This study analyzed the relationship between distribution of Bolboschoenus planiculmis which is main food source of swans (national monument species) with environmental factors, discharge, rainfall, and salinity in Eulsuk-do from 2020 to 2023. The distribution area of B. planiculmis in Eulsuk tidal flat was 103,672 m2 in 2020, 95,240 m2 in 2021, 88,163 m2 in 2022, and 110,879 m2 in 2023, and represents a sharp decrease compared to the 400,925 m2 area recorded in 2004. From 2020 to 2023, the growth densities of B. planiculmis were 243.6±12.5 m-2, 135.45±7.38 m-2, 51.10±2.54 m-2, and 238.20±16.36 m-2, respectively, and the biomass was 199.89±28.01 gDW m-2, 18.57±5.12 gDW m-2, 6.55±1.12 gDW m-2, and 153.53±25.43 gDW m-2 in 2020, 2023, 2021, and 2022, respectively. Based on discharge during May~July, which affects plant growth, the left gate discharge of the estuary barrage from 2020 to 2023 was 62,322 m3 sec-1, 33,329 m3 sec-1, 6,810 m3 sec-1, and 93,641 m3 sec-1, respectively; rainfall was 1,136 mm, 799 mm, 297 mm, and 993 mm, respectively; and average salinity was 14.7±9.4 psu, 21.1±4.7 psu, 26.1±2.7 psu, and 14.5± 11.1 psu, respectively. In 2022, cumulative rainfall (978 mm, about 70% of the 30-year average) and discharge (43,226 m3 sec-1) decreased sharply, resulting in the highest mean salinity (25.46 psu), and the distribution area, density, and biomass of the B. planiculmis decreased sharply. In 2023, there was a rise in discharge with an increase in rainfall, leading to a decrease in salinity. Consequently, this environmental change facilitated the recovery of B. planiculmis growth.
Owing to its excellent nutritional value, eggs are among the most important components of the human diet. Gender and environmental factors, such as feed composition, may alter the nutritional profile and quality of eggs. Feed additives have recently been used to enhance the health and productivity of hens, which has resulted in the production of higher-quality eggs. The fungus Cordyceps militaris, a well-established source of traditional medicines, contains potential bioactive metabolites, which prompted us to examine the effects of C. militaris-supplemented diets on the quality of hens’ eggs. The hens of two species (Gallus gallus domesticus and Araucana) were fed with one of three different diets: a control diet and diets supplemented with 2% or 5% of C. militaris. Egg quality was determined by measuring the Haugh Unit, yolk color, and shell thickness. In addition, egg and shell densities together with the ratio of yolk to albumen were calculated. Eggshell thickness and yolk color were both enhanced by the addition of C. militaris, whereas Haugh Unit values were somewhat reduced. Egg size, eggshell weight, and yolk and albumen production were all enhanced by C. militaris supplementation. Notably, in hens fed the 2% C. militaris-supplemented diet, enhancement was more evident in the yolk than in the albumen. The overall quality of the egg yolk was enhanced when 2% C. militaris was added to the hens' diet, which led to increases in both yolk color and quantity. Eggshell thickness and weight were also higher among eggs laid by hens fed the supplemented diets. Although these effects differed depending on the chicken species, we established that, in general, C. militaris contributes to improving egg quality.
In this study, five different Lentinula edodes cultivar (Chamaram, Sanbaekhyang, Sanjo 713ho, Sanjo 715ho, Sanjo 718ho) were evaluated for their ability to decolorize Remazol Brilliant Blue R (RBBR) in MEB medium, respectively. Chamaram and Sanjo 713ho decolorized RBBR rapidly in MEB medium within 3 and 5 days. The activities of manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase were determined on the MEB medium with and without lignin. Sanjo 713ho resulted the highest ligninolytic enzyme activities on incubation day 1, indicating of 1,213 U/mg of MnP activity and 1,421 U/mg of laccase activity.