Wolfiporia cocos is an edible fungus commercially cultivated in Asia. To investigate metabolic changes of W. cocos mycelia under both light and dark culture conditions, gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses were performed. In terms of the total amount of sugars, alcohols, amino acids, organic acids, fatty acids, and purines, there no significant differences between the W. cocos mycelia cultivated under light (L) or dark (D) conditions (p < 0.05). However, there were some differences with respect to the production of particular sugars and proteins. The levels of trehalose (L: 17.2 ± 0.3% vs. D: 13.9 ± 1.6%), maltose (L: 0.9 ± 0.1% vs. D: 0.3 ± 0.1%), turanose (L: 0.7 ± 0.2% vs. D: 0.1 ± 0.1%), glutamine (L: 1.6 ± 0.3% vs. D: 0.7 ± 0.2%), and proline (L: 0.3 ± 0% vs. D: 0.1 ± 0%) were all significantly higher under light condition (p < 0.05). In contrast, the levels of galactose (L: 13.7 ± 1.2% vs. D: 17.6 ± 2.0%), aspartic acid (L: 0.6 ± 0.1 % vs. D: 0.9 ± 0.1%), cystathionine (L: 0.6 ± 0.1% vs. D: 0.8 ± 0 %), and malic acid (L: 0.7 ± 0.1% vs. D: 1.2 ± 0.1%) were higher under the dark condition. It is worth noting that the amount of pachymic acid, a pharmaceutically active compound of W. cocos, was 1.68 times greater under the light condition (p < 0.05).
The biological efficiencies of promising Pleurotus spp. were evaluated. Pleurotus ostreatus, Pleurotus tuberregium,and Pleurotus sajor-cajuwere investigated at temperatures of 22oC, 20oC, and 18oC to determine their ability to adapt to temperatures that are likely to be found in subtropical regions. The experiment was conducted using a substrate comprising Popular sawdust 60% + cotton seed 20% + beet pulp 20% under a relative humidity of 65%. The results indicated that there were significant differences in terms of biological efficiency between the species: P. tuber regium 128.84% at 22oC, P. ostreatus 108.41% at 22oC, and P. sajor-caju is 80% at 20oC. The common temperatures at which all species showed the highest biological efficiencies were 22oC and 20oC. Therefore, the production of the evaluated species was equal to or surpassed biological efficiencies reported in tropical environments, thereby demonstrating a potential opportunity to adapt to tropical environments without compromising quality standards.
The demand for novel strains has been rising in the domestic market to increase the production of sclerotia from Wolfiporia hoelen. To improve strain breeding efficiency, we investigated whether single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RNA polymerase II subunit (RPB2) gene, which may be linked to the mating type locus, are useful for distinguishing monokaryons from dikaryons in Korean W. hoelen strains. We designed a specific primer set to efficiently amplify a region of RPB2 using PCR with the genomic DNA of 12 cultivated strains and 31 wild strains of W. hoelen collected from Korea. Nucleotide sequences of the PCR-amplified RPB2 genes were determined and analyzed for the presence of SNPs among the 43 W. hoelen strains. Previously reported SNP loci were detected in the RPB2 gene of all W. hoelen strains tested. However, these previously reported SNP loci could not be applied to differentiate monokaryons from dikaryons in approximately one-third of Korean wild strains with homozygous genotypes. Three additional SNPs in the RPB2 gene, which may improve the ability to distinguish monokaryons from dikaryons, were identified by searching through the multiple sequence alignments of the 43 W. hoelen strains. The applicability of these three novel SNPs, together with the previously known SNPs, in the RPB2 gene to W. hoelen strain breeding was verified by examining the hybrid strains and their parental strains.
