Mushrooms and their extracts including purified ingredients, are currently used as foods, functional foods (and/or nutraceuticals), and medicines. These products have numerous bioactive compounds such as polysaccharides (mainly β–glucans), glycoproteins, nucleotide analogs, terpenoids, and polyphenols, which have exhibited antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, antiviral, anti-obesity, and immunomodulatory activities. In this review, we discuss the current information on the biactivities of 10 popular mushrooms in Korea. We also summarize the information on mushrooms and the active compounds derived from them, as well as mushroom-based products such as foods, functional foods, and medicines. We believe this review could provide useful information for scientists and consumers who seek to develop new products and promote healthy food habits and lifestyle.
Biological efficiency (BE), the ratio of fresh mushrooms harvested per dry substrate weight, expressed as the percentage of Lentinula edodes, also known as shiitake, was determined using the ‘Sanjo 701’ strain stored in the Department of Mushroom at the Korea National College of Agriculture and Fisheries. The mycelia were grown in glass columns with varying levels of moisture content and varying mixing periods of 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 hours. The substrate was sterilized using a steam pressure autoclave sterilizer at normal and high pressure to avoid contamination. The results showed that mycelial growth (126 mm/15 days) was optimized at 55% moisture content. The best mycelial growth of 117 mm/15 days was obtained with 2 hours of mixing time. Normal pressure sterilization yielded better results with mycelial growth of 96 mm/15 days at 100°C compared to 88 mm /15 days with sterilization at 121°C. Mycelial density was higher, i.e. 3(+++), with normal pressure sterilization compared to 2(++) with high pressure sterilization. Furthermore, sawdust mixed with 5% woodchips increased the substrate porosity and yielded higher mycelial growth. Thus, we demonstrated that the optimum harvest or potential increased yield of shiitake can be obtained by modulating moisture content, mixing time, and substrate porosity.
To evaluate effects of ligninolytic enzyme type on the mycelial response and ligninolytic enzyme production during interspecific interactions among wood-rotting fungi, 4 fungal strains, Trichophyton rubrum LKY-7, Trichophyton rubrum LSK-27, Pycnoporus cinnabarinus, and Trichoderma viride, were selected. Regarding ligninolytic enzyme production, LKY-7 secreted laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP), P. cinnabarinus secreted only laccase, and LSK-27 secreted only MnP in glucosepeptone medium, while T. viride did not produce any ligninolytic enzymes. In the co-culture of LKY-7 with P. cinnabarinus, the formation of aerial mycelium was observed and the enhancement of laccase activity owing to interspecific interaction appeared to be very low. In the co-culture of LKY-7 and P. cinnabarinus with LSK-27, a hypha-free clear zone was observed, which resulted in deadlock, and increased laccase or MnP activity was detected at the interaction zone. The interaction responses of LKY-7, P. cinnabarinus, and LSK-27 with T. viride were characterized by the formation of mycelial barrages along the interface. As mycelial barrages were observed at the T. viride territory and no brownish pigment was observed in the mycelial barrages, it is suggested that laccase and MnP are released as part of an offensive response, not as a defensive response. The co-culture of P. cinnabarinus with T. viride lead to the highest enhancement in laccase activity, yielding more than 14-fold increase in laccase activity with respect to the mono-culture of P. cinnabarinus. MnP activities secreted by LKY-7 or LSK-27 was generally low in interspecific interactions.
Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) is the world's leading quality certification for food safety. Since its introduction in Korea in 2006, its importance has been increasing every year. In particular, food safety issues are becoming increasingly important in society, and food safety is directly linked to health. The core of GAP certification is the traceability of the production, distribution, and consumption of hazardous materials, including pesticide residues, heavy metals, and microbes. In the present study, pesticides and heavy metals in button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) and associated cultivation materials were analyzed. Tricyclozole (0.0144 ppm), flubendiamide (0.147 ppm), and trifloxystrobin (0.0340 ppm) were detected in rice straw and wheat straw, and carbendazim (0.0142 ppm) was detected in mixed wheat straw and rice straw medium. Lead and cadmium were detected at levels higher than the standard level in rice straw and mixed medium. However, lead and cadmium were not detected in mushrooms, and levels of arsenic and mercury were below the safety limit. Therefore, it was confirmed that the residual pesticides and heavy metals are safely managed in the investigated mushroom species. The results of the present study suggest that if these materials are adequately managed in the surroundings during cultivation, all hazardous materials can be managed during mushroom production.
