We aimed to develop outstanding domestic varieties suitable for both columnar and cylindrical-shape substrates, aiming to replace foreign varieties. and bred a high-quality new strain named ‘Charmjon’, using genetic resources collected from Japan and China. The optimal cultivation temperature for Charmjon’s mycelial growth was found to be 25°C, and its mycelial growth at 15°C and 25°C was superior to the control variety. In terms of mycelial growth characteristics based on the substrate, Charmjon exhibited excellent mycelial strength on PDA medium compared to the control variety. Through columnar and cylindrical-shape substrates cultivation, we assessed the quantity and morphological characteristics of the fruiting bodies. The results confirmed that Charmjon can be produced stably using both cultivation methods, and it showed higher yields and individual weights than the control variety. In addition, the color of the pileus was notably darker, and the shape of the pileus varied depending on the cultivation method. The test of genetic diversity revealed that Charmjon has distinct genetic characteristics compared to the control varieties.
Flammulina velutipesis a popular edible mushroom in South Korea, accounting for approximately 30% of the total mushroom export in the country. Despite its significant position in the domestic mushroom industry, approximately 65% of the cultivated F. velutipes are foreign varieties. To secure variety rights and enhance competitiveness in the export market, there is a need to develop domestic varieties with stable production and excellent shelf life. We focused on breeding a new variety called 'Baekwoon' through mon–mon crossing, using 'Baekseung' and an international collection strain (KMCC02260) as parents. Baekwoon exhibited faster mycelial growth rates at 15 °C and 25 °C and higher mycelial growth across four tested media compared to that of the control variety. Under bottle cultivation, Baekwoon had a mycelial cultivation period that was shorter by approximately 2 days compared to that of the control. The yield of Baekwoon was 228.0±10.9 g, 8.3% more than that of the control. Furthermore, Baekwoon displayed distinct morphological features characterized by a larger pileus and thicker stipe compared to that of the control variety. Genetic tests confirmed that Baekwoon is genetically different from both parental strains and the control variety. It is expected that the newly developed F. velutipes variety, Baekwoon, will be evaluated for its adaptation in different regions and actively promoted in the field, ultimately increasing the market share of domestic varieties.
Mushrooms have a unique taste and aroma, so in the processing of mushroom products with other ingredients, a separate pre-processing step is often taken to eliminate the mushroom aroma. In this study, we analyzed the changes in the concentration of volatile compounds according to drying conditions to promote the activation of processing using the fruiting bodies of yellow oyster mushrooms(Pleurotus citrinopileatus) and pink oyster mushrooms(P. djamor). The caps and stipes of yellow oyster and pink oyster mushrooms were separated and freeze-dried at -70oC for 120 hours. Subsequently, they were hot air-dried at temperatures of 40, 50, 60, and 70oC for 24, 24, 16, and 12 hours, respectively. The dried samples were pulverized and quantitatively analyzed by SPME-GC-MS. In the case of yellow oyster mushrooms, the concentration of t-2-nonenal in caps and stipes during freeze-drying was 164.43 g/g d.w. and 174.80 g/g d.w., respectively, whereas during hot air-drying, it significantly decreased to 0.35~3.41 g/g d.w. and 0.98~59.88 g/g d.w. In a similar manner, for pink oyster mushrooms, the concentration of 1-octen-3-ol during freeze-drying in caps and stipes was 31.05 g/g d.w. and 176.17 g/g d.w., respectively, whereas during hot air-drying, it significantly decreased to 1.59~9.66 g/g d.w. and 1.96~15.77 g/g d.w. Furthermore, most volatile compounds showed a tendency to decrease in concentration as the temperature during hot air-drying increased.
