Cellulose is the most abundant organic polymer constituent of the cell wall of green plants and of various forms of algae. The complexity of lignocellulosic biomass is a major challenge in industrial research. Most mushroom species that naturally grow on soil or wood possess cellulases and the corresponding enzymatic system and, potential candidates for the direct bioconversion of softwood polysaccharides into fermentable sugars. However, there have been fewer studies on mushroom cellulases than on fungi such as Trichoderma spp., exploit the full potential of mushroom cellulases. This review will focus on the current status ofmushroom cellulase research and applications and will provide insight into promising future prospects.
The production scale of mushrooms in Korea is approximately 600 billion won, which is 1.6% of Korea’s gross agricultural output. In Korea, ca. 190,000 tons of mushrooms are harvested annually. Although the numbers of mushroom farms and cultivators are constantly decreasing, total mushroom yields are increasing owing to large-scale cultivation facilities and automation. The recent expansion of the well-being trend has caused an increase in mushroom consumption in Korea: the annual per capita mushroom was 3.9 kg (’13), whichis a little higher than that in Europe. Thus, mushroom export, mainly Flammulina velutipes and Pleurotus ostreatus, has increased since the mid-2000s. Recently, however, it is slightly reduced. Nevertheless, Vietnam, Hong Kong, the United States, and the Netherlands continue to export mushrooms, and Korea has increased its export to Australia, Canada, Southeast Asia, etc. Canned Agaricus bisporus, the first export of the Korean mushroom industry, reached it speak sales in 1977-1978. When Korea initiated trade with China in 1980, the international prices of mushrooms fell sharply, leading to shrinkage of the domestic markets. Spurred by the high demand to develop substitute goods for A. bisporus, the oyster mushroom (P. ostreatus) gained attention since it seemed to suit the taste of Korean consumers. Although the log cultivation technique for oyster mushroom was developed in the early 1970s, it required a great deal of labor. Thus, we developed the shelf cultivation technique, which is easier to manage and allows for mass production. In this technique, the growing shelf is made mafrom fermented rice straw, whichis the only P. ostreatus medium in the world and isused only in South Korea. After then, the use of cotton wastes as an additional material of medium, the productivity. Currently, we are developing a standard cultivation technique and environmental control system that can stably produce mushrooms throughout the year. The increase of oyster mushroom production may boostthe domestic market and contribute to industrial development. In addition, oyster mushroom production technology played a role in forming the basis for the development of bottle cultivation, which made mass production . In particular, bottle cultivation using liquid spawn could allow for the export of F. velutipes and Pleurotus eryngii. In addition, the white varieties of F. velutipes were second developed in the world after Japan. We also developed the new A. bisporus cultivar ‘Saeah’, which is easy to grow in Korea. In hopes to advance the mushroom industry, we will continue to develop cultivars with international competitive power and to improve cultivation techniques.
Worldwide production of mushrooms has been increasing by 10–20% every year. Recently, Pleurotus eryngii and P. nebrodensis have become popular mushroom species for cultivation. In particular, China exceeded 8.7 million tons in 2002, which accounted for 71.5% of total world output. A similar trend was also observed in Korea. Two kinds of mushrooms— Gumji (金芝; Ganoderma) and Seoji—are described in the ancient book 'Samguksagi' (History of the three kingdoms; B.C 57~A.D 668; written by Bu Sik Kim in 1145) during the Korea-dynasty. Many kinds of mushrooms are also described in more than 17 ancient books during the Chosun-dynasty (1392~1910) in Korea. Approximately 200 commercial strains of 38 species of mushrooms were developed and distributed to cultivators. The somatic hybrid variety of oyster mushroom, ‘Wonhyeongneutari,’ was developed by protoplast fusion, and distributed to growers in 1989. Further, the production of mushrooms as food was 199,829 metric tons, valued at 850 billion Korean Won (one trillion won if mushroom factory products are included) in 2015. In Korea, the major cultivated species are P. ostreatus, P. eryngii, Flammulina velutipes, Lentinula edodes, Agaricus bisporus, and Ganoderma lucidum, which account for 90% of the total production. Since mushroom export was initiated in 1960, the export and import of mushrooms have increased in Korea. Technology was developed for liquid spawn production, and automatic cultivation systems led to the reduction of production cost, resulting in the increase in mushroom export. However, some species were imported owing to high production costs for effective cultivation methods. In academia, RDA scientists have conducted mushroom genome projects since 1997. One of the main outcomes is the whole genome sequencing of Flammulina velutipes for molecular breeding. With regard to medicinal mushrooms, we have been conducting genome research on Cordyceps and its related species for developing functional foods. There are various kinds of beneficial substances in mushrooms; mushroom products, including pharmaceuticals, tonics, healthy beverages, functional biotransformants, and processed foods have also became available on the market. In addition, compost and feed can likewise be made from mushroom substrates after harvest.