Mushrooms in Naejangsan National Park between May and September of 2021 have been surveyed. In this period, a total of 4 divisions, 9 classes, 25 orders, 72 families, 171 genera, and 381 species, including 3 climate-sensitive biological indicator species were found. The order in which the most diverse array of species was observed is Agaricales, which includes 24 families, 64 genera, and 170 species. Among these, the genus Russula was dominant, with 30 species, followed by the genus Amanita with 27 species. Among the 12 grids we investigated, species diversity was greatest in grid F5, in which 56 species of mushrooms were found. In particular, a large number of ectomycorrhizal mushrooms, including Russula spp. and Lactarius spp. were recognized. We presume that the gentle slopes and the low occurrence of Sasa borealis in this area may create a favorable environment for wild mushrooms. In corroboration, some grids (e.g. F6, F8, and F10) covering steep slopes and harboring large numbers of Sasa borealis contained only 19 species. Based on DNA sequence analysis, the NJ21064 was identified as Chlorophyllum hortense, which is newly recorded in Korea.
Flammulina velutipes, known as winter mushroom in the family of Physalacriaceae, is the main edible and export mushroom with the third highest production after oyster and king oyster mushroom in Korea. However, as normal consumers regard F. velutipes as a simple subsidiary material, there is a limitation to increasing mushroom demand. In order to overcome the consumption limit and increase the differentiation of new varieties, it is necessary to breed varieties with enhanced functionality in consideration of consumer preferences. Therefore, the study was performed to analyze nutrient components and several useful functional substances with 26 genetic resources of F. velutipes. Analyses of inorganic compound(Ca, K, Mg) and 15 amino acids revealed that Strain 4148 had the highest content among the 26 strains. Beta-glucan, which increases immune activity and polyphenol, which exert antioxidant effects were higher in non-white strains than in white strains with a small number of exceptions. Among the five fatty acids, linoleic acid(an omega-6 fatty acid) and α-linolenic acid(an omega-3 fatty acid), were detected in six mushroom strains. α-linolenic acid, which was not found in five major mushrooms including oyster mushrooms, was identified in F. velutipes. The results of HPLC analysis showed that ‘Auram’ (Strain 4232) and ‘Baekseung’(Strain 4230) had the highest content of the stabilizing neurotransmitter GABA(15.38 μg/ml and 20.56 μg/ml, respectively) among non-white and white strains, respectively. Our findings provide useful information for breeding F. velutipes to obtain strains with enhanced functionality.
This study analyzed Tuber melanosporum, Tuber aestivum,and Tuber magnatum, specifically the content of β-glucan, amino acids, nucleic acid-related substances, vitamin C, and ergosterol. The β-glucan content was highest in T. magnatum (20.54%). The free amino acid content was highest in T. aestivum, with the major amino acids being cystine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid. The total amino acid content was the highest in T. magnatum, the primary amino acids being cystine, glutamic acid, and lysine. The content of nucleotide related compounds was the highest in T. magnatum (5.09 mg/100 g). The highest content of vitamin C (10.15 mg/100 g) and ergosterol (596.91 mg/100 g) was found in T. magnatum, which had the highest useful component content among the three truffles. Additional studies investigating the variation in useful components according to collection time and growth environment are needed.
This study aimed to replace the imported Chinese complete medium for Lentinula edodes with a newly-developed complete medium that is suitable for export as well. Three media compositions that supported fast mycelium growth and higher density, compared to that in the control, were chosen. Culture in the T13 medium reduced the incubation period for ‘Nongjingo’ by 12 days and for ‘Cham-aram’ by 10 days, compared to that required for the control; in addition, the number of days required for browning was greatly reduced for both varieties. The quantity of each mixed medium was increased according to the composition from the 1st to the 5th cycle by 5.9% for ‘Nongjingo’ and 12.6% for ‘Cham-aram’ in T13, compared to that in the control. A mixed medium comprising oak sawdust + Douglas fir sawdust + corn flour (40:40:20, v/v) was selected as the most suitable complete medium.
