7억원 센터는 대도시가 각 46.7%, 56.7%로 가장 높아 유의적인 차이를 보였다(p<0.001). 유아 대상 당류 섭취 줄이기 교육 실태조사 결과, 교육을 실시하는 비율은 1~2억원 센터 8.0%로 낮았고, 3~4억원 센터의 경우 16.7%, 5~7억원 센터의 경우 16.7%로 예산규모에 따른 유의적인 차이를 보였다(p<0.05). 유아의 당류 섭취 관련 영양교육을 실시하지 않는 이유에 대하여 조사한 결과, 1~2억원 센터는 ‘영양교육 자료 부족’이 47.1%로 가장 많았고, 3~4억원 센터와 5~7억원 센터는 ‘당류 교육보다 더 시급한 영양교육 내용이 많음’이 각각 66.7%와 50.0%로 높게 타났다. 유아의 학부모를 대상으로 한 유아 당류 섭취 관련 영양교육 실시여부를 조사한 결과, 실시 비율은 1~2억원 센터가 8.0%로 가장 낮았고, 3~4억원 센터 28.3%, 5~7억원 센터 23.3%로 예산규모에 따른 유의적인 차이를 보였다(p<0.05). 유아 당류 줄이기 교육의 필요성에 대한 조사에서 ‘매우 필요하다’와 ‘필요하다’의 비율이 예산규모에 따른 유의적인 차이 없이 90% 이상 높게 나타났다. 유아를 대상으로 한 효과적인 교육방법에 대한 질문에 대하여 예산 규모에 상관없이 75% 이상의 높은 비율을 보인 것은 동화나 인형극을 활용한 교육 방법이었고, ‘영양교육 활동지를 통한 교육’은 1~2억원 센터에서 낮았고(p<0.05), ‘실험활동을 통한 교육’은 3~4억원 센터에서 낮았다(p<0.05). 효과적일 것으로 생각하는 유아 대상 교육 담당자로는 모든 센터에서 ‘어린이급식관리지원센터 영양사+담임교사’가 80.0% 이상으로 나 타났다.
이상을 통해 어린이급식관리지원센터에서의 유아 당류 섭취 관련 교육에 대한 필요성과 효과적일 것으로 생각하는 교육 방법 및 시간 등에서는 사업 규모별 차이가 없었지만, 교육 실태는 사업 규모에 따라 유의적인 차이를 보여, 1~2억원 규모의 소규모 센터의 경우 유아 당류 섭취 관련 교육의 실시율이 낮고, 교육 자료의 부족을 느끼고 있는 것으로 나타났다. 현재 어린이급식관리지원센터의 사업비 분배는 회원 어 린이집의수에 따라 1억원 단위로 비례적으로 정해지고 있다. 비록 본 연구는 영양교육 프로그램에 한정된 결과를 보여주고 있기는 하지만, 1~2억원 규모의 소규모 센터의 경우 예산 및 인력부족으로 사업의 운영에 어려움을 보이고 있고, 이로 인해 큰 센터에 비하여 상대적인 사업의 질 저하를 초래할 가능성이 높음을 보여준다. 그러나 소규모 센터의 경우, 인구가 적은 읍면 지역에 위치하는 경우가 많기 때문에 대상자가 여러 가지 사회․문화적 혜택으로부터 소외되어 있는 계층일 가능성이 높다. 따라서 국가에서 시행하는 사업에서 이러한 부분을 보완해야 할 책임 또한 더 클 것으로 사료된다. 따라서 사업의 규모에 따른 차이 없이 질적으로 평준화된 교육프로그램의 제공 및 소규모 센터의 예산 및 인력부족으로 인한 교육프로그램 개발 및 운영의 어려움을 해결하기 위해서 표준화된 유아 당류 섭취 줄이기 관련 교육프로그램의 개발 및 보급과 함께 어린이급식관리지원센터 사업 예산 분배에 대한 재고의 필요성이 큰 것으로 생각된다.
This study aimed to develop and evaluate a sugars intake reduction program (SIRP) that was designed to increase the knowledge, attitude, and skills of Korean children aged 5 years regarding sugars intake reduction. A total of 101 children aged 5~6 years from 6 preschools participated in SIRP. SIRP consisted of 4 sessions including 10 activities (e.g., story-telling, arts, experiment, checking nutrition facts, pledge), delivered to children at preschools by nutritionists over a one-month period. Three letters were sent to parents throughout the program to inform them of the children’s activities at the preschools and to provide additional information on reducing children’s sugars intake. A total of 90 children completed the program; 83 parents of these children completed the SIRP evaluation survey. The children’s sugars intake reduction score was significantly increased after attending SIRP. Teachers (n=6) who participated in this program agreed to improve their students’ attitudes on reducing sugars intake and to decrease students’ behaviors related to sugars intake. Parents agreed to improve their children’s attitude on reducing sugars intake and to decrease children’s behaviors related to sugars intake. The outcome showed SIRP improved participants’ attitudes towards sugars reduction and increased the skills to reduce the sugars intake of children aged 5~6 years. Future studies should examine whether SIRP reduces actual sugars intake among children.