A recent study reported that Pleurotus ostreatus has the potential to be used as a β-glucan-based cream for supportive complementary therapy of atopic dermatitis. KH054 is a new herbal prescription consisting of P. ostreatus and Panax ginseng. The effects of atopic dermatitis-induced materials on the expression of cytokine genes in human monocytes (THP-1, EoL- 1) have been examined. Some reports demonstrated that P. ginseng augments the activity of natural killer cells, which plays an important role in innate immunity against infection and tumor development. Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP-1), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-8 have important roles in mediating the infiltration of various cells into the skin of atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. The present study investigated whether KH054 on induced IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 secretion by house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronissinus) in THP-1 (human acute monocytic leukemia) and EoL-1(Human eosinophilic leukemia) cell. D. pteronissinus functions in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases, including atopic dermatitis and asthma. The inhibitory effect of KH054 on the induction of IL-6, IL-8, and MCP-1 secretion by D. pteronissinus extract in THP-1 and EoL-1 cells was examined. KH054 potently suppressed the elevated production of IL-6 and IL-8 induced by D. pteronissinus treatment in THP-1 and EoL-1 cells. Based on the present results, KH054 may be useful for developing functional foods to treat atopic dermatitis.
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) producing phenyllactic acid (PLA), which is known as antimicrobial compound, was isolated from button mushroom bed and the isolated LAB was identified to Lactobacillus casei by 16 rRNA gene sequence analysis. Cell-free supernatant (CFS) from L. casei was assessed for both the capability to produce the antimicrobial compound PLA and the antifungal activity against three fungal pathogens (Rhizoctonia solani, Botrytis cinerea, and Collectotricum aculatum). PLA concentration was investigated to be 3.23 mM in CFS when L. casei was grown in MRS broth containing 5 mM phenylpyruvic acid as precursor for 16 h. Antifungal activity demonstrated that all fungal pathogens were sensitive to 5% CFS (v/v) of L. casei with average growth inhibitions ranging from 34.58% to 65.15% (p < 0.005), in which R. solani was the most sensitive to 65.15% and followed by C. aculatum, and B. cinerea. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for commercial PLA was also investigated to show the same trend in the range of 0.35 mg mL-1 (2.11 mM) to 0.7 mg mL-1 (4.21 mM) at pH 4.0. The inhibition ability of CFS against the pathogens were not affected by the heating or protease treatment. However, pH modification in CFS to 6.5 resulted in an extreme reduction in their antifungal activity. These results may indicate that antifungal activities in CFS was caused by acidic compounds like PLA or organic acids rather than protein or peptide molecules.
Four fungal species, during indoor air monitoring for fungi that possibly affect the field testing of a newly bred shiitake cultivar in cultivation houses located in Cheongyang, Chungnam Province and Jangheung, Jeonnam Province. Of these species, two are known to be plant pathogens and the other two are saprobes but potent contaminators in the mushroom cultivation environment. This study reports the morphological characteristics and phylogenetic relationships of these four species based on nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 18S rDNA region, including their known information.
Simple sequence repeats (SSR), also referred to “microsatellites” consist of tandemly repeated short DNA sequence motifs and have been applied in various marker-based studies. SSRs were isolated and characterized from ‘Heuktari’ and ‘Miso’, which are major oyster mushroom cultivars in Korea, by genome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis. The genome sizes of ‘Heuktari’ and ‘Miso’ were estimated to be 40.8 and 40.3 Mb, respectively, which are larger than those of other P. ostreatus species (PC9 and PC10) and smaller than those of P. eryngii (KNR2312P5). In total, 949 and 968 SSRs were found in the ‘Heuktari’ and ‘Miso’ genomes, respectively. Comparative analysis of five mushrooms including P. ostreatus var. florida (PC9 and PC15) and P. eryngii revealed that the number of SSRs in ‘Heuktari’ and ‘Miso’ were the highest among them. All mushrooms studied showed similar SSR distribution patterns. Tri-, hexa-, and octanucleotide motifs accounted for the top three fractions of all SSRs.
