In recent years, young Chinese consumers have become more favorably inclined toward products relating to traditional culture. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a textile design that incorporates traditional Chinese patterns and cultural symbolism that will appeal to consumers from the MZ generation (millennials and Generation Z). Through a literature search for traditional Chinese patterns and symbols regarded as auspicious, our design concept and motives were established. We selected peony, lotus, and frog motifs as representative of a “wealth and eternal prosperity” design theme. In textile design work 1, we used hand drawing and watercolor techniques, color transformation with Adobe Photoshop, and colorway and end-use 3D simulation with TexPro. The 3D simulation work suggests that this textile pattern is suitable for women’s outerwear, mufflers, and tote bags. Textile design work 2 conveyed the ‘wealth and eternal prosperity’ design theme and had a graceful mood that embodied the nobility of the lotus flower whilst also encompassing the symbolism of money and status. The end design is a modern reinterpretation of traditional Chinese patterns and motifs. As such, it is hoped that it will satisfy the needs of young consumers for cultural values yet offer a unique new aesthetic distinct from existing textile designs. These qualities can be expected to enhance the competitive market value of textiles bearing this design.
The oyster mushroom is a widely cultivated edible mushroom in Korea. It is a regionally specialized crop in Gyeonggi-do, where 68% of the national production is produced. The present study was conducted to develop a new, highquality cultivar with stable cultivation. ‘Manseon’ is a new variety of oyster mushroom suitable for bottle culture. It was produced by mating monokaryons isolated from ‘HB-18’ and ‘P15159-16’. The optimal temperature for ‘Manseon’ mycelial growth was 26–29 °C on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium and for primordia formation and the growth of fruit bodies the optimal temperature was 18–19 °C on sawdust medium. Spawn running required 30 d, primordia formation required 4 d, and fruit body growth in the bottle culture required 4 d. Regarding the characteristics of the fruit bodies, the pilei were round and dark grayish brown, stipe color was white, and stipe shape was short and thick. The yield per bottle was 192.7 g/1,100 cc, which was 9% higher than that of the control strain (Suhan-1ho). The physical properties of springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and brittleness of stipe tissue were 87.9%, 77.4%, 445.1 kgf, and 389.6 kgf, respectively.
The anaerobic digestion process produces methane while stabilizing sludge. As of 2020, 62 anaerobic digesters in public wastewater treatment plants are operational in Korea. Many researchers have studied to improve digester performance. Thermal hydrolysis technology is one of the pre-treatment methods for treating sludge. Reduced retention time and enhanced biogas production are the main advantages of sludge disintegration at relatively high temperatures and pressures. But nutrients like nitrogen and phosphorus are released from the pre-treated sludge. Phosphorus is a non-renewable resource that is essential to food production. Wastewater receives 20% of the total phosphate discharge, while 90% of the influent phosphorus load is in sludge. For efficient phosphorus recovery, it is essential to comprehend the phosphorus release characteristics during wastewater treatment, including anaerobic digestion. Biological or chemical processes can achieve phosphorus removal to comply with the effluent discharge limits regulations. The three primary sources of phosphorus in sludge are aluminum-bound phosphorus (Al-P), polyphosphate in phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs), and iron-bound phosphorus (Fe-P). Anaerobic digestion is the typical method for recovering carbon and phosphorus. However, previous research has demonstrated that most phosphorus in anaerobic digestion occurs as a solid phase coupled with heavy metals. Therefore, the poor mass transfer rate results in a slow phosphorus release. Due to the recent growth in interest and significance of phosphorus recovery, many researchers have studied to improve the quantity of phosphorus released into the liquid phase through chelation addition, process operation optimization, and disintegration using sludge pre-treatment. The study aims to investigate characteristics of the phosphorus release associated with the thermal hydrolysis breakdown of sludge and propose a method for recovering phosphorus in a wastewater treatment plant. When solubilizing sludge using thermal hydrolysis pre-treatment, organic phosphates, inorganic phosphates, and polyphosphates are converted into ortho-phosphate. Therefore, applying thermal hydrolysis, anaerobic digestion, and phosphorus recovery processes (struvite formation or microbial electrolysis cells) can recover carbon and phosphorus.