This study examined the sweet taste perception, perception of sugar reduction, and utilization of nutrition labeling according to the awareness of the self-perceived sugar intake reduction of university students in Chungbuk Area. The subjects (n=419) were divided into two groups: Awareness of Sugar Intake Reduction (ASIR) group, male=110, female=109; Non Awareness of Sugar Intake Reduction (NASIR) group, male=115, female=85. The overweight/obesity was significantly higher in the ASIR group than in the NASIR group for both male and female students. The sweet taste perception was significantly lower in the ASIR group in male students than in the NASIR group. The purchase level of a product with reduced sugar instead of the original products was significantly higher in the ASIR group in male students than the NASIR group. Beverage purchases after identifying the sugar content were significantly higher in the ASIR group in male students than in the NASIR group. The necessity of nutrition labeling education was significantly higher in the ASIR group both male and female students. Based on these results, the correct perception of sugar reduction and continuous and practical nutrition education of sugar intake reduction need to maintain healthy dietary habits in university students.
This study investigated the current status and needs for nutrition education to help reduce children’s sugars intake at the Center for Children’s Foodservice Management (CCFM, n=115), and Child Care Facilities (CCF, n=646) through an online survey conducted from October 5th to 30th 2015. A total of 14.8% of CCFM respondents and 31.9% of CCF respondents provided nutrition education on sugars intake to young children as a main topic (p<0.001). A higher percentage (CCFM 47.8%: CCF 42.4%) delivered nutrition education on sugars intake to young children as a sub-component (p<0.001). Over 90% of the CCFM and CCF participants agreed on the necessity of providing nutrition education on sugars intake to children. The most common reasons given for delivering nutrition education on children’s sugar intake were “there are many more urgent nutrition education topics” for CCFM, and “insufficient nutrition education information and materials” for CCF. The percentage of nutrition education on children’s sugar intake provided to the children’s parents was low showing about 20% in the both groups. The percentage of CCFM participants providing nutrition, education on children’s sugar intake to the teachers in CCF was also low, showing about 14.8%; however, 68.0% of the CCF participants wanted to received teacher's education on guiding children’s sugar intake. Regarding ideas about a nutrition education program on children’s sugar intake for young children, most respondents in both groups answered “sugar intake and dental cavities or obesity” for appropriate education contents, “story telling or puppet show” for appropriate education methods, and “dietitian from CCFM and class teacher together” for appropriate educator. For appropriate education time, there was a significantl difference between the CCFM responses (average 2.7 times) and the CCF responses (average 4 times). Based on the above results, we found that implementing nutrition education on children's sugar intake at the CCFM and CCF, was low; however, awareness of the need for nutrition education on children’s sugar intake and the program development and supply was very high. Also, the opinions of CCFM and CCF participants about a nutrition education program on children’s sugar intake for young children can provide foundation data to develop and implement the CCFM-based nutrition education program.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the fad dieting status and needs of nutrition education on healthy dieting in male and female collegians according to the desired loss weight. The subjects were 611 students (287 males, 324 females) from universities in Gyeonggi and Gangwon provinces in Korea. The subjects were divided into the following four groups based on the difference between their current body weight and their desired body weight: no desired weight loss (WL0), desired weight loss less than 5 kg (WL5), desired weight loss 6 to 10 kg (WL10), and desired weight loss more than 11 kg (WL11). The fad dieting status was surveyed using a questionnaire about 11 selected trendy dieting methods. The higher desired weight loss group showed higher current weight and BMI in both males and females. Self weight overestimation was higher in the females than in the males, and in the WL10 group than in the other groups of males. As desired loss weight increased, weight loss trials and experienced trendy dieting types increased in both males and females. In the male subjects, the experience of the half meal diet and the chicken breast diet was significantly associated with the desired loss weight. In females, trials of more trendy diet types including the half meal diet, cereal diet, fasting, and Atkins diet were significantly associated with the higher desired loss weight. The need for nutrition education on healthy dieting was high among all the different desired weight loss groups, showing that a minimum of 60% of subjects in each group answered ‘necessary and strongly necessary’, with the highest in the WL11 group in both males and females. From these results, desired loss weight is associated with higher current weight status, unhealthy weight control practices, and needs for nutrition education in both male and female subjects. Therefore, in the future, nutrition education programs should give greater attention to providing healthy dieting methods for young collegians who desire more weight loss.