Button mushroom(Agaricus bisporus) are cultivated on wheat straw or rice straw based compost. In this study different compost formular, sawdust as carbon source and chicken manure as nitrogen source were used for button mushroom cultivation. Two steps of sufficient composting process was required to be successful in the cultivation. 1) the substrates are needed to be mixed periodically under the aerobic condition in the phase I process. 2) the temperature is need to be maintained between 55 and 65? for more than three days in the phase II process. Results showed that button mushroom was possible to grow normally with sawdust based compost. However the mushroom yield was less than that of the conventional compost formular(rice straw or wheat straw). The new compost formular developed from this study may be useful but further research may need to improve button mushroom cultivation more efficiently.
This study was performed to determine the optimal condition for Lentinula edodes JMI-10079 mycelium cultivation on the root of Polygonum multiflorum. We also analyzed the proximate composition, total amino acids, and minerals in the root of P. multiflorum cultivated with L. edodes JMI-10079 mycelia. The optimal temperature and pH for L. edodes JMI-10079 mycelium cultivation on the P. multiflorum root were 25oC and pH 5–6 respectively, whereas the optimal carbon and nitrogen sources were glucose and maltose, respectively. The content of crude protein, crude fat, and ash in the P. multiflorum root cultivated with L. edodes JMI-10079 mycelia was higher than that in the uncultivated P. multiflorum root. The content of crude fiber was the highest in the control. Total amino acid analysis revealed that the contents of total amino acids and total essential amino acids were increased by higher root of P. multiflorum concentration.
This study was conducted to investigate optimum conditions for mass production of ntagonistic microbes Alcaligenes sp. HC12. Alcaligenes sp. HC12 had a potent biological control agent to control browning disease caused by Pseudomonas agarici. Alcaligenes sp. HC12 markedly showed the antagonistic activity against Pseudomonas agarici, the most destructive pathogen of cultivated mushrooms. To define the optimum conditions for the mass production of the Alcaligenes sp. HC12, we have investigated optimum culture conditions and effects of various nutrient source on the bacterial growth. The optimum initial pH and temperature were determined as pH 9.0 and 30o, respectively. The optimal concentration of medium elements for the growth of pathogen inhibitor bacterium(Alcaligenes sp. HC12) was determined as follows: 0.5% dextrine, 1.5% yest extract, 1.0% NaNO3, 0.5% KH2PO4, and 1.5% asparagine.
During cultivation of Pluerotus ostreatus, there were happened several problems by mushroom flies. Many mushroom farms were faced with the problem that mushroom production periods became shorter by mushroom fly. In this study, we examined effect of Lycoriella ingenua on the production of P. ostreatus. When we used 10 adult flies at the time of inoculation, mushroom production decreased by 10.8% as compared to that of the control. And when L. ingenua used more than 20 adult flies, contamination occurred in all treatments. And when L. ingenua used at the time of P. ostreatus mycelium cultured during 14 days, it was confirmed that the yield of P. ostreatus decreased in proportion to the number of L. ingenua.