This study investigated the synergistic effect of single inoculation and co-inoculation of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Burkholderia metallica JH-7 and Burkholderia contaminans JH-15. Phosphate-solubilizing abilities of these strains were assessed by measuring phosphorus content in culture media that were singly inoculated or co-inoculated with these strains for 7 days. B. metallica JH-7 was found to release the highest content of soluble phosphorus (140.80 μg mL-1) into the medium, followed by single inoculation of B. contaminans JH-15 (135.95 μg mL-1) and co-inoculation of two strains (134.84 μg mL-1). The highest pH reduction, organic acid production, and glucose consumption were observed in the medium inoculated with B. metallica JH-7 alone compared with that in the medium co-inoculated with both the strains. Results of a plant growth promotion bioassay showed 17.4% and 7.48% higher leaf and root growth, respectively, in romaine lettuce inoculated with B. metallica JH-7 alone than in romaine lettuce inoculated with a control strain. However, no significant difference was observed between single inoculation and co-inoculation of these strains with respect to phosphorus release and plant growth. Although the results of the present study did not show the synergistic effect of phosphate solubilization by the PSB strains examined, these results indicate that treatment with PSB exerts a beneficial effect on crop growth.
Oyster mushrooms are one of the most popular edible mushrooms in Korea. The ‘Santari’ cultivar bred in this study, which belongs to the species Pleurotus pulmonarius, is a new oyster mushroom cultivar for bottle culture. It was bred by mating monokaryons isolated from ‘GMPO20404’ and ‘Hosan’. The optimum temperature for ‘Santari’ mycelial growth was 26–29℃ on PDA medium, and the temperatures for primordium formation and for growth of the fruit body on sawdust medium were 22℃ and 20℃, respectively. It took 34 days to complete the spawn run, 3 days to form primordia, and 3 days to finish fruit body growth in the bottle culture. The fruit body pilei were round in shape and brownish, whereas the stipes were long, thick, and white. The yield per bottle of ‘Santari’ was 172 g/1,100 mL, which was 43% higher than that of the reference cultivar (‘Hosan’). The springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and brittleness of the stipe tissue were 87%, 82%, 193 g, and 16 kg, respectively. These physical property values of ‘Santari’ were lower than those of the control cultivar, except for the cohesiveness.
We measured the antioxidant activities of Oak mushroom (Lentinula edodes) in browned sawdust medium under conditions of varying LED sources and amounts of light. Consequently, exposure to 200Lx blue LED resulted in highly efficient browning; the most efficient browning was shown at 200Lx, regardless of the type of luminous source. We identified that quantities obtained with the blue luminous source increased compared to those in other treatment plots. The DPPH radical scavenging test conducted to examine antioxidant activity revealed that the red luminous source caused high radical scavenging compared to efficient browning. The fruiting body for Nongjin-go, as a treatment plot with the highest scavenging, under a 400Lx red luminous source was 34.3±1.80% and that for ‘Sanjo 701’ at a 300lx red luminous source was 32.99±1.58%. The polyphenol content, reported to be correlated with DPPH radial scavenging, showed no similar correlation in the ‘Nongjin-go’ variety. By contrast, ‘Sanjo 701’ showed a similar association.
The potential risk of heavy metals and residual pesticides in imported sawdust media inoculated with oak mushroom cultures is a concern for safe mushroom production in Korea. To obtain preliminary data for a sound analysis of this risk, this study was undertaken to analyze the presence of heavy metals and residual pesticides in the oak mushroom media imported from six different regions in China, between 2013 and 2015. Lead, arsenic, chrome, mercury, and cadmium were analyzed; arsenic, chrome, and mercury were not detected. Lead was detected in the imported oak mushroom media from Jinlin, Shandong, Liaoning, and Tianjin. The detection level of lead ranged from 1.7 to 3.2 mg/kg. Cadmium was detected at a level of 0.028 to 0.037 mg/kg in the media from Shandong and Liaoning. No residual pesticides were detected in any of the samples.