The present study investigated the optimum additive ratio of wheat straw pellet as a substitute for beet pulp during oyster mushroom cultivation. The chemical properties across treatments were pH of 4.8–5.5, total carbon content of 45.9–46.5%, total nitrogen content of 1.5–1.7%, and carbon-to-nitrogen ratio of 27.8–31.0. Mycelial growth was the fastest in a medium containing 20% wheat straw pellet (at 88.2 mm in ‘Heuktari’ and 70.3–79.6 mm in ‘Suhan-1Ho’); however, there were no significant differences in mycelial density among the treatments. The characteristics of fruiting bodies by variety were as follows. In ‘Heuktari’, the valid stipe number per bottle (1,100 cc) was 22.5 and yield was 177.1 g/1,100 cc in the mixed medium containing 10% wheat straw pellet, with the values being comparable to those of controls. In ‘Suhan-1Ho’, the valid stipe number per bottle (1,100 cc) was 14.0 and yield was 151.2 g/1,100 cc in the mixed medium containing 10% wheat straw pellet, with the values being comparable to those of controls.
Mushroom production in Korea is concentrated on five major mushroom types. To create a new source of income for farmers, it is necessary to establish new mushroom production and marketing systems. This study was conducted to evaluate the marketability of and establish a marketing strategy for Pleurotus nebrodensis variety 'Uram'. The evaluation of distributors showed that it was necessary to cultivate mushrooms of uniform shape and size, to compensate for their low storability, and to sell them in small packages. The consumer evaluation showed that the texture of P. nebrodensis had the highest level of satisfaction for quality, but the levels of satisfaction for size and shape were low. In the consumer evaluation, as in the distributor evaluation, improvements in cultivation were found to be necessary, as the storage time is short due to a high moisture content. An evaluation of the market gave the following results regarding the marketing strategy. It was found to be necessary to consider the production of mushrooms of a uniform shape and size and sell them in small packages in the range of 150 to 300 g. The price of the mushrooms should be set using a high-end strategy for high-end sales. The mushrooms should be introduced to local food and eco-friendly stores in the early stages of production. Subsequently, if farmhouse production increases, shipments should be made to wholesale markets through a regular contract. Finally, considering that P. nebrodensis is an unfamiliar mushroom to consumers, it is necessary to promote it by increasing the accessibility of consumers through tasting events and experience groups.
This study was conducted to investigate the optimum supplementation ratio when replacing cotton seed meal with rapeseed meal for cultivating oyster mushrooms. The chemical properties among the treatments were pH 4.5~4.7, total carbon content was 46.3~46.5%, total nitrogen content was 1.6~1.7%, and carbon-nitrogen ratio was 27.0~27.8. These did not differ significantly from the control. Mycelial growth was 85.1 mm (Heuktari), and 72.8 mm (Suhan-1Ho) in medium containing 5% rapeseed meal, with no significant difference in mycelial density between cultivars. Fruiting body characteristics are as follows: In 'Heuktari', the color of the pileus was darker than control with an L value of 32.5, and pileus thickness and diameter were 3.2 mm and 27.6 mm, respectively. Stipe length and diameter were 86.0 mm and 9.1 mm, respectively. Valid stipe number per bottle (1,100 cc) was 25.9, and a yield of 189.7 g/1,100 cc was recorded in mixed medium containing 5% rapeseed meal (higher than control). In mixed medium containing 10% rapeseed meal, the yield was 184.5 g/1,100 cc (comparable to control). In 'Suhan-1Ho', supplemented with 5% rapeseed meal, pileus color was darker than control color, with an L value of 28.8. Pileus thickness was 4.5 mm. Stipe diameter was 12.3 mm (higher than control), and yield was 145.5 g/1,100 cc (comparable to control).