Oyster mushrooms are widely cultivated and consumed in Korea. P. ostreatus 'Suhan(ASI 2504)' is an ideal cultivar for mushroom farmers due to its dark pileus and thick stipe; however, as it is very sensitive to environmental conditions, an alternative cultivar is required. To develop a new cultivar, parental strains 'Suhan(ASI 2504)' and ‘ASI 0665 (Heuktari)’ were selected from various collected strains according to morphological characteristics. P. ostreatus ‘Soltari’ was developed by Di- Mon crossing between the dikaryotic strain ‘Suhan’ and the monokaryotic strain derived from ‘Heuktari’. Thirty-eight of the 100 crossed strains were selected following analysis of mitochondrial genetic characteristics, and 'Soltari' was ultimately selected by continuous cultivation tests. The mitochondrial DNA profile of ‘Soltari’ was found to be the same as that of ‘Heuktari, and a nuclear DNA profile of ‘Soltari’ was similar as those of the parental strains, ‘Suhan’ and ‘Heuktari.’ 'Soltari' mycelium grows adequately in moderate to high temperatures of 12–20oC, although its optimum temperature was found to be 30oC. Fruiting body production per 1.1-L cultivation bottle was approximately 158.8 g. Its stipe length and thickness were comparable to those of diameter and thickness were somewhat lower (42.72 vs. 51.33 mm and 18.18 vs. 22.46 mm, respectively). ‘Soltari’ was found to be more resistant to high CO2 atmosphere than 'Suhan', and the color of the pileus of 'Soltari' was dark gray at high temperature. Therefore, it is suggested that this new cultivar ‘Soltari’ is a good alternative cultivar and will contribute to energy saving in oyster mushroom farms.
In 2010, a new variety for sawdust cultivation,was produced by monokaryotic-monokaryotic crossing between Sanjo 701ho and FMRI0995. The optimum temperature for Sanjo 708ho mycelial growth was 25oC; mycelial growth on potato dextrose agar was 51.6 mm over 7 days. The fruiting pattern was sporadic, and the optimal temperature range for fruiting was 5~20oC. Regarding fruiting body characteristics, the pileus was 65.8 mm in size, 16.1 mm in thickness, and hemispherical in shape. The stipe was 42.6 mm in and 19.6 mm in thickness. Mproductivity was good during thelow-temperature period from autumn to spring, with an average productivity of 310.7 g/bag.
Geoni, a new variety of Auricularia polytricha, was bred in JARES(Jeollanamdo Agricultural Research and Extension Services) in 2012. Geoni was selected through the monospore hybridization with JNM21008 and JNM21014 in 2010. Based on a performance test conducted from 2011 to 2012, the Geoni was selected from a line showing an excellent light brown pileus and strong pest resistance. Geoni has a favorable chewiness, light brown and smooth pileus. In addition, Geoni was rich in dietary fiber. MCM(mushroom complete medium), Malt and PDA(Potato Dextrose Agar) mediums were suitable for cultivating the Geoni. The number of effective stipes was 39 ea/0.9 kg and minor axis and major axis of pileus were 6.9 cm and 8.7 cm respectively. The yield of Geoni was 291 g/0.9 kg in plastic bag. Geoni was required 40~54 days for culture at 20oC and 24days for the primordia and growth period, which is longer than that of the control(Pung-un). Somatic incompatibility was formed between parental strains and Geoni. Analysis of the genetic diversity of the new variety "Geoni”revealed a different profile from the parental strains when RAPD(random Amplified Polymorphic DNA) primers were used.
The total polyphenol and physiological activities of Pleurotus ostreatus 30% fermented ethanol using different drying methods and extraction periods were investigated. Based on the observed polyphenol content and physiological activity, freezedrying showed better results than hot air-drying method for P. ostreatus extracted with 30% fermented ethanol for more than 15 days. The total phenolic compound content of ‘Gosol’ following thefreeze-drying method for 15 days showed the highest value of 0.49±0.02 mg/mL. Freeze-drying with extraction for 30 days for ASI 2344 showed the highest antioxidant activity based on the DPPH radical scavenging rate of 35.50±3.29%. Freeze-drying ‘Gosol’ for 30 days resulted inthe highest anti-inflammatory and nitrite scavenging activity of 48.40±3.38%. Our results showed that P. ostreatus is a functional food.