The purpose of this study was to compare dietary self-efficacy for sodium intake reduction and dietary behaviors by eating areas. Subjects (797 males and 767 females) were classified according to perceived dietary habit levels related to sodium intake (lowest: ≤10 (n=434), low: 11~≤13 (n=471), high: 14~≤15 (n=360), highest: 16≤ (n=299)) using an online survey with a sample that was geographically representative of the population. The highest group was significantly younger and had a higher student proportion than the lowest group. Dining contexts regarding home led to a significantly higher sodium intake in the highest group, but it was eating out for the lowest group. The highest group had a significantly lower intention to reduce sodium intake compared to the lowest group. In the home cooked meals, the highest group displayed a significantly lower cooking frequency, less effort with respect to a low sodium diet and cooking habits related to sodium intake as compared to the lowest group. Also, regarding eating out and food service, the highest group exhibited significantly lower efforts and dietary behaviors to reduce sodium intake than the lowest group. The dietary score for sodium reduction behavior in the highest group was significantly lower compared to the lowest group, for home cooked meals, eating out, as well as food service. Thus, dietary guidelines and nutrition education for the reduction of sodium intake by eating areas need to be developed and provided.
This study was conducted to evaluate the risk of overweight and obesity in adolescents consuming snacks frequently from 2007~2009, Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). The subjects (12~14 years: n=523; 15~18 years: n=614) were presented with food frequency questionnaires, and they were classified according to their gender and frequency of snack consumption. In the age group of 12~14 years, boys and girls (boys OR: 1.11, 95% CI: 0.52~2.39, girls OR: 12.45, 95% CI: 2.26~68.51) who consumed yogurt frequently had a higher risk of overweight and obesity at the highest quartile frequency compared with the lowest quartile after adjustments for multiple confounding factors, including age, physical activity, frequency of eating out and snack consumption, and energy intake. In the age group of 15~18 years, girls (OR: 1.01, 95% CI: 0.34~2.99) consuming fried foods had a higher risk of overweight and obesity at the highest quartile frequency compared with the lowest quartile after adjustments for multiple confounding factors, including age, physical activity, frequency of eating out and snack consumption, and energy intake. Thus, we conclude that frequent consumption of yogurt and fried foods increases the risk of overweight and obesity in adolescents. These findings suggest that the risk of overweight and obesity is associated with the frequency of snack consumption.
This study was conducted to develop and validate the Sugar Intake Reduction Test (SIRT) for young children, and included eating behaviors, attitude, and nutritional knowledge about sugars. A draft version of the SIRT was developed after literature review. The final draft of the SIRT was established after two pilot tests of 5 year old children and an expert group’s review, and is comprised of a one on one test between an investigator and a child using picture tools. It contained of 20 questions which included 3 components: eating behaviors (5 items), preference for sugar sweetened food (10 items), and nutritional knowledge about sugars (5 items). The final SIRT was conducted on 181 children 5 (n=100) to 6 (n=81) years old, to examine its item and test adequacies. The passing rate of most items significantly increased with increasing age, and most of the item discrimination also differed significantly between the below and upper score groups. The content validity was given a high score by professionals (mean score 3.9 out of 4). Reliability of all the items in the SIRT was high (Cronbach’s α=0.82). Moreover, the total component and the sub-component scores of the SIRT correlated significantly. Our results indicate that the SIRT is a valid tool to measure sugar intake reduction in young children aged 5~6 years.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between frequency of coffee consumption, metabolic biomarkers, and nutrition intake in adult participants in the combined 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES). Subjects (2,095 males and 3,297 females) were classified according to sex and frequency of coffee consumption (≤1 time/month, ≥2 times/month and ≤6 times/week, 1 time/day, 2 times/day, 3 times/day) using food frequency questionnaires. Nutrition intake was analyzed using 24 h recall data. The 3 times/day coffee consumption group had a significantly higher age, and frequency of smokers and drinkers compared to the ≤1 time/month coffee consumption group in both male and female participants. Males in the 3 times/day coffee consumption group had a significantly lower HDL-cholesterol level, but females had a higher waist circumference compared with the ≤1 time/month coffee consumption group. Males in the 3 times/day coffee consumption group had a significantly lower nutrient density of fiber, vitamin B2, vitamin C, calcium and phosphorus compared with the ≤1 time/month coffee intake group. Females in the 3 times/day coffee consumption group had a significantly higher nutrient density of fat and niacin, but lower nutrient density of carbohydrate, calcium, phosphorus, and iron compared with the ≤1 time/month coffee intake group. In males, the frequency of coffee consumption was not associated with the levels of metabolic biomarkers. In females, the frequency of coffee consumption was positively associated with diastolic blood pressure after adjustments for multiple confounding factors, including age, BMI, smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity and energy intake. Coffee consumption was associated with decreased diastolic blood pressure in females. These findings suggest the importance of an awareness of the association between coffee consumption and metabolic risk.