Pilot-scale coagulation and sedimentation processes were operated to investigate the T-P (Total phosphorus) removal efficiency. A multiple regression model was also derived to predict the water quality improvement effect with river water characteristics. The inflow rates for the pilot-scale facility were 157–576 m3/day, and the coagulant doses were in the range of 13.7–58.5 mg/L (average 38.9 mg/L) for PAC (Poly alum chloride) and 16.5–62.1 mg/L (average 36.0 mg/L) for alum. The results found that the influent BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand) and T-P concentrations were 4.9 mg/L and 0.115 mg/L, and the removal efficiencies were 52.7% and 59.4%, respectively. T-P removal efficiencies on wet weather days were higher by 10% than dry weather days because influent solids influenced T-P's coagulation process. The pH of river water was 6.9–7.8, and the average pH was 7.3. Although the pH variation was not significant, the trend showed that the treatment efficiency of T-P and PO4-P removal increased. Thus, the pH range considered in this study seems to be appropriate for the coagulation process, which is essential for phosphorous removal. The T-P removal efficiencies were 19.6–93.3% (average 59.2%) for PAC and 16.4–98.5%(average 55.9%) for alum; thus, both coagulants showed similar results. Furthermore, the average coagulant doses were similar at 42.4 mg/L for PAC and 41.3 mg/L for alum. When the T-P concentration of the effluent was compared by the [Al]/[P] ratio, the phosphorus concentration of the treated water decreased with an increasing [Al]/[P] ratio, and the lowest T-P concentration range appeared at the [Al]/[P] ratio of 10–30. A seasonal multiple regression analysis equations were derived from the relationships between 10 independent and dependent variables (T-P concentration of effluent). This study could help lake water quality maintenance, reduce eutrophication, and improve direction settings for urban planning, especially plans related to developing waterfront cities.
In this study, the effects of kaolin addition on the properties of reticulated porous diatomite-kaolin composites are investigated. A reticulated porous diatomite-kaolin composite is prepared using the replica template method. The microstructure and pore characteristics of the reticulated porous diatomite-kaolin composites are analyzed by controlling the PPI value (45, 60, and 80 PPI) of the polyurethane foam (which are used as the polymer template), the ball-milling time (8 and 24 h), and the amount of kaolin (0–50 wt. %). The average pore size decreases as the amount of kaolin increases in the reticulated porous diatomite-kaolin composite. As the amount of kaolin increases, it can be determined that the amount of inter-connected pore channels is reduced because the plate-shaped kaolin particles connect the gaps between irregular diatomite particles. Consequently, a higher kaolin percentage affects the overall mechanical properties by improving the pore channel connectivity. The effect of kaolin addition on the basic properties of the reticulated porous diatomite-kaolin composite is further discussed with characterization data such as pore size distribution, scanning electron microscopy images, and compressive strength.
This study was conducted, using 10 high-quality rice varieties, at 24 experimental sites in 2013 and 2014 to analyze the comparative relationship among head rice yield (HRY), its attributes and sub-attributes. In the data set pooled across sites, years and varieties, where regional and varietal variations were combined, HRY was associated with milled rice yield (MRY) more closely than percentage of head rice (PHR) although both MRY and HRY demonstrated significant relationship with HRY. In the PHR higher than 80%, compared to 80% or less, fitness of the regression between PHR and HRY decreased. MRY and PHR, the two attributes of HRY, were not significantly associated with each other. Regional variation of HRY was associated only with MRY while varietal variation of HRY was related to both MRY and PHR. HRY and MRY showed regional variation greater than varietal variation meanwhile PHR demonstrated regional and varietal variations in a similar range. In the data set pooled across sites, years and varieties, MRY demonstrated relationship with spikelets per square meter (SPIK) in a higher significance than percentage of grain filling (PGF) and 1000-brown rice weight (TBRW). Both regional and varietal variations of MRY showed significant relationship only with SPIK, neitherwith PGF nor TBRW. It is concluded that regional variation of HRY was affected by MRY, varietal variation by both MRY and PHR, and region-variety combined variation mainly by MRY.
