This study investigated the changes in chemical components, antioxidant compounds, and activity before (BG) and after germinated (AG) brown rice in order to promote the availability of these beneficial factors. The GABA content of BG and AG brown rice were 0.07~6.61 and 11.13~49.72 mg/100 g, respectively. The α-amylase activity of AG brown rice was 1.77~70.25 unit/g fold higher than it was in BG brown rice. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, which are known to be related to antioxidation, were higher in BG brown rice than in AG brown rice. The total polyphenol contents of BG and AG brown rice were 10.52~36.38 and 11.38~26.33 mg/100 g, and the total flavonoid contents were 3.55~13.39 and 3.52~9.78 mg/100 g, respectively. Also, DPPH radical scavenging activity was 57.64~251.34 and 50.49~213.35 mg TE/100 g, respectively. ABTS radical scavenging activity and total tannin content showed a similar trend to DPPH radical scavenging activity. We expect that this data will be useful in the manufacturing of food products.
This study investigated the chemical composition of Solidago virga-aurea var. asiatica Nakai essential oils collected using different extraction methods. The essential oils obtained by simultaneous steam distillation extraction (SDE) and hydrodistillation extraction (HDE) methods from the aerial parts of Solidago virga-aurea var. asiatica Nakai were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Ninety-nine volatile flavor compounds were identified in the essential oil produced from Solidago virga-aurea var. asiatica Nakai using the SDE method. These compounds were classified into eight categories in terms of chemical functionality: 26 hydrocarbons, 8 aldehydes, 36 alcohols, 7 ketones, 12 esters, 5 oxides and epixides, 4 acids, and a miscellaneous one. Spathulenol (15.66%) was the most abundant compound. Ninety-eight compounds including of 35 hydrocarbons, 6 aldehydes, 29 alcohols, 6 ketones, 10 esters, 4 oxides and epixides, 7 acids, and a miscellaneous one were identified in the essential oil from the plant using the HDE method. Hexadecanoic acid (24.74%) was the most abundant compound. The chemical composition of Solidago virga-aurea var. asiatica Nakai essential oils extracted by SDE and HDE methods are characterized by high content of sesquiterpene alcohols and acids, respectively. The extraction methods may be influenced in the chemical composition of natural plant essential oils.
The effects of dietary β-glucan, obtained from bacterial fermentation, on the intestinal mass, short chain fatty acids, lactate production and pH in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were evaluated. SD rats fed with 0% (control group), 1% or 5% β-glucan supplemented diets (w/w) for 3 weeks. The presence of β-glucan in the diets resulted in a significant increase in colonic contents in a dose dependent manner. The amount of short chain fatty acids increased in rats fed β-glucan diets. Rats fed the 5% β-glucan diets had higher levels of acetate, propionate and butyrate by 1.8, 1.7 and 3.0 fold of the control group in the cecum, and 2.2, 2.9 and 3.1 fold of the control group in the colon, respectively. The β-glucan diets also significantly increased the levels of cecal and colonic lactate by 1.4~3.4 fold, when compared to the control diet, indicating that dietary β-glucan stimulated the growth of lactic acid bacteria within the intestine. These results suggest that dietary β-glucan, by providing short chain fatty acids and reducing the cecal and colonic pH, may be beneficial in improving gut health, and provide evidence for the use of β-glucan as a dietary supplement for human consumption.
The objectives of this study were to nutritionally evaluate Korean traditional fermentation food, Doenjang, and compare the nutrients in fish/meat-Doenjang and herb/fish/meat-Doenjang. In Doenjang, sugar, protein, fat, dietary fiber, and minerals, such as sodium and calcium, were analyzed using HPLC and the ICP analysis method authorized by the Korean Food Standards Codex. Doenjang is known to prevent arteriosclerosis, cancer and hypertension, and to aid liver function, as well as serving as a protein source. Doenjang, fish/meat Doenjang, and wild-herb/fish/meat Doenjang were made according to the original recipes in antique cookbooks. The highest levels of calories, carbohydrates, and sugar were contained in wildherb/ fish/meat Doenjang. Carbohydrate in the fish/meat Doenjang was higher than in ordinary Doenjang, and ordinary Doenjang had the lowest amount of sugar. Fat was shown to be the most abundant in fish/meat Doenjang, and the least abundant in ordinary Doenjang. Fish/meat Doenjang contained the most Na content, while wild-herb/fish/meat Doenjang had the lowest Na content. In terms of dietary fiber, ordinary Doenjang contained the most, while a wild-herb/fish/meat Doenjang contained the least. Ca content was shown to be most abundant in Doenjang, and the least abundant in fish/meat Doenjang.
