This study focused on evaluating the phytoextraction of heavy metals (Co, Pb, and Zn) induced by bioaugmentation of button mushroom compost (BMC) in Helianthus annuus (sunflower). When the potential ability of BMC to solubilize heavy metals was assessed in a batch experiment, the inoculation with BMC could increase more the concentrations of water-soluble Co, Pb, and Cd by 35, 25, and 45% respectively, compared to those of non-inoculated soils. BMC-assisted growth promotion and metal uptake in H. annuus was also evaluated in a pot experiment. In comparison with non-inoculated seedlings, the inoculation led to an increase in the growth of H. annuus by 27, 25, and 28% in Co-, Pb-, and Zn-contaminated soils, respectively. Moreover, enhanced accumulation of Co, Pb, and Zn in the shoot and root systems was observed in inoculated plants, where metal the translocation from root to the above-ground tissues was also found to be enhanced by the BMC. Evidently, these results suggest that the BMC could be effectively employed in enhancing the phytoextraction of Co, Pb, and Zn from contaminated soils.
Diversification to develop oak pruned neck utilization technology reduction of operation cost of cheonma( Gastrodia elata) farmers is the purpose of this research, but the results of the experiment are as follows. The soil chemistry of the plantation was very weak in 2015 when the pH was 5.7, weakly acidic and EC was 0.41 (ds/m), but the faux spring area was very sunny, but at the end of May, early June, late July And so on were at a maximum temperature of 25oC or more, and underground temperature fell below freezing in late January 2016. In the content of the survey of the harvested volume, treatment with a diameter of 6 to 10 cm appeared in 1,366 g total weight and in treated plots with a diameter of 20 cm or more, appeared in 1,542 g, confirming that the number and weight of the interspaces from the small neck is higher than the practice.
In Korea, oyster mushroom is one of the commonly cultivated mushrooms. In 2013, the cultivation areas and products of oyster mushrooms were 60,039 M/T and 201 ha, respectively. Many species of oyster mushrooms are cultivated in various countries. These include Pleurotus ostreatus, P. florida, P. sajor-caju, P. eryngii, P. citrinopileatus, P. salmoneostramineus and P. cystidiosus. P. citrinopileatus is a yellow oyster mushroom famous for its health benefits such as anti-cancer and anti-oxidant effects. Therefore, a cultivar P. citrinopileatus ‘Jangdari’ was developed to improve yield and the ability to grow well at lower temperatures. Two parent strains ‘Gumbit (KMCC02150)’ and ‘KMCC02145’ were selected based on their morphological characteristics. ‘Jangdari’ was developed by the method of Mon-Mon crossing between monokaryons derived from ‘Gumbit’ and ‘KMCC02145’, and finally selected through continuous cultivation tests. The optimum temperature for mycelial growth was 30oC. The cultivar could grow well at high temperatures, especially 16~24oC. Fruiting body production per bottle (850 mL) was about 90.0 g. Stipe length and thickness of ‘Jangdari’ were similar to those of ‘Gumbit’. ‘Jangdari’ was more resistant to low temperature than ‘Gumbit’, and thus it could be cultivated with oyster mushrooms (P. ostreatus). In addition, while cultivating ‘Jangdari’, it is not required to scrape out the upper side of bottle’s sawdust medium; hence, its cultivation is expected to save energy and time.
Microsatellite SSR markers were developed and utilized to reveal the genetic diversity of 32 strains of Flammulina velutipes collected in Korea, China, and Japan. From the SSR-enriched library, 490 white colonies were randomly selected and sequenced. Among the 490 sequenced clones, 85 (17.35%) were redundant. Among the remaining 405 unique clones, 201 (49.6%) contained microsatellite sequences. We used 12 primer pairs that produced reproducible polymorphic bands for four diverse strains, and these selected markers were further characterized in 32 Flammulina velutipes strains. A total of 34 alleles were detected using the 12 markers, with an average of 3.42 alleles, and the number of alleles ranged from two to seven per locus. The major allele frequency ranged from 0.42 (GB-FV-127) to 0.98 (GB-FV-166), and values for observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 0.94 (mean = 0.18) and from 0.03 to 0.67 (mean = 0.32), respectively. SSR loci amplified with GB-FV-127 markers gave the highest polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.61 and mean allele number of five, whereas for loci amplified with GB-FV-166 markers these values were the lowest, namely 0.03 and two. The mean PIC value (0.29) observed in the present study with average number of alleles (3.42). The genetic relationships among the 32 Flammulina velutipes strains on the basis of SSR data were investigated by UPGMA cluster analysis. In conclusion, we succeeded in developing 12 polymorphic SSRs markers from an SSR-enriched library of Flammulina velutipes. These SSRs are presently being used for phylogenetic analysis and evaluation of genetic variations. In future, these SSR markers will be used in clarifying taxonomic relationships among the Flammulina velutipes.
Although ear mushroom (Auricularia auricula-judae) is cultivated worldwide, there are a limited number of commercial cultivars in Korea. Recent increase in the import of ear mushroom from China threatens the domestic farming. The present study introduces a new thermotolerant cultivar of ear mushroom, designated ‘Hyeonyu’, developed by mating monokaryons obtained from JBAA11 and CAA1 strains. The optimal growth temperature for Hyeonyu was 26-36?. The periods of primordia formation and fruit-body growth were 27 and 15 days, respectively. The average mushroom yield per bag (1 kg) was 350 g. Random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with OPA1 and OPA7 primers identified polymorphic DNA bands between the control, the new variety Hyeonyu, and a Chinese variety.
This study was carried out to establish a cultivation technique for increasing the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) content in the fruit body of mushrooms by adding processed by-products. For the oyster mushroom ‘Heucktari’, addition of green tea powder, sea tangle powder, and green tea dregs resulted in very poor primordia formation, fruit body growth, and increased GABA. However, addition of 10% schizandra berry dregs and 1% rice bran to the basal substrate induced 100% and 10% increases, in GABA content in the fruit bodies compared to the control treatment without by-product, respectively. In addition, fruit body growth and primordia formation were greatly increased by these treatments. Therefore, GABA content was increased when the substrate was prepared by mixing an appropriate amount of schizandra berry dregs and rice bran.
The choice of strain, substrate, and environmental conditions are fundamental factors that determine the ability of a fungus to develop and produce mushrooms with high quality. The objective of this study was to compare the strains of Lentinula edodes and Ganoderma lucidum originated from South Korea and Brazil in relation to their vegetative development in different culture media, to obtain isolates with high quality. The strains of the two mushroom species from Brazil and South Korea grew slowly, possibly because of abiotic factors or storage technique used. However, it may be concluded that temperature, humidity, light, pH, and nutrients from the substrate, if not regulated appropriately may affect the vegetative species.