Tempeh is a traditional Indonesian food that is fermented soybeans with Rhizopus spp. and contains high-quality protein. In this study, tempeh and yeast were set as independent variables following the central composite design to optimize the nutritional quality and sensory characteristics of high-protein loaf bread added with tempeh. The optimal mixing ratio was calculated through the response surface methodology. The optimal mixing ratio of tempehadded loaf bread was 11.27 g of tempeh and 5.46 g of yeast. A comparative analysis of the quality characteristics between the tempeh-added loaf bread and the control group produced by the optimal recipe showed that tempehadded loaf bread contained higher protein content, lower carbohydrates and fats, and lower calories. Among amino acids, essential amino acids such as aspartic acid, threonine, glycine, alanine, lysine, and histidine were significantly higher in tempeh-added loaf bread. Among fatty acids, butyric acid, capric acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, and heptadecanoic acid were significantly higher in tempeh-added loaf bread, while lauric acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid were significantly lower. This study confirmed the suitability of tempeh as an ingredient for protein-enhanced loaf bread and the potential possibility of it being utilized in bakeries.
Fluorescent probe were used to evaluate the effects of catechin on the structural parameters (annular lipid fluidity, transbilayer lateral and rotational mobility and protein clustering) of the Porphyromonas gingivalis outer membrane (OPGs). An experimental procedure was used on the basis of selective quenching of 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) and 1,3-di(1-pyrenyl)propane (Py-3-Py) by trinitrophenyl groups and radiationless energy transfer from the tryptophans of membrane proteins to Py-3-Py and DPH. Catechin increased the bulk lateral and rotational mobility, annular lipid fluidity of OPGs lipid bilayers, and had greater fluidizing efficacy on the outer monolayer than the inner monolayer. It also caused membrane proteins to cluster. Based on these effects of catechin on OPGs, the antibacterial and antiviral actions of catechin can be partially explained.
This study aimed to investigate the need for dietary education and programs for young Koreans belonging to singleperson households in the metropolitan area. A total of 500 young adults aged 19-34 participated in the study through an online survey. Participants responded to questions on general characteristics, dietary problems, and the need for dietary education and programs. The subjects were divided into three groups as follows: Undergraduate students, employed workers, and others. Among the subjects from single-person households, 20.2, 67, and 12.8% were undergraduate students, employed workers, and others, respectively. When asked for their estimation of an appropriate self-pay when participating in a cooking class, 39.8% of total subjects responded ‘5,000-10,000 won’. The most preferred program for young adults in single-person households was the ‘support food package’. For the preferred method of dietary education, undergraduate students showed a greater preference for classes ‘at campuses’. However, employed workers and others had a higher preference for ‘non-face-to-face online classes’. Undergraduate students tended to generally have a higher preference for dietary education and support programs compared to employed workers and others. This study provides data that will be useful for establishing healthy dietary policies and education programs for young single-person households in Korea.
열대저기압이 한반도로 접근할 때 중심최대풍속이 34 knot보다 약해졌더라도(weak tropical cyclone; WTC) 수 도권 지역으로 상륙하면 상당한 피해를 일으키지만 WTC만 독립적으로 조사한 학술연구는 거의 없다. 본 연구에 따르 면 WTC 활동은 Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO)와 관련되어 있는 것으로 보인다. PDO가 음의 위상일 때는 양의 위상일 때보다 95% 신뢰구간에서 유의하게 더 많은 WTC가 한반도에 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. PDO 양의 위 상에 비해 음의 위상 시기에는 북서태평양 북부에서 양의 상대소용돌이 아노말리가 나타난 반면, 북서태평양 남부에서 는 강한 연직바람시어와 음의 상대소용돌이 아노말리가 나타났다. 이런 조건 하에서 열대저기압의 발생위치가 보다 북 쪽으로, 즉 동아시아 대륙에 더욱 근접할 수 있었던 것으로 보이며 이에 따라 열대저기압의 전체 생애가 짧아졌을 것 이다. 게다가 PDO 음의 위상 시기에 일본열도 상공에 자리한 고기압성 아노말리는 열대저기압의 진로를 좀 더 서쪽으 로 밀어내어 육지에 의한 마찰과 황해 저층 냉수대의 영향도 증가하였을 것이다. 이에 따라 열대저기압의 생애최대강도 와 상륙 시 강도가 약해져 PDO 음의 위상 때 WTC 활동이 한반도에서 증가한 것으로 분석된다.