This study was designed to develop and to qualify a coffee alternative beverage using a mixture of coffee beans and roasted black beans (Rhynchosia nulubilis). Therefore, the total isoflavone content (TIC), total phenol content (TPC), antioxidant activity, anti-inflammatory activity, NFATc1 (Nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1) expression in RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells and sensory evaluation were measured for 5 different Cb (coffee bean)-RoS (roasted seomoktae) mixture extracts (Cb100RoS0, Cb75RoS25, Cb50RoS50, Cb25RoS75, and Cb0RoS100). Cb0RoS100 had the highest TIC (516.83±36.61 mg/100 g) and TPC (18.11±1.77 mg TAE/100 g) along with the highest antioxidant activity as measured by DPPH radical scavenging activity (73.55±8.11%) and ABTS radical scavenging activity (63.27±7.27%). Also, Cb0RoS100 showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity as measured by NO production (13.57±2.21 μM) and PGE2 production (3.25±0.21 ng/mL). The more the RoS ratio was increased in the mixtures of Cb-RoS, the more the NFATc1 protein expression was decreased in RANKL-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In case of sensory evaluation, Cb50RoS50 had the highest scores for flavor, delicate flavor and overall quality, which were similar to those in Cb alone (Cb100RoS0). We suggest that the use of RoS replacement instead of Cb in/as a coffee alternative beverage may help to reduce the risk of caffeine-related bone loss and/or bone disease by effectively blocking NFATc1 expression in RANKLstimulated RAW264.7 cells compared with Cb alone.
The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal composite recipe of rice muffins with 3 concentrations of Spergularia marina L. Griseb, sugar and grape seed oil, using central composite design. In addition, the mixing condition of rice muffins was optimized by subjecting it to sensory evaluation and mechanical and physicochemical analysis using response surface methodology (RSM). In regard to its antioxidant effects, Spergularia marina L. Griseb had a total phenol and flavonoid contents and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of 17.03 mg/g, 5.13 mg/g and 17.21%, respectively. The results of mechanical and physicochemical analysis showed significant values for lightness, redness, yellowness, hardness, springiness, chewiness, gumminess, cohesiveness, height, volume, weight, specific volume, loss rate, pH, moisture, sweetness and saltiness (p<0.05), and the results of sensory evaluation showed significant values for color, flavor, taste, softness, appearance and overall quality (p<0.05). As results, optimal sensory ratio was found to be 6.69 g of Spergularia marina L. Griseb, 41.89 g of sugar and 30.48 g of grape seed oil.
The aim of this work was to select suitable fermentation treatments for the efficient bioconversion of cactus (Opuntia humifusa Raf.) bioactive components with an improved radical scavenging activity for use as a nutraceutical. To obtain microorganisms for the microbial conversion of cactus, Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC8294, Lactobacillus plantarum KCTC 3099, Lactobacillus plantarum KERI 236 and Monascus pilosus KCCM 60029 (ATCC 22080) were used for fermentation. Fermentation by Lac. plantarum KCTC 3099 was the most effective at scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis-(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radicals and reducing iron ( ). In particular, uronic acid levels showed a remarkable increase in fermentation. The polyphenol and quercetin content of the fermented cactus showed large increases from 108.65 μg/mL and 2.71 μg/mL to 227.83 μg/mL and 9.73 μg/mL, respectively, showing a maximum level at 36 h of fermentation with Lac. plantarum KCTC 3099. Thus, cactus fermentation with Lac. plantarum is an useful process for the enhancement of antioxidant contents and activity of fresh cactus.