To elucidate how cultivation temperature affected various traits including pileus color, yield and morphology of Pleurotusspp. Main results were as follows. Pileus lightness of all cultivars of Pleurotustested became higher as cultivation temperature increased, while those of Santari, Hwang-geumsantari and Sunjung at 21oC were lower than at 18oC. Redness and yellowness of pileus decreased as cultivation temperature increased; those of chromatic pileus cultivars showed noticeable difference. Yellowness of cultivar with chromatic pileus was higher than that of cultivar with achromatic pileus. Yield was increased as cultivation temperature increased, Wonhyeung 1ho; low temperature favored cultivar showed high yield when it was cultivated at low temperature andno fruiting body at 21oC. Valid number of stipes were generally higher at 18oC, and its correlation coefficient with yield was low. Length and stipe thickness changed consistently (larger and thicker) upon cultivation temperature; the coefficient of determination(R2) 0.514 for lengthof Heuktari and 0.963for stipe thickness of Santari were high. Correlation coefficient of one trait was highly related with multiple traits. In the future, we will conduct research on the changes of expressed genes involved in the pigments for pileus color by RNA expression analysis.
Fungi that infect mushrooms and cause diseases are called mycoparasitic fungi. Understanding the diversity of mycoparasitic fungi in wild mushrooms is important for the mushroom industry, as they can parasitize cultivated mushrooms. However, few studies have been conducted on the diversity of mycoparasitic fungi in wild mushrooms in South Korea. Upon surveying mushroom flora, we found a mycoparasitic fungus and analyzed its strain using molecular phylogeny and morphological examination. The strain was identified as Sepedonium laevigatum, which is an unrecorded species in South Korea. In this study, we described the cultural and microscopic characteristics of this strain of fungus.
Owing to its excellent nutritional value, eggs are among the most important components of the human diet. Gender and environmental factors, such as feed composition, may alter the nutritional profile and quality of eggs. Feed additives have recently been used to enhance the health and productivity of hens, which has resulted in the production of higher-quality eggs. The fungus Cordyceps militaris, a well-established source of traditional medicines, contains potential bioactive metabolites, which prompted us to examine the effects of C. militaris-supplemented diets on the quality of hens’ eggs. The hens of two species (Gallus gallus domesticus and Araucana) were fed with one of three different diets: a control diet and diets supplemented with 2% or 5% of C. militaris. Egg quality was determined by measuring the Haugh Unit, yolk color, and shell thickness. In addition, egg and shell densities together with the ratio of yolk to albumen were calculated. Eggshell thickness and yolk color were both enhanced by the addition of C. militaris, whereas Haugh Unit values were somewhat reduced. Egg size, eggshell weight, and yolk and albumen production were all enhanced by C. militaris supplementation. Notably, in hens fed the 2% C. militaris-supplemented diet, enhancement was more evident in the yolk than in the albumen. The overall quality of the egg yolk was enhanced when 2% C. militaris was added to the hens' diet, which led to increases in both yolk color and quantity. Eggshell thickness and weight were also higher among eggs laid by hens fed the supplemented diets. Although these effects differed depending on the chicken species, we established that, in general, C. militaris contributes to improving egg quality.
Pleurotus species are the most consumed and cultivated mushrooms in Korea. Although oyster mushrooms (P. ostreatus) can be cultivated automatically, their storability is slightly lower than that of king oyster mushrooms (P. eryngii) and winter mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes); therefore, the export proportion of oyster mushrooms is very low. Since Korean mushrooms are highly preferred across Southeast Asian, the export of oyster mushrooms in the form of complete substrates is expected to be more promising than that of fresh mushroom. Here, 1 and 2.5 kg complete substrates of P. ostreatus ‘Soltari’ and P. sajor-caju ‘Sambok’ were prepared and stored at different temperature from 0 to 15°C for 10 days. Thereafter, the formation of fruiting bodies was induced. Since the 2.5 kg complete substrates required 70 days of incubation, their mycelia were at an advanced age and their fruiting bodies did not grown normally. When 70%-incubated complete substrates were stored at 5–10°C, the growth was faster and more uniform and stable fruiting bodies were formed. Export test of complete substrates to Vietnam using distribution containers set at 0°C and 15°C revealed that the growth period was shortened by 1–2 days when the distribution containers were set at 15°C and the yield of ‘Soltari’ increased by approximately 10%. In addition, even though the yield of ‘Sambok’ was similar between treatments at 0°C and 15°C, the quality of fruiting bodies from 15°C-distributed complete substrates was much better than that of those from 0°C-distributed substrates.