In this study, the morphology and antioxidant content of shiitake mushrooms (Lentinula edodes) cultivated in smart farms and general farms have been compared. With regard to morphology, mushrooms produced in the smart farm system exhibited a slightly thicker and wider pileus and thicker and longer stipe than those in the general farm system. The stipe in the mushrooms from moderate-sized farms was harder, because the low relative humidity of cultivation rooms could induce mushroom tissue to harden. With regard to the antioxidant content, the free radical scavenging activity was evaluated by the DPPH assay. Among the various treatments, hot water extracts of freeze-dried shiitake produced from smart farms exhibited the highest DPPH value of 37.8%. In contrast, the lowest activity of 12.2% was observed in a 70% fermented alcohol extract of shiitake that was dried by hot air. The polyphenol content was higher in hot water extracts than in 70% fermented alcohol extracts. Additionally, the polyphenol content was higher in the freeze-dried samples than in hot-air dried ones. The smart-farm system was preferred over the general cropping system for cultivating shiitake mushrooms, because the antioxidant activity and polyphenol content of mushrooms from the smart-farm system was better; the functionality of this system was more improved than that of the general cropping system, and it enables mushrooms to be cultivated more efficiently. The antioxidant content is represented as the mean±SD of three replicates. Different letters indicate significant differences among samples, i.e., p<0.05.
In this study, we investigate the potential use of persimmon peels (PP) in mushroom culture medium for the production of functional mushrooms. Pleurotus eryngii was cultivated in medium supplemented with PP (SMPP) at the following concentrations: 0% SMPP (control), 5% SMPP, 10% SMPP, 15% SMPP, 20% SMPP, or 30% SMPP. The total polyphenol content, DPPH radical scavenging ability, ABTS cation scavenging ability, and reducing power of P. eryngii cultivated in SMPP were investigated. P. eryngii cultured in 20% SMPP produced the highest values for all four measurements. Total polyphenol content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, ABTS cation scavenging ability, and reducing power all increased upon the addition of PP. Based on our results, we can conclude that persimmon peels are a highly valuable supplement for functional mushroom culture medium.
This study was conducted to investigate the proximate composition, free sugars, amino acids, and minerals in five Lentinula edodes cultivars collected in Korea. No significant differences in the content of crude fat and crude fiber were found between the samples; however, there was significant variation in the contents of nitrogen free extract, ash, and crude protein. Three kinds of free sugars (fucose, arabinose, and glucose) were identified by HPLC, with the glucose content ranging from 5.94% to 12.08%. Sixteen kinds of free amino acids were identified: the highest content of amino acids was found in ‘Sanlim5ho’ (13,768.33 mg%), while the highest content of free amino acids was found in ‘Sanlim4ho’ (6,790.57 mg%). The minerals detected in the L. edodes cultivars were potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sodium, the contents of which ranged from 567.16–2,356.09 mg%, 3.85–7.42 mg%, 9.79–20.88 mg%, and 19.60–22.62 mg%, respectively.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fermented spent mushroom substrates (F-SMS) of Flammulina velutipes on growth performance, carcass traits, and economic characteristics of Hanwoo steers. A yeast strain (Saccharomyces sp. UJ14) and Bacillus strain (Bacillus sp. UJ03) isolated from fresh spent mushroom substrates of Flammulina velutipes were used as probiotics to prepare F-SMS. Twenty-four Hanwoo steers (14 months old) were allocated to three dietary treatments via a randomized block design and were slaughtered at 30 months of age. These treatment groups included Control (TMR), T1 (TMR containing 10% of F-SMS) group, and T2 (TMR containing 30% of F-SMS). Body weight gain was not influenced by the experimental diets. DM and TDN intakes in the finishing period were significantly (p < 0.05) greater in group T1 than in other groups. CP intake was significantly (p < 0.05) greater in group T2 than in other groups during the whole experimental period. Among carcass traits, rib-eye area and back fat thickness tended to increase with F-SMS supplementation. The appearance rate (%) of a meat yield more than grade A was the highest in group T1. The net profits increased by 1.2% and 13.3% in groups T1 and T2, respectively. In conclusion, if a proper feeding program (including feed safety) can be ensured, spent mushroom substrates of Flammulina velutipes can prove to be a highly profitable feed source for Hanwoo steers.
This study was carried out to investigate the physicochemical characteristics of cultivated cereals by Phellinus linteus mycelium. Also, we investigated the content of free sugar, organic acid, free amino acid, mineral and fatty acid of cultivated cereals by P. linteus mycelium. The major free sugars were determined the glucose, maltose, and fucose by HPLC. The content of total free sugars was the highest in cultivated red rice by P. linteus mycelium at 36oC. The content of fucose was the highest in cultivated red rice by P. linteus mycelium at all cultivation temperatures. The organic acids were identified oxalic acid, malic acid, citric acid, and succinic acid, as in the case of free sugar, higher contents of organic acids were observed in the cultivated cereals by P. linteus mycelium than control. There was no significant difference in the mineral content between the control and cultivated cereals by P. linteus mycelium. Sixteen kind of free amino acid were detected in cultivated cereals by P. linteus mycelium. And the content of total free amino acids were higher in the cultivated cereals by P. linteus mycelium than the control. And essential amino acids showed significantly differences between control and cultivated cereals by P. linteus mycelium. Fatty acids were detected with seven kinds of fatty acids, and the major fatty acid was determined the linoleic acid by GC-MS. The content of linoleic acid was higher in the cultivated cereals by P. linteus mycelium than the control.