This study was conducted to assess the recognition and consumption of health functional food (HFF) of the college students in the Northern Gyeonggi-do area (Republic of Korea). To accomplish this, a survey was conducted to investigate 360 college students (183 males and 177 females) regarding their general characteristics, as well as the recognition, knowledge, considerations, purchases and consumption of HFF. Most male and female students (68.9% and 61.6%, respectively) were unaware of the HFF certification mark, however, more females(58.8%) were aware of the legal HFF definition compared to males (36.6%). The HFF advertising routes for males and females were ‘TV radio’ (43.2% and 43.5%, respectively) and ‘internet smart phones’ (19.7% and 27.1%, respectively). The main factor considered for selection and the most serious problem concerning HFF by males and females were ‘effectiveness’ (36.1% and 43.6%, respectively) and ‘hype (exaggerated advertisement)’ (35.0% and 55.9%, respectively). The main purchase route by males and females was ‘pharmacy’ (35.2% and 27.8%, respectively). The main reason for HFF product purchase by males and females was ‘health promotion’ (38.8% and 29.4%, respectively) and the main reason for not purchasing an HFF product was ‘no health problem’(34.8% and 36.7%, respectively). The percentage of HFF consumption was 46.0% in males and 69.8% in females. The main HFF product consumed by males and females was ‘vitamin mineral’ (36.9% and 43.5%, respectively). The main reason for HFF consumption by males was ‘health promotion’ (31.0%) and females was ‘recovery from fatigue’ (21.8%). The main reason for not consuming HFF by males and females was ‘no health problem’ (38.4% and 41.5%, respectively). These results suggest the need to provide correct information concerning HFF to college students. Based on these results, greater efforts should be made to provide meaningful information regarding factors affecting purchase and consumption patterns for college students related to the research and development of HFF in the Northern Gyeonggi-do area.
This study was undertaken to examine the knowledge about food culture and intakes of traditional food in Korean and Japanese elementary school students. In 2012 and 2013, a total of 265 students were surveyed, consisting of 73 Korean fifth graders and 192 Japanese sixth graders. The questionnaire comprised of queries on general items, the recognition and sampling of traditional and celebration foods, the knowledge about the partner country's food culture, and the frequency of consuming the partner country's foods. As a result of this study, the frequency of consuming their own country's traditional foods for Korean children (3.1 out of 5.0 points) and Japanese children (3.2 out of 5.0 points) was similar to each other. Japanese children reported to eat Korean foods (2.9 points) more frequently than those of Korean children to eat Japanese foods (2.4 out of 5.0 points) (p<0.001). However, the Korean children reported to have more experience on given typical Japanese foods than Japanese children reported about Korean foods. Further studies are needed for the perception on traditional foods in Korean and Japanese children. The results of this study can be used as a basic data to succeed and develop traditional food cultures.
The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum conditions of solvent extraction type and solvent concentration (60, 70, 80%, v/v), extraction time (30, 80, 130 mins) and extraction temperature (10, 15, 20℃) in order to increase the antioxidant activity of the chia seed. The total polyphenol content and DPPH radical scavenging activity was measured by using response surface methodology (RSM) to establish the optimal conditions. Using ethanol and methanol extractions at extraction concentrations of 60%, and time and temperature of 130 mins and 20℃, the maximum total polyphenol content was 871.00 mg% (R2=0.9507) and 557.70 mg% (R2=0.9784) for ethanol and methanol extraction respectively. Using the same extraction conditions, the maximum level of DPPH radical scavenging activity was 72.14% (R2=0.9675) and 52.79% (R2=0.9524) for ethanol and methanol extraction respectively. The results indicate that ethanol extracts showed a higher antioxidant activity than methanol extracts. The ethanol extraction conditions of response surface analysis (RSA) were affected more by ethanol concentration than by extraction time or temperature. In contrast, the methanol extraction conditions of response surface analysis (RSA) were affected more by extraction time. Based on the RSM, the optimum ethanol extraction conditions were the following: extraction concentration, 63%: time, 100 mins: and temperature, 18℃. The optimum methanol extraction conditions were the following: extraction concentration, 65%; time, 120 mins; and temperature, 16℃.