The development of automated bottle cultivation systems has facilitated the large-scale production of Pleurotus ostreatus, a commonly cultivated oyster mushroom species in South Korea. However, as the consumption of this product is decreasing and production quantities are exceeding demand, farmers are seeking various other mushroom types and cultivars. In response to this, we have developed a new oyster mushroom cultivar named 'Sena'. This high-yielding cultivar has a white pileus and excellent quality. The white oyster mushroom cultivars 'Goni' and 'Miso' were selected as parental strains from the genetic resources of the National Institute of Horticultural and Herbal Science’s Mushroom Division. By crossing their monokaryons, hybrids were developed and subjected to cultivation trials and characteristic evaluations to select the superior cultivar. The optimal temperature for 'Sena' mycelial growth is 25–30°C, with inhibition occurring at temperatures above 30°C, whereas the temperature for mushroom growth is 14–18°C. The mushrooms grow in clusters, with the white pileus having a shallow funnel shape. Optimal mycelial growth occurs in malt extract agar medium. When cultivated in 1,100 cc bottles, the 'Sena' cultivar had 35 available individuals, surpassing the number 16 available from the control cultivar 'Goni'. The yield per bottle also increased by approximately 157 g, a 24% increase over the control cultivar amount. When 300 g samples of harvested mushrooms were packed and stored at 4°C in a cold storage facility for 28 days, the weight loss rate of ‘Sena’ was approximately 4.22%, lower than that of 'Goni'. Moreover, the changes in pileus and stipe whiteness (measuring 6.99 and 8.33, respectively) were also lower than those of the control cultivar. Since the appearance of a white cap is crucial for quality assessment, the 'Sena' cultivar is superior to the 'Goni' cultivar in terms of both weight and quality after undergoing lowtemperature storage.
Recently, with the increasing global demand for Ganoderma lucidum as a material for functional beverages, varieties with enhanced functionality are needed. As part of this effort, 10 strains were selected from a collection of 160 G. lucidum strains, based on their quantity and fruiting body characteristics. These included four strains collected in Korea, three in Japan, and three of unknown origin. Approximately 44% of the 1,290 hybrid strains were secured. After two rounds of bag cultivation in oak sawdust, three strains (G-20-4, G-20-5, and G-20-7) were ultimately selected for single-timbered cultivation. Among these, G-20-4 demonstrated the earliest harvesting with a large size and a bright cap. Additionally, this strain exhibited the highest levels of total glucan, β-glucan, total triterpenoid, total polyphenol, and total flavonoid content.
Pleurotus species are the most consumed and cultivated mushrooms in Korea. Although oyster mushrooms (P. ostreatus) can be cultivated automatically, their storability is slightly lower than that of king oyster mushrooms (P. eryngii) and winter mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes); therefore, the export proportion of oyster mushrooms is very low. Since Korean mushrooms are highly preferred across Southeast Asian, the export of oyster mushrooms in the form of complete substrates is expected to be more promising than that of fresh mushroom. Here, 1 and 2.5 kg complete substrates of P. ostreatus ‘Soltari’ and P. sajor-caju ‘Sambok’ were prepared and stored at different temperature from 0 to 15°C for 10 days. Thereafter, the formation of fruiting bodies was induced. Since the 2.5 kg complete substrates required 70 days of incubation, their mycelia were at an advanced age and their fruiting bodies did not grown normally. When 70%-incubated complete substrates were stored at 5–10°C, the growth was faster and more uniform and stable fruiting bodies were formed. Export test of complete substrates to Vietnam using distribution containers set at 0°C and 15°C revealed that the growth period was shortened by 1–2 days when the distribution containers were set at 15°C and the yield of ‘Soltari’ increased by approximately 10%. In addition, even though the yield of ‘Sambok’ was similar between treatments at 0°C and 15°C, the quality of fruiting bodies from 15°C-distributed complete substrates was much better than that of those from 0°C-distributed substrates.
Flammulina velutipes, known as winter mushroom in the family of Physalacriaceae, is the main edible and export mushroom with the third highest production after oyster and king oyster mushroom in Korea. However, as normal consumers regard F. velutipes as a simple subsidiary material, there is a limitation to increasing mushroom demand. In order to overcome the consumption limit and increase the differentiation of new varieties, it is necessary to breed varieties with enhanced functionality in consideration of consumer preferences. Therefore, the study was performed to analyze nutrient components and several useful functional substances with 26 genetic resources of F. velutipes. Analyses of inorganic compound(Ca, K, Mg) and 15 amino acids revealed that Strain 4148 had the highest content among the 26 strains. Beta-glucan, which increases immune activity and polyphenol, which exert antioxidant effects were higher in non-white strains than in white strains with a small number of exceptions. Among the five fatty acids, linoleic acid(an omega-6 fatty acid) and α-linolenic acid(an omega-3 fatty acid), were detected in six mushroom strains. α-linolenic acid, which was not found in five major mushrooms including oyster mushrooms, was identified in F. velutipes. The results of HPLC analysis showed that ‘Auram’ (Strain 4232) and ‘Baekseung’(Strain 4230) had the highest content of the stabilizing neurotransmitter GABA(15.38 μg/ml and 20.56 μg/ml, respectively) among non-white and white strains, respectively. Our findings provide useful information for breeding F. velutipes to obtain strains with enhanced functionality.