In order to develop fermented silkworm “Dongchunghacho” (Paecilomyces tenuipes) with improved absorption and increased effectiveness, we fermented Dongchunghacho using four kinds of microorganisms, viz., lactic acid bacteria, Bacillus subtilis, Natto bacillus, and yeast. A total of 15 samples were fermented using a combination of microbial inoculation culture and conditions to produce fermentation products. The contents of basic components such as sugar, reducing sugar, protein, total polyphenol, and total flavonoid were examined as well as the antioxidant, tyrosinase inhibitory, and thrombolytic activities of the fermented products were analyzed. We observed that reducing sugar and protein contents decreased in most of the fermented products, but the products fermented using yeast exhibited higher sugar content and, thus, higher sweetness. Total polyphenol content and antioxidant activity did not increase in fermented products compared to non-fermented Dongchunghachos, but total flavonoid content and tyrosinase inhibitory and thrombolytic activities increased by fermentation. In particular, total flavonoid content and tyrosinase inhibitory and thrombolytic activities primarily increased in the products fermented using yeast and lactic acid bacteria. However, it was not possible to confirm the increase in these activities in samples fermented by single fermentation using only yeast. Therefore, we propose that it will be possible to develop fermented food from silkworm Dongchunghacho (P. tenuipes) with excellent health benefits through additional study of multiple fermentation conditions using lactic acid bacteria and yeast.
In this study, the inhibitory effect of Paecilomyces tenuipes extract on PSA and angiogenesis-related factor expression levels were investigated in human prostate cancer cells, LNCaP. P. tenuipes extract significantly inhibited PSA expression in a dose-dependent manner. We also investigated the inhibitory effect of P. tenuipes extract on the expression of angiogenesis-related genes including VEGF, MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1, and TIMP-2. P. tenuipes extract significantly down-regulated the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 in a dose-dependent manner. On the contrary, P. tenuipes increased the expression of TIMP-1 and TIMP-2. Our findings indicate that P. tenuipes exhibits an inhibitory effect on angiogenesis in human prostate cancer cells.
Twelve strains of bacteria with cellulase and xylanase activities were isolated from spent mushroom substrates collected from button mushroom cultivation farm, Buye, Chungcheongnam-do in Korea. Among them, one strain, designated NO12, with higher cellulase and xylanase activities was selected by agar diffusion method. The strain NO12 was identified to be a Bacillus sp. by biochemical characteristics using Bacillus ID kit and MicroLog system. Comparative 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis showed that strain NO12 formed a distinct phylogenetic tree within the genus Bacillus and was most closely related to Bacillus subtilis with 16S rDNA gene sequence similarity of 99.2%. Based on its physiological properties, biochemical characteristics, and phylogenetic distinctiveness, strain NO12 was classified within the genus Bacillus, for which the name Bacillus subtilis NO12 was proposed. The cellulase and xylanase activities of B. subtilis NO12 were slightly increased according to bacterial population from exponential phase to stationary phase in the growth curve for B. subtilis NO12. The xylanase activity continuously increased from the beginning of the exponential phase and exhibited maximum activity in the middle of the exponential phase.
Mushroom mites have recently caused severe damage to sawdust beds, mushroom mycelia, and fruiting bodies; therefore, they have reduced the production of the button mushroom, Agaricus bisporus, in greenhouses. There are currently no registered pesticides for mushroom mites. It is necessary to selectively control mushroom flies and mites without affecting the growth of the mushroom. We examined biological control of mushroom mites using predatory mite Stratiolaelaps scimitus in button mushroom cultivation. As a result, a three times treatment (1 treatment after water cleaning, 1 treatment after fungus inoculation, and 1 treatment before or after casing) was most effective at controlling mushroom mites, with 3.000 predatory mites (3 bottles) scattered evenly over 165–230 ㎡ every 1–2 m. Predatory mite Stratiolaelaps scimitus could control mushroom flies and mites at the same time and could be used at any time during cultivation.