In this study, the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of low-salt Myungran jeotkal (Alaskan pollock roe) were evaluated after fermentation at 4℃ and 20℃ with or without the addition of deep sea water, salt from deep sea water, and vegetable-origin lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillus fermentum JS, LBF). When fermented at 20℃, the addition of LBF to Myungran jeotkal resulted in a slow increase in lactic acid content, followed by an abrupt increase after five days of fermentation. However, when fermented at 4℃, the lactic acid content did not change significantly. Further, when Myungran jeotkal fermented at 4℃, the pH decreased as lactic acid production increased. The salinity of Myungran jeotkal fermented at 4℃ and 20℃ was 7% and was not affected by fermentation period. When fermented at 20℃, volatile basic nitrogen and amino nitrogen contents increased with increasing duration of fermentation. Further, volatile acid content decreased, however, the content of amino nitrogen increased after 11 days of fermentation with LBF and no salt effects were observed. When fermented at 20℃ for 13 days, preference (sensory evaluation) was the highest in all experimental groups after 9 days of fermentation, and then decreased as the fermentation period increased. The free amino acid content was highest (1,648.8 mg/100 g) in Myungran jeotkal when sun-dried salt and LBF were added, 2.3 times higher than in the control.
This paper presents basic supporting data necessary for planning an educational intervention strategy as part of a communication strategy that would form an extensive national consensus on and enhance national understanding of irradiated foods. A survey was conducted to collect data on the knowledge, attitude, and behavior with regard to irradiated foods among community. It appeared 133 male (36.5%) and 231 women persons (63.5%). After irradiated food were analyzed, whole knowledge, attitude, and behavior standard to the irradiated food is 2.32, 11.90, and 12.92 scores respectively. The knowledge, attitude, behavior of irradiated foods according to person characteristics were analyzed. The knowledge on irradiated food was statistical difference by gender, age, education standard and occupation (p<0.05), whereas no statistical difference marriage (p>0.05). The attitude on irradiated food was statistical difference by age, education standard and occupation (p<0.05), whereas no statistical difference gender (p>0.05). The behavior on irradiated food was statistical difference by age, education standard and occupation (p<0.05), whereas no statistical difference gender and marriage (p>0.05). The coefficient of correlation of knowledge and attitude in irradiated food showed positive correlation of r=0.324 (p<0.01). The coefficient of correlation of knowledge and behavior in irradiated food showed negative correlation of r=－0.118 (p<0.05). The coefficient of correlation of attitude and behavior in irradiated food showed negative correlation of r=－0.316 (p<0.01).
The current study was conducted to facilitate appropriate hygiene and safety management in children’s food service stations, with the ultimate objective of providing sanitary and safe food service to children. In order to develop questionnaire items, literature review was conducted, in addition to detailed interview of working-level personnel at a children’s food service management support center. This resulted in a total of thirty questions on personal hygiene management, food materials hygiene management, and facilities hygiene management. Using the questionnaire, seventy-one food service stations for children in District A in Seoul that serve less than one hundred children were surveyed to analyze the reliability, construct validity, and correlation in the developed measurement tool. The developed measurement tool consisted of ten task and environmental hygiene management questions, five personal and cooking hygiene management questions, four food ingredient and storage hygiene management questions, and four food service operation and management question; with a total of twenty-three questions, in four factors stated above. The cumulative distribution of the four factors was 54.698%, and Cronbach’s α value was 0.672~0.853, which indicated that the study was reliable. The results of the analysis indicated that each of the factors were correlated, the study was satisfactory, and the tool was valid for evaluating hygiene and safety management practices in children’s food service stations. Finally, in order to enhance practical utility of the developed measurement tool, the significance and limitations were described.