Chronic inflammation, which results from continuous exposure to antigens, is one of major reasons for tissue damage and diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of extracts (hexane, CHCl3, MeOH, MeOH/H2O, and H2O) from GW10-45, which is our new cultivar of an edible mushroom Pleurotus ferulae (ASI 2803 and ASI 2778), in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. None of the extracts showed cytotoxicity in RAW264.7 cells and the hexane, CHCl and H extracts reduced nitric oxide (NO) production, an important inflammatory marker, in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Particularly, the extract (CG45) inhibited NO production more than the other extracts did. To elucidate the effects of CG45 on molecular targets involved in proinflammatory responses, we performed western blot analysis. Expression of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS) significantly decreased in LPS and CG45 co-incubated cells compared to that in LPS only-treated cells. Additionally, another protein thatplays a critical role in inflammation, was down-regulated in cells treated with both LPS and CG45. In the nuclear factor (NF)- B pathway, phosphorylation of I Bα decreased in RAW264.7 cells treated with both LPS and CG45. Furthermore, CG45 inhibited the phosphorylation of NF- B in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. Conclusively, CG45 could suppress proinflammatory responses in LPS-stimulated RAW264.7 cells by down-regulating not only the phosphorylation of NF- B and I Bα but also the expression of iNOS and COX-2 without any cytotoxicity.
Hot water extracts from 16 domestic edible mushrooms including Pleurotus ferulae (Lanzi) X.L. Mao, Lentinula edodes (Berk.) Pegler, and Hypsizygus marmoreus (Peck) H.E. Bigelow, which are commercially available, were used for determining the cosmetic potential of these mushrooms. In this study, we carried out in vitro functional experiments to determine the inhibitory effects of these extracts on L-DOPA oxidation of tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Based on the results of these experiments, H. marmoreus (Peck) H.E. Bigelow No. 10 and No. 15 were selected for further analysis. We analyzed the melanin synthesis inhibitory activity, TRP1 and MITF expression via real-time PCR, and Fontana Masson staining in artificial skin Neoderm®-ME. Taken together, we observed that the hot water extract from H. marmoreus (Peck) H.E. Bigelow (No. 15) had better whitening effect than the extracts of other mushrooms. Thus, it can be a potential source of skin-whitening agent
This study aimed to discriminate the geographical origins of domestic and chinese Wolfiporia extensa. They were subjected to oxygen (45.32 to 48.07%), carbon (38.09 to 40.12%), hydrogen (6.05 to 6.78%), and nitrogen (0.16 to 0.23%). Antioxidant activity was examined by DPPH free radical scavenging activity. According to the results of the experiment, no significant differences were found between domestic (IC50, 7.25 mg/ml) and Chinese (IC50, 8.35 mg/ml) W. extensa. However, as determined by the inorganic mineral contents were significantly different between domestic and Chinese W. extensa. The amount of potassium in domestic and Chinese W. extensa was and 33.14 ± 17.27%, 47.60 ± 8.78%, respectively. The results of this study suggested that the analysis of inorganic components by ED-XRF should be useful for origin identification of W. extensa
Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) has generally been used for the manufacture of animal feed and production of bio fuel. Limited research has been conducted in the utilization of SMS as a co-material for composting. Therefore, the main purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of composting vegetable waste mixed with various ratios of SMS (30, 40, and 50%). The results showed that the C/N ratio decreased when both sawdust (from 22.0~28.8 to 17.7~20.4) and SMS (from 18.5~19.5 to 12.7~16.8) were applied for composing, owing to increased contents of nitrogen. A maturity test conducted using mechanical (Solvita) and germination tests revealed that both sawdust (92.0~101.9%) and SMS (87.8~89.2%) satisfied a criteria of maturity standard (70%). A correlation analysis between compost maturity and its chemical properties revealed that the C/N ratio and pH were the most dominant parameters for compost maturity. Overall, SMS could be utilized as a compost material and especially, vegetable waste mixed with SMS could provide sufficient nutrients for crop growth.
In order to isolate thermophilic bacteria with high activity of CMCase and xylanase, spent mushroom substrates was collected from an oyster mushroom cultivation farm in Jinju, Gyeongnam, Korea. Among the isolates, one strain designated as YJ09 was selected by agar diffusion method. The isolate YJ09 was identified as a member of Bacillus licheniformis based on biochemical characteristics using Bacillus ID kit and MicroLog system. Comparative 16S rDNA sequence analysis showed that isolate YJ09 formed a distinct phylogenetic tree within the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus licheniformis with sequence similarity of 98.9%. Based on its physiological properties, biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic distinctiveness, the isolate YJ09 was classified as Bacillus licheniformis. The CMCase and xylanase activity of B. licheniformis YJ09 was slightly increased corresponding to the bacterial population from exponential phase to stationary phase in the growth curve of B. licheniformis YJ09.