Response surface methodology (RSM) based on a Box-Behnken Design (BBD) was applied to optimize the thermal-alkaline pre-treatment operating conditions for anaerobic digestion of flotation scum in food waste leachate. Three independent variables such as thermal temperature, NaOH concentration and reaction time were evaluated. The maximum methane production of 369.2 mL CH4/g VS was estimated under the optimum conditions at 62.0°C, 10.1% NaOH and 35.4 min reaction time. A confirmation test of the predicted optimum conditions verified the validity of the BBD with RSM. The analysis of variance indicated that methane production was more sensitive to both NaOH concentration and thermal temperature than reaction time. Thermal-alkaline pretreatment enhanced the improvement of 40% in methane production compared to the control experiment due to the effective hydrolysis and/or solubilization of organic matters. The fractions with molecular weight cut-off of scum in food waste leachate were conducted before and after pre-treatment to estimate the behaviors of organic matters. The experiment results found that thermal-alkaline pre-treatment could reduce the organic matters more than 10kD with increase the organic matters less than 1kD.
향후 쌀 생산량 조정과 조사료 자급률 향상을 위해 사료용 벼 재배면적이 확대될 시기에 국내 총체사료용 벼 종자생산체계 확립에 기술적 기초자료를 확보하기 위해 총체사료용 벼 주요품종의 채종적지 선정에 관해 검토한 결과는 아래와 같다.
1. 벼 재배 지대별 10개소 중 ‘녹양’은 I-2지대 남부해안지인 고성, II-1지대 호남평야지인 익산, II-2지대 영남평야지인 밀양 지역이 충실한 종자를 채종하기에 적합한 지역으로 조사되었다. 그 중에서도 고성지역에서 4월 30일에 파종하여 5월 30일에 이앙했을 때 생육, 수량 및 발아특성이 가장 좋아 채종적지로 가장 적합할 것으로 판단된다.
2. ‘목우’는 I-2지대 남부해안지인 고성, II-1지대 호남평야지인 익산지역이 우량 종자를 채종하기에 적합한 지역으로 보인다. 특히 남부해안지인 고성에서 파종시기를 앞당겨 4월 1일에 파종하여 4월 30일에 이앙했을 때 가장 건전한 종자를 채종할 수 있을 것으로 판단된다.
3. ‘목양’은 지대별로 공시한 다른 3품종과 비교했을 때 등 숙비율, 발아율 등이 대체로 낮아 다른 3품종보다는 채종적지로서의 조건이 다소 미흡하지만 I-2지대 남부해안지인 고성, II-1지대 호남평야지인 나주지역이 채종하기에 적합한 것으로 나타났다. 남부해안지인 고성에서는 ‘목우’와 마찬가지로 4월 1일
에 파종하여 4월 30일에 이앙했을 때 가장 건전한 종자를 얻을 수 있으나 평균발아율이 85%미만으로 건전한 발아를 위해서는 채종한 종자를 최소한 반드시 수선하여 사용해야 하며 수선 시에는 채종량에 비해 종자량의 손실이 많을 것으로 판단된다.
4. ‘중모1029’의 경우에는 지대별로 시험한 10개소 중에서 II-2지대 영남평야지에 속하는 대구지역이 생육, 수량 및 발아 특성을 고려해 볼 때 채종적지로 판단된다.
Modern society attaches great important to state of the technology, but, unconscious desire and subconscious are also discussed in an important value. In the social background of such madness is acting as an artistic inspirational to the many people. At such a time, fashion photographs also being used medium which speak for people's desire. Editorial fashion photographs with unusual stories or including experimental visual elements unlike fashion advertising have increasing. The subject of this study is the formative characteristics in recognition of madness from ancient times until now and find out new meaning of the unusual and informal form of editorial fashion photographs showed in Vogue Italia since 2000. The analysis data of this study, we used 36 photographs of editorial fashion photographs taken by Steven Meisel, Tim Walker and Miles Aldriege. The final process of analysis made in with agreement of 10 major people. We used photograph's basic visual elements as analysis to avoid arbitrary interpretations. The content of this study is drawing in editorial fashion photographs from the viewpoint of Michael Foucault's Madness theory, Deleuze and Felix Guattari's Madness as the aspects of desire. The madness images in the editorial fashion photographs were showed as Decadence, Blindness, Violence and Grotesque based on the analysis results from above. The formative characteristics of editorial fashion photographs enabled the awareness on the value and importance of madness in modern society. These editorial fashion photographs can be the source of our wider perspectives for changing recognition of madness.