Increasing sugar intake of population has become a nutritional issue in Korea. Sweet taste perception may be related to behaviors such as eating sweet food including high sugars and total sugar intake. This study aimed to evaluate objective and subjective sweet taste perception and the association among objective sweet taste perception, dietary behaviors related to eating sweet snack food including high sugar, and total sugar intake from the snacks. Participants were 261 healthy female college students (mean age: 21.0±1.6 years), who were divided into three subgroups based on oral sweet taste evaluation using a sweet taste assessment tool provided by Ministry of Food and Drug Safety: sweet-seeker group (n=139), medium sweet-seeker group (n=54), and unsweet-seeker group (n=68). There was no significant difference in weight and body mass index (BMI) among the three groups; however, the sweet-seeker group had significantly higher sweet taste preference than that of the other groups. Though more people in the sweet-seeker group thought they tended to eat sweet foods than the medium sweet-seeker and unsweet-seeker groups, over half of the sweet-seekers did not think they tended to eat sweet foods. The sweet-seeker group was more likely to eat sweet snacks such as breads, chocolate products, sugar-sweetened milk, and so on than the unsweet-seeker group. Total sugar intake from the selected sweet snacks was 44.4 g for the sweet-seeker group, 34.4 g for the medium sweet-seeker group, and 28.0 g for the unsweet-seeker group with a significant difference. These results indicated the absence of relationship between objective sweet taste perception and the obesity index; however, significant associations were detected among objective sweet taste perception, eating sweet snacks and total sugar intake from the snacks. We also found high disagreement between objective and subjective sweet taste perception of the subjects. The present study provided the novel insight that measuring objective sweet taste perception may be useful for assessing the risk of high sugar consumption and undesirable dietary behaviors.
Recently, increased caffeine intake has led to an increase in caffeine addiction and withdrawal symptoms. Coffee is surreptitiously consumed in as an additive to milk and caramel. There are few studies on how coffee affects the health of modern people. The purpose of this study is to determine the efficacy and side effects of coffee by awareness of coffee consumption patterns among college students, who are the principal consumers. A survey was conducted from May 11 to 17, 2015 and 302 questionnaires were analyzed. The respondents were 140 men (46.4%) and 162 women (53.6%). In terms of coffee additives, 151 (50.0%) respondents chose ‘americano’ and 111 (36.8%) ‘variation’. The frequency of coffee intake and sleep time for college students was negatively correlated, with the correlation coefficient of －0.145 and significance probability of 0.019. The group that was ‘positively’ aware of the principal ingredients of coffee had a higher level of academic training than those with ‘negative’ awareness (p=0.000). Women recognized a larger number of side effects than men: 1.99 and 1.36, respectively, on average (p=0.001). ‘Time for consumption’ had statistically significant effects on the side effects of coffee consumption: consumption before/after lunch, before/after supper and before going to bed led to 0.4 times (p=0.048) and 0.3 times (p=0.023) more side effects, respectively, than consuming coffee after getting up and before/ after breakfast. Excessive caffeine intake through coffee led to limited sleep time and poorer learning concentration. The guidelines for proper coffee consumption should be created to help students consume coffee properly so that it will not affect sleep, learning concentration or adversely affect health.
The nutritional compositions and physicochemical properties of two aronia varieties (Viking and Nero) cultivated in Chungbuk were investigated. The proximate compositions of Nero and Viking powder were:13% moisture, 0.58% and 0.6% ash, 0.73% and 0.33% crude lipid, 5.47% and 6.51% crude protein, 15.65% and 16.15% crude dietary fiber, and 64.36 and 64.43% crude carbohydrate, respectively. The proximate contents of the aronia samples were not significantly different. Among the physicochemical properties, there was also no significant change in total anthocyanin and antioxidant activity. However, Viking had higher total polyphenol contents and α-glucosidase inhibition activity than Nero. The mineral contents of Al, Fe, Mn, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Cu and Zn in the two aronias were determined. Cu and Zn were not detected in both varieties. With regard to Al, Na and K, Nero was higher than Viking, while Ca was higher in Viking than Nero. From the results, Viking could be suggested to be beneficial for food processing.
This study was conducted to determine the association between dietary calcium intake and biomarkers related to lipid and glucose metabolism and inflammation in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes. Seventy-five subjects (41 males, 34 females) were recruited from a group of patients who had visited the department of endocrine medicine. Data on anthropometric characteristics, clinical indices such as hemoglobin A1c and C-reactive protein (CRP), and dietary nutrient intakes were collected. Subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of their calcium intake [RNI (above RNI)]. Average calcium intake of RNI groups were 462.7±18.7, 649.7±12.8, and 895.7±21.7 mg, respectively. Energy intake was not different among groups but intakes of protein, total and saturated fatty acids were significantly higher in >RNI group than RNI groups, although within the normal range. Our results suggest that dietary calcium intake may influence the levels of HDL-cholesterol, CRP and HOMA2-IR and subsequently, help management/treatment of type 2 diabetes patients.