This study addresses the current demand of the Korean mushroom export industry to establish an export strategy and governing policies.The enoki mushroom exports increased by 89% in 2009 and 23% in 2010, resulting in the largest export volume (17,163 tons) and export value ($26,292,000) being recorded in 2010. In contrast, exports in 2020 yielded only $18,525,000, which was 29% lower than that in 2010. In case of king oyster mushrooms, exports increased by 10% in 2012, 13% in 2013, and 2% in 2014, maintaining a moderate-growth trend. Moreover, Korea’s mushroom exports are focused on a few specific countries. Enoki mushrooms accounted for more than 50% of the total exports to North America and Vietnam from 2012 to 2022, whereas king oyster mushrooms accounted for more than 50% of the total exports to Europe and North America (USA and Canada) from 2009 to 2022. Another characteristic trend in Korean mushroom exports is the diversification of export markets. The number of countries importing enoki mushrooms and king oyster mushrooms from Korea is increasing.
This study aimed to verify the whitening effect of Cordyceps militaris, which is distributed in several countries worldwide, including Korea, Japan, and China, and has various medical effects. To screen the efficacy of C. militaris, the inhibitory activity of tyrosinase, which was 66% at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, was measured. Thereafter, the survival rate of melanoma cells was measured, and cell experiments were conducted at a concentration of 90% or more in which C. militaris was not toxic to cells. After measuring the inhibitory effect of TRP-1, TRP-2, tyrosinase protein, and mRNA expression, which are factors influencing melanin synthesis, C. militaris was found to decrease in all factors, with an expression level that was significantly lower compared to quercetin. This confirmed that C. militaris stimulated with LED has excellent whitening activity and can be used as a functional whitening cosmetics material.
Volvariella bombycinais an edible mushroom commercially cultivated in Korea and other countries. In this study, the culture characteristics and optimal growth conditions of milky mushroom strains were determined. The growth temperature and pH range of V. bombycinawas extensively investigated between 15 and 35oC and pH 3–11. For efficient cultivation, 20 types of nutrient sources were selected, specifically, 21 carbon sources, 6 organic nitrogen sources, 7 inorganic nitrogen sources, 13 amino acids, 9 organic acids, and 13 inorganic salts. The impact of each of the selected nutrition sources and their concentration on growth was investigated. The optimum temperature and pH were determined to be 30oC and pH 8.0, respectively. The optimum concentration of medium elements required for mycelial growth of V. bombycinawas determined to be as follows: carbon source, 0.7% Soluble starch; organic nitrogen source, 0.7% Soytone; inorganic nitrogen source, 1.0% (NH4)2C4H4O6; amino acid, 0.1% cysteine; organic acid, 0.07% lactic acid; and inorganic salt, 0.07 mM CaCl2.
To investigate the effect of thinning intensity on environmental factors and ectomycorrhizal mushroom fruiting in forest ecosystems, we studied canopy closure, throughfall, soil temperature, soil moisture, light response of understory vegetation, and ectomycorrhizal mushroom fruiting in a 10-year-old pine forest after 34%, 45%, and 60% thinning. Canopy closure was significantly higher in the 34% treatment and control plots, ranging from 80–85% in April. However, in November, all thinning treatment plots showed a decrease of approximately 5–10% compared with the control plot. The 60% treatment plot had over 200 mm of additional throughfall compared with the control plot, and monthly throughfall was significantly higher by more than 100 mm in October. The soil temperature in each treatment plot increased significantly by up to 1°C or more compared with the control plot as the thinning rate increased. The soil moisture increased by more than 5% in the thinning treatment plots during rainfall, particularly in the 34% treatment plot, where the rate of moisture decrease was slower. The photosynthetic rate of major tree species (excluding Pinus densiflora)was highest in Quercus mongolica, with a rate of 7 μmolCO2·m-2·s-1. At a lightintensity of 800 μmol·m-2·s-1, Q. mongolica showed the highest photosynthetic level of 6 ± 0.3 μmolCO2·m-2·s-1 in the 45% treatment. The photosynthetic rate of Fraxinus sieboldiana and Styrax japonicus increased as the thinning intensity increased. The Shannon– Wiener index of mycorrhizal mushrooms did not significantly differ among treatments, but the fresh weight of mushrooms was approximately 360–840 g higher in the 34% and 45% treatments than in the control. Additionally, the fresh weight of fungi in the 60% treatment was 860 g less than that in the control. There were more individuals of Amanita citrina in the control than in the thinning treatment, while Suillus bovinus numbers increased by more than 10 times in the 34% thinning treatment compared with the control.