Chlorhexidine is a cationic bisbiguanide with broad antibacterial activity, and diverse activity encompassing gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, yeasts, dermatophytes, and some lipophilic viruses. Chlorhexidine alters the permeability of the bacterial membrane. They also neutralize periodontal pathogens such as Streptococcus aureus, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia. Porphyromonas gingivalis were cultured to isolate the Porphyromonas gingivalis outer membranes (OPG). Also, OPG were used to prepare large unilamellar liposomes with total lipids (OPGTL) extracted and prepared with the phospholipids mixture (PL). The effect of chlorhexidine digluconate on cell membrane kinetic changes was investigated using fluorescence polarization of n-(9-anthroyloxy) stearic acid with different rotational mobility depending on the probe substitution position (n) in the membrane phospholipid aliphatic chain. Chlorhexidine digluconate increased the hydrocarbon rotational mobility interior of the OPG, OPGTL and PL, but native and model membranes interfacial mobility were decreased. The sensitivity to increasing chlorhexidine digluconate effect on rotational mobility was proportional to the depth of probe position in descending order of 16-AP, 12-AS, 6-AS and 9-AS. Chlorhexidine digluconate disordering or ordering the effects on the membrane lipids may cause its bacteriostatic and bacteriocidal actions.
Herbal medicine has been the basis for medical treatments through much of human history, and such traditional medicine is still widely practiced today. Modern medicine makes use of many plant-derived compounds as the basis for pharmaceutical drugs. In traditionally, Achyranthes aspera, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seed and Acanthopanax senticosus have been used for the treatment and prevention of bone-related diseases. In this study, we investigated the pharmacological effect of mixture of Achyranthes aspera, Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) seed and Acanthopanax senticosus and the other herbs. Two types of enzymes were used to enhance the extraction components of amino acid, mineral content, free sugar, and flavor recovery in extracting natural herbal mixtures(NME). We evaluated regulation of osteogenic differentiation in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells using alkaline phosphatase staining, alizarin red S staining and RT-PCR. The CCK-8 assay indicated that NME had no cytotoxicity but increased cell survival. In addition, NME promoted the mineralization and expression of osteogenic differention marker genes in human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Therefore, NME has an effect of promoting proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cell.
The purpose of this study was to determine the optimal composite recipe of rice muffins with 3 concentrations of Spergularia marina L. Griseb, sugar and grape seed oil, using central composite design. In addition, the mixing condition of rice muffins was optimized by subjecting it to sensory evaluation and mechanical and physicochemical analysis using response surface methodology (RSM). In regard to its antioxidant effects, Spergularia marina L. Griseb had a total phenol and flavonoid contents and DPPH free radical scavenging activity of 17.03 mg/g, 5.13 mg/g and 17.21%, respectively. The results of mechanical and physicochemical analysis showed significant values for lightness, redness, yellowness, hardness, springiness, chewiness, gumminess, cohesiveness, height, volume, weight, specific volume, loss rate, pH, moisture, sweetness and saltiness (p<0.05), and the results of sensory evaluation showed significant values for color, flavor, taste, softness, appearance and overall quality (p<0.05). As results, optimal sensory ratio was found to be 6.69 g of Spergularia marina L. Griseb, 41.89 g of sugar and 30.48 g of grape seed oil.
The purpose of this study was to perform a functional component analysis to optimize the recipes for Korean beef main bone area. To optimize the recipes for beef leg bone broth, beef feet broth and tail broth, the quality and physiochemical properties of the dishes were comparatived and investigated. Crude protein, crude fat and moisture showed significant differences among the beef leg bone broth, Beef feet broth and tail broth (p<0.001). All free amino acids showed significant differences, with the exception of cystine and tryptophan (p<0.05). All minerals showed significant differences (p<0.01). Na content was highest in the beef leg bone broth (211.77 mg/kg), followed by beef feet broth (254.40 mg/kg), and tail broth (134.93 mg/kg). Collagen was significantly different each dish (p<0.001), but chondroitin sulfate was not. And all nucleic acids showed significant differences.