Despite the long history of mushroom use, studies examining the genetic function of mushrooms and the development of new varieties via bio-molecular methods are significantly lacking compared to those examining other organisms. However, owing to recent developments, attempts have been made to use a novel gene-editing technique involving CRISPR/Cas9 technology and genetic scissors in mushroom studies. In particular, research is actively being conducted to utilize ribonucleoprotein particles (RNPs) that can be genetically edited with high efficiency without foreign gene insertion for ease of selection. However, RNPs are too large for Cas9 protein to pass through the cell membrane of the protoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, guide RNA is unstable and can be easily decomposed, which remarkably affects gene editing efficiency. In this study, nanoparticles were used to mitigate the shortcomings of RNP-based gene editing techniques and to obtain transformants stably. We used Lentinula edodes (shiitake mushroom) Sanjo705-13 monokaryon strain, which has been successfully used in previous genome editing experiments. To identify a suitable osmotic buffer for the isolation of protoplast, 0.6 M and 1.2 M sucrose, mannitol, sorbitol, and KCl were treated, respectively. In addition, with various nanoparticle-forming materials, experiments were conducted to confirm genome editing efficiency via the formation of nanoparticles with calcium phosphate (CaP), which can be bound to Cas9 protein without any additional amino acid modification. RNPs/NP complex was successfully formed and protected nuclease activity with nucleotide sequence specificity.
The purpose of this study was to breed a variety of stable productivity and high storage characteristics of white Hypsizygus marmoreus, which has high demand at domestic and global market due to a low bitter taste and the preference for white species. Accordingly, ‘Baekmaru’ was bred by hybridizing brown and white cap color species and backcrossing with white species. The ‘Baekmaru’ variety was bred by crossbreeding the brown and white species and backcrossing the white species. Through repeated cultivation of ‘Baekmaru’, a variety with a low contamination rate was selected when culturing the spawn for stable cultivation. As a results of demonstration test, the yield of ‘Baekmaru’ was 14% higher than that of the commercial variety. In addition, among the fruiting body characteristics of ‘Baekmaru’, diameter and thickness of the pileus were 16.43±15.27mm and 6.46±0.58mm, which were slightly higher than the commercial variety, and the hardness was 2.69±0.89N for the pileus and 3.09±0.89N for the stipe. The shelf life showed less change in thickness and color of pileus compared to commercial variety. The hardness of pileus of 'Baekmaru' was maintained in the range of 3.5 to 4.0N in the 4oC and 4oC and 20oC mixed treatment until 30 days of storage, and was higher than that of the commercial variety. Therefore, it was suggested to be excellent in storability.
As the importance of public health increases with the spread of infectious diseases, functionality has become a factor affecting consumers’ purchase of mushrooms. Therefore, the bioactive components of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), which are generally known to promote button mushroom consumption, were analyzed. White and brown button mushrooms were compared and white beech mushroom (Hypsizygus marmoreus) were used as a control. White button mushrooms had higher sugar and inorganic potassium concentrations than brown button mushrooms, whereas sodium, magnesium, and vitamin C concentrations were not significantly different between the different button mushrooms. Moreover, there was approximately twice as much ergosterol in white button mushrooms than brown button mushrooms. Brown button mushrooms had higher concentrations of β-glucan and oxalic acid than white button mushrooms, but there was no significant difference in total organic acid content between the two mushroom types. High concentrations of the essential amino acids, ergothioneine, isoleucine, and leucine and the non-essential amino acids, glycine and alanine, were observed. Concentrations of the vitamin B group and total polyphenols were also high.