In this study, we investigated the morphological characteristics and antioxidant ability of mushroom cultivar Lentinula edodes ‘Nongjingo’ fruiting bodies after exposure to various light conditions. Color differences between mushrooms treated with mixtures of LED light revealed that mushrooms displayed lighter color shades when compared to the control group (fluorescent light treated mushrooms). Redness increased and yellowness decreased after exposure to all treatments other than the fluorescent control. Measurement of growth characteristics of ‘Nongjingo’ fruiting bodies showed increases after exposure to all mixed LED treatments. In addition, the uniformity of fruiting bodies was higher when using LED light compared to fluorescent light. The measurement of stem diameters did not show a significant difference between the treatments, however, diameters were slightly larger with exposure to white-green LED. Moreover, stem length was longer in the mixed LED treatments when compared to those exposed to fluorescent light. Examination of the ratio of stem diameter to stem length revealed that the diameter of the stem was greater than the length. The antioxidant activity of water extracts made from Nongjingo fruiting bodies grown under mixed LED conditions was compared to those from mushrooms grown under fluorescence light conditions. The highest antioxidant activity was observed from mushrooms treated with white LED; however, no significant difference was found between mushrooms exposed to white-green LED compared to white-blue LED. The treatment showed higher antioxidant ability than vitamin C. Our results confirm that treatment of white LED and white-blue LED affects the growth and antioxidant ability of Nongjingo mushroom fruiting bodies.
In the 21st century, information and communication technology (ICT) worldwide presents a new vision for agriculture. Time and place, as well as the high-tech industry, to overcome barriers to the fusion of the so-called "smart agriculture," are changing the agricultural landscape. Core container production in precision agriculture for mushroom cultivation, optimal temperature, humidity, irradiation, self-regulation of factors such as carbon dioxide, and environment for mushroom cultivation were adopted. Lentinula edodes (shiitake) is an edible mushroom native to East Asia, cultivated and consumed in many Asian countries. It is considered to be medicinal in certain practices of traditional medicine. We used different controlled light sources (Blue-Red-White-combined LED, blue LED, red LED, and fluorescent light) with different LED radiation intensities (1.5, 10.5, and 20.5 μmol/㎡s for LEDs) to compare growth and development. Mushrooms were treated with light in a 12-hour-on/ 12-hour-off cycle, and maintained in a controlled room at 19~21°C, with 80~90% humidity, and an atmospheric CO2 concentration of 1,000 ppm for 30 days. Growth and development differed with the LED source color and LED radiation intensity. Growth and development were the highest at 10.5 μmol/㎡s of blue LED light. After harvesting the fruit bodies, we measured their weight and length, thickness of pileus and stipe, chromaticity, and hardness. The 10.5 μmol/㎡s blue-LED-irradiated group showed the best harvest results with an average individual weight of 39.82 g and length of 64.03 mm, pileus thickness of 30.85 mm and pileus length of 43.22 mm, and stipe thickness of 16.96 mm with fine chromaticity and hardness. These results showed that blue LED light at 10.5 μmol/㎡s exerted the best effect on the growth and development of L. edodes (shiitake) mushroom in the ICT-system container-type environment.
We developed a log-burying cultivation technique for Grifola frondosa using oak logs and surveyed its annual yield characteristics. As a result of G. frondosa log cultivation, the harvesting period of the ‘Yipsae1ho’ cultivar was delayed by approximately 10-15 days compared to that of the Dabak cultivar, and the fruit color of the ‘Yipsae1ho’ cultivar was dark brown, while that of the ‘Dabak’ cultivar was grayish brown. Yield of the ‘Yipsae1ho’ cultivar was 16.0 kg/㎡ in the first year, 15.4 kg/㎡ in the second year, 9.5 kg/㎡ in the third year, 4.6 kg/㎡ in the fourth year, and 4.6 kg/㎡ in the fifth year, while yield of the ‘Dabak’ cultivar was 12.3 kg/㎡ in the first year, 11.5 kg/㎡ in the second year, 12.7 kg/㎡ in the third year, 6.2 kg/㎡ in the fourth year, and 8.2 kg/㎡ in the fifth year. Total yield of the ‘Yipsae1ho’ cultivar (50.0 kg/㎡) was slightly lower than that of the ‘Dabak’ cultivar (50.8 kg/㎡). The optimum period for log-burying cultivation of Grifola frondosa is estimated to be 3 years.