We aimed to develop outstanding domestic varieties suitable for both columnar and cylindrical-shape substrates, aiming to replace foreign varieties. and bred a high-quality new strain named ‘Charmjon’, using genetic resources collected from Japan and China. The optimal cultivation temperature for Charmjon’s mycelial growth was found to be 25°C, and its mycelial growth at 15°C and 25°C was superior to the control variety. In terms of mycelial growth characteristics based on the substrate, Charmjon exhibited excellent mycelial strength on PDA medium compared to the control variety. Through columnar and cylindrical-shape substrates cultivation, we assessed the quantity and morphological characteristics of the fruiting bodies. The results confirmed that Charmjon can be produced stably using both cultivation methods, and it showed higher yields and individual weights than the control variety. In addition, the color of the pileus was notably darker, and the shape of the pileus varied depending on the cultivation method. The test of genetic diversity revealed that Charmjon has distinct genetic characteristics compared to the control varieties.
Recently, with the increasing global demand for Ganoderma lucidum as a material for functional beverages, varieties with enhanced functionality are needed. As part of this effort, 10 strains were selected from a collection of 160 G. lucidum strains, based on their quantity and fruiting body characteristics. These included four strains collected in Korea, three in Japan, and three of unknown origin. Approximately 44% of the 1,290 hybrid strains were secured. After two rounds of bag cultivation in oak sawdust, three strains (G-20-4, G-20-5, and G-20-7) were ultimately selected for single-timbered cultivation. Among these, G-20-4 demonstrated the earliest harvesting with a large size and a bright cap. Additionally, this strain exhibited the highest levels of total glucan, β-glucan, total triterpenoid, total polyphenol, and total flavonoid content.
Pleurotus species are the most consumed and cultivated mushrooms in Korea. Although oyster mushrooms (P. ostreatus) can be cultivated automatically, their storability is slightly lower than that of king oyster mushrooms (P. eryngii) and winter mushrooms (Flammulina velutipes); therefore, the export proportion of oyster mushrooms is very low. Since Korean mushrooms are highly preferred across Southeast Asian, the export of oyster mushrooms in the form of complete substrates is expected to be more promising than that of fresh mushroom. Here, 1 and 2.5 kg complete substrates of P. ostreatus ‘Soltari’ and P. sajor-caju ‘Sambok’ were prepared and stored at different temperature from 0 to 15°C for 10 days. Thereafter, the formation of fruiting bodies was induced. Since the 2.5 kg complete substrates required 70 days of incubation, their mycelia were at an advanced age and their fruiting bodies did not grown normally. When 70%-incubated complete substrates were stored at 5–10°C, the growth was faster and more uniform and stable fruiting bodies were formed. Export test of complete substrates to Vietnam using distribution containers set at 0°C and 15°C revealed that the growth period was shortened by 1–2 days when the distribution containers were set at 15°C and the yield of ‘Soltari’ increased by approximately 10%. In addition, even though the yield of ‘Sambok’ was similar between treatments at 0°C and 15°C, the quality of fruiting bodies from 15°C-distributed complete substrates was much better than that of those from 0°C-distributed substrates.
The purpose of this study was to breed a variety of stable productivity and high storage characteristics of white Hypsizygus marmoreus, which has high demand at domestic and global market due to a low bitter taste and the preference for white species. Accordingly, ‘Baekmaru’ was bred by hybridizing brown and white cap color species and backcrossing with white species. The ‘Baekmaru’ variety was bred by crossbreeding the brown and white species and backcrossing the white species. Through repeated cultivation of ‘Baekmaru’, a variety with a low contamination rate was selected when culturing the spawn for stable cultivation. As a results of demonstration test, the yield of ‘Baekmaru’ was 14% higher than that of the commercial variety. In addition, among the fruiting body characteristics of ‘Baekmaru’, diameter and thickness of the pileus were 16.43±15.27mm and 6.46±0.58mm, which were slightly higher than the commercial variety, and the hardness was 2.69±0.89N for the pileus and 3.09±0.89N for the stipe. The shelf life showed less change in thickness and color of pileus compared to commercial variety. The hardness of pileus of 'Baekmaru' was maintained in the range of 3.5 to 4.0N in the 4oC and 4oC and 20oC mixed treatment until 30 days of storage, and was higher than that of the commercial variety. Therefore, it was suggested to be excellent in storability.