Increasing sugar intake of population has become a nutritional issue in Korea. Sweet taste perception may be related to behaviors such as eating sweet food including high sugars and total sugar intake. This study aimed to evaluate objective and subjective sweet taste perception and the association among objective sweet taste perception, dietary behaviors related to eating sweet snack food including high sugar, and total sugar intake from the snacks. Participants were 261 healthy female college students (mean age: 21.0±1.6 years), who were divided into three subgroups based on oral sweet taste evaluation using a sweet taste assessment tool provided by Ministry of Food and Drug Safety: sweet-seeker group (n=139), medium sweet-seeker group (n=54), and unsweet-seeker group (n=68). There was no significant difference in weight and body mass index (BMI) among the three groups; however, the sweet-seeker group had significantly higher sweet taste preference than that of the other groups. Though more people in the sweet-seeker group thought they tended to eat sweet foods than the medium sweet-seeker and unsweet-seeker groups, over half of the sweet-seekers did not think they tended to eat sweet foods. The sweet-seeker group was more likely to eat sweet snacks such as breads, chocolate products, sugar-sweetened milk, and so on than the unsweet-seeker group. Total sugar intake from the selected sweet snacks was 44.4 g for the sweet-seeker group, 34.4 g for the medium sweet-seeker group, and 28.0 g for the unsweet-seeker group with a significant difference. These results indicated the absence of relationship between objective sweet taste perception and the obesity index; however, significant associations were detected among objective sweet taste perception, eating sweet snacks and total sugar intake from the snacks. We also found high disagreement between objective and subjective sweet taste perception of the subjects. The present study provided the novel insight that measuring objective sweet taste perception may be useful for assessing the risk of high sugar consumption and undesirable dietary behaviors.
This study was to investigate the association among satisfaction of nutrition labeling, change of purchase behaviors, and dietary life care, based on the awareness of nutrition labeling at expressway rest areas. The subjects (n=903) were divided into two groups, according to the awareness of nutrition labeling: Awareness of Nutrition Labeling (ANL) group, n=367; Non Awareness of Nutrition Labeling (NANL) group, n=536. Effort of health care and identification of nutrition labeling was significantly higher in the ANL group, compared with the NANL group. As for the main reason for not identifying nutrition labeling, ‘not interested in nutrition labeling’ was the highest in the ANL group, and ‘Don't know nutrition labeling is provided’ in the NANL group. Identification ratio of nutrition labeling in future was significantly higher in the NANL group, compared with the ANL group among the subjects who didn't identify nutrition labeling before. After their becoming aware, a change of food purchase after reading the nutrition labeling was significantly higher in the ANL group, compared with the NANL group. Health beliefs on the nutrition labeling were significantly higher in the ANL group, compared with the NANL group. Satisfaction of nutrition labeling was also significantly higher in the ANL group, compared with the NANL group. The ANL group also expressed a necessity of expansion of nutrition labeling, compared with the NANL group. In the ANL group, identification of nutrition labeling was significantly higher in the hard effort group, compared with the little effort group of dietary life care. Therefore, improvement and campaign of nutrition labeling for consumers at expressway rest areas, especially for the NANL group, will be effective in identifying nutrition labeling for their health care.
The purpose of this study is to investigate 5th grade elementary school girls’ effort to recognize and use nutritional labels on processed foods and restaurant meals to encourage dietary behavior. The subjects (n=976) were divided into three groups (effort group, n=711; normal group, n=193; and no-effort group, n=72) depending on level of effort for the healthy dietary behavior such as eating balanced meals, eating three meals regularly, and eating meals slowly. In the effort group, the frequency of food intake for breads, ramen, noodles and fast foods was significantly lower, while frequency of food intake for fruits and vegetables and salad was significantly higher than in the other two groups. In the effort group, the ratio of the respondents that perception of nutrition labeling on processed foods and restaurant meals was 80.5% and 31.4% and the ratio of girls who checked the nutrition labeling at their point of purchase was 71.1% and 24.7%, respectively. Reasons given for not reading nutrition labeling for restaurant meals were ‘not interested’ for 34.6% of the effort group, and 52.2% of the no-effort group. Therefore, it is necessary to create an educational program on healthy dietary behavior, including how to read nutrition labeling and establishment of proper body image perception for elementary school girls.