This study investigated the culture characteristics of Cryptoporus volvatus, whichis grow naturally in Korea, to determine the suitable environmental conditions for its cultivation. The physiological characteristics of the mycelia were assessed according to the cultivation conditions, to determine the optimal conditions for artificial cultivation. The visual characteristics of the hyphae of Cryptoporus volvatus KACC52303 included an irregular and uneven surface and a fuzzy or cotton-like texture. Under the microscope, its microstructure showed pre-chlamydospore formation, but no clamps were seen. The appropriate culture temperature was found to be a medium/high temperature of approximately 25–30oC, and the optimal pH was found to have a wide range from weakly acidic (pH 4) to neutral (pH 7). In the optimal nutrient source experiment, hyphal growth was shown to be fair in a mixed medium with 2.5% dextrin as the carbon source and 0.1% yeast extract as the organic nitrogen source. Among the various amino acids, organic acids, and inorganic salts tested, the fastest hyphal growth was observed in the presence of leucine, acetic acid or gluconic acid, and KCl or KH2PO4, respectively. The column test showed that the best mycelial growth occurred in a mixed medium of 80% pine sawdust, 10% rice bran, and 10% corncob sawdust.
The present study investigated the optimum additive ratio of wheat straw pellet as a substitute for beet pulp during oyster mushroom cultivation. The chemical properties across treatments were pH of 4.8–5.5, total carbon content of 45.9–46.5%, total nitrogen content of 1.5–1.7%, and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of 27.8–31.0. Mycelial growth was the fastest in a medium containing 20% wheat straw pellet (at 88.2 mm in ‘Heuktari’ and 70.3–79.6 mm in ‘Suhan-1Ho’); however, there were no significant differences in mycelial density among the treatments. The characteristics of fruiting bodies by variety were as follows. In ‘Heuktari’, the valid stipe number per bottle (1,100 cc) was 22.5 and yield was 177.1 g/1,100 cc in the mixed medium containing 10% wheat straw pellet, with the values being comparable to those of controls. In ‘Suhan-1Ho’, the valid stipe number per bottle (1,100 cc) was 14.0 and yield was 151.2 g/1,100 cc in the mixed medium containing 10% wheat straw pellet, with the values being comparable to those of controls.
The present study aimed at selecting a cost-effective substrate for king oyster mushroom based on the growth characteristics of fruiting body for use as a basic resource to ensure stable production on farms. Compositional analysis of substrates manufactured with different materials in each process revealed that the total carbon content was 42.24–48.22% higher and the total nitrogen content was 1.7–2.29% higher in the processed lot than in the control (i.e., substrate used by the farmhouse; 40.86% and 1.39%, respectively). Meanwhile, the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio was the highest in the control (27.9% vs. 19.12–27.88% in the processed lot). When cultured for 28 days, the mycelium growth was 11.5 and 11.3 mm in substrates 1 and 6, respectively, indicating the fastest growth; meanwhile, the values were 10.1–10.3 mm in the control and substrate 11, showing a similar tendency. Mycelial density did not differ significantly among the processed lots. Yield per bottle was higher in substrates 8 (205.95 g/bottle), 7 (178.51 g/bottle), and 11 (170.63 g/bottle) than in the control (152.2 g/bottle). Fruiting body quality was comparable to controls in all processed lots. Overall, economic effects, such as substrate material prices, should be analyzed, and stability evaluations, such as residual pesticide and harmful microorganisms, should be undertaken along with further detailed examination to ensure safe and stable production on farms.