As the importance of public health increases with the spread of infectious diseases, functionality has become a factor affecting consumers’ purchase of mushrooms. Therefore, the bioactive components of button mushrooms (Agaricus bisporus), which are generally known to promote button mushroom consumption, were analyzed. White and brown button mushrooms were compared and white beech mushroom (Hypsizygus marmoreus) were used as a control. White button mushrooms had higher sugar and inorganic potassium concentrations than brown button mushrooms, whereas sodium, magnesium, and vitamin C concentrations were not significantly different between the different button mushrooms. Moreover, there was approximately twice as much ergosterol in white button mushrooms than brown button mushrooms. Brown button mushrooms had higher concentrations of β-glucan and oxalic acid than white button mushrooms, but there was no significant difference in total organic acid content between the two mushroom types. High concentrations of the essential amino acids, ergothioneine, isoleucine, and leucine and the non-essential amino acids, glycine and alanine, were observed. Concentrations of the vitamin B group and total polyphenols were also high.
본 연구에서는 국내에서 개발된 국내에서 개발된 10개의 양송이 품종을 CAPS 마커를 이용하여 구분하였다. An 등 (2021)이 개발한 CAPS 마커 AB-gCAPs-017, AB-gCAPs- 047, AB-gCAPs-055, AB-gCAPs-071을 이용하여 새아, 새도, 새한, 새연, 새정, 도담, 설강, 다향, 호감, 하담을 구분 할 수 있었다. 본 연구의 결과는 국내 개발 양송이 품종에 대하여 품종간의 구별성과 유전적 다양성을 부여하여 품종 보호에 대한 분자생물학적 근거를 마련하였다.
현재 양송이 품종의 개발은 1980년대에 개발된 방법에 의존하여 진행되고 있다. 유전자가위를 이용한 유전자교정 기술이 다양한 분야에서 각광받고 있고, 이 기술을 버섯 육종에도 적용하기 위하여 진행된 이 연구에서는, CRISPR/Cas9 활용에 필수적인 원형질체 분리 효율을 1.0 × 10 8 /mL까지 안정적으로 끌어올렸고, spermidine을 이용하여PEG 형질전환의 효율 또한 기존 방법에 비해 100배가량 끌어올렸음을 보고한다.
현재 양송이 종균은 1980년대 개발된 방법으로 제조되고 있어, 양송이 종균 품질 향상을 위한 새로운 제조 방법을 개발하였다. 그 결과 균사체량이 5.92±0.52 g/L로 가장 많이 배양된 CDB(compost dextrose broth) 배지에서 24oC에서 120 rpm으로 진탕 배양(24시간/일) 하는 통기 식(2.5 L/min) 액체배양법으로 배양기간 10일이 액체 접종원 사용으로 양호했으며, 양송이 밀 배지 종균 생산은 밀 배지 50 g당 액체 접종원 1 ml을 적정 접종량으로 하여 10일 배양하면 종균의 뭉침과 흔드는 작업없이 적절하게 배양되었음을 보고한다.
기후변화에 대비하여 고온성 양송이 백색 품종을 육성한 결과는 다음과 같다. 모본은 KMCC00540, KMCC00591, KMCC00643을 선발하였고, ISSR과 SSR마커로 각각 동 핵균주를 선발하여 교잡하였다. 선발 교잡주를 고온 20~25 o C, 습도 80% 이상에서 3반복으로 재배하여 농업적 형질과 자실체 특성의 변이가 가장 적은 것은 Abs4-2016- 121 계통이었다. 이 계통은 KMCC00000와 KMCC0000를 교잡한 계통이며, 경주와 부여 농가에서 현장실증시험결과 Abs4-2016-121 계통이 자실체 경도가 높으며 고온에서 갓 개열이 지연되어 고온성 품종 ‘하담’으로 육성하였다.
큰느타리(Pleurotus eryngii)는 주름버섯목(Agaricales), 느타리과 (Pleurotaceae)에 속하는 담자균류로서, 큰느타리 생산량이 한국에서 약 49,000톤(‘18)으로 가장 많고 수출량은 약 7,500톤(’19)으로 팽이버섯 다 음으로 높은 대표적인 식용버섯이자 수출품목이다. 큰느타리 재배는 병 재배 시스템의 기계화·자동화가 정착되고 액체종균을 이용하여 대량접종 , 배양기간 단축이 되면서 대량생산이 가능하게 되었다. 현재 큰느타리 종 균배양소나 자가생산농가에서 액체종균을 이용하고 있으나, 표준화된 종 균제작 매뉴얼이 없고 500ℓ 이상 큰 액체탱크를 이용하기 때문에 오염발 생이나 배양 실패에 따른 피해가 다른 버섯에 비해 매우 크다. 이에 큰느 타리 액체 종균의 생산 효율과 안정성을 높이고자 우선 큰느타리 액체배 지 종류별 조성별로 균사생장력을 조사하여 적정배지를 선발하는 연구를 수행하였다.