The purpose of this study was to investigate and analyze continuous operation of food waste resources at Dongdaemun Environmental Resources Center and to improve the overall operation of the dry anaerobic digester facility. Korean domestic food wastes consist of 18% total solid (TS) content but food waste is difficult to utilize for dry anaerobic digestion. Other operational trouble-shooting resulted from the inherent design, construction and operation of such a biomass generation facility based on 100% utilization of dewatered cake with 35% TS concentration as feedstock, causing the accumulation of unwanted solid residues. A materials flow analysis obtained from actual operation of the anaerobic digestion facility revealed that the organic material loading rate (OLR) and its residence time were 8.3 kg-VS/m3·day and 18.3 days, which adversely affected stable operation. The OLR was occasionally > 15,000 mg/L organic acid concentration and the facility shut down. Such anomalies drastically reduced biogas production and increased organic matter loading in the wastewater, which exceeded the legally allowed concentration limit. Operation of this facility has been normalized to the targeted facility capacity of 98 m3/day based on the results of this study.
'Cheongpungheukhyangchal' New aromatic, black pericarp and glutinous rice variety was developed by the rice breeding team of Chungbuk Agricultural Research and Extension Services, in 2012. This cultivar was derived from a cross between 'Shindongjin' as a grain quality source and 'Heugseonchal' as a black glutinous and aromatic source. The donor parent, 'Sindongjin' has been backcrossed one time with recurrent parent 'Heugseonchal' and selected by the pedigree breeding method, until F6 generation. As a result, a promising line, CBR11-2-4-3, was advanced and designated as the name of ‘CBR L3’ in 2009. The maturity period of this cultivar took approximately 168 days from seedling to heading. This cultivar has about 15 tillers per hill and 115 spikelet numbers per panicle. Ripening ratio is about 76.5% and 1000 grain weight is 27.2 g in brown rice. Milled rice of 'Cheongpungheukhyangchal' has trait of glutinous and aromatic endosperm. It has higher anthocyanin content compared to that of black pigmented check cultivar ‘Heugseonchal’. The yield performance of brown rice was 5.39 MT/ha in local adaptability test for three years. ‘Cheongpungheukhyangchal’ is adaptable to central plain and southern mid-mountainous area of Korea.
구제역 등 가축전염병 발병으로 인한 가축 사체 살 처분 시 병원균의 확산 및 전파를 방지하기 위해 매몰, 소각, 렌더링, 퇴비화, 알칼리 가수분해 및 혐기성 소화 등의 방법을 이용하여 폐기 처리하여야 한다. 매몰에 의한 살 처분은 전 세계적으로 가장 선호되는 방법이다. 우리나라의 경우, “가축전염병예방법 제 20조”, “가축전염병예방법 시행규칙 제 25조” 및 긴급방역행동지침(가금인플루엔자, 전염성해면상뇌증 및 구제역 등)에 의해 가축전염병에 전염된 가축 사체에 대해서는 대부분 매몰하는 방식으로 처분하고 있다. 가축 사체는 매몰 초기, 호기 조건에서 분해가 이루어지나 이를 제외한 기간에는 혐기 조건에서 분해가 이루어진다. 폐기물의 호기성 분해는 혐기성 분해에 비해 안정화를 촉진시키는 데 효과적인 것으로 알려져 있다. 본 연구에서는 가축 사체를 매몰한 모형매몰지를 호기 및 혐기 조건으로 운영하여 이에 따른 안정화 특성을 파악하였다. 호기성 모형매몰지의 침출수 발생량은 혐기성 모형매몰지에 비해 약 1.4배 많은 것으로 나타났으며 침출수 발생속도는 약 1.5배 빨라진 것으로 나타났다. 또한 총유기탄소를 기반으로 한 가축 사체의 분해율을 살펴보면, 호기성 모형매몰지에서 약 1.9배 높은 것으로 나타났으며 발생된 총유기탄소의 약 74%는 침출수를 통해 발생된 것으로 나타났다. 본 연구 결과, 가축 사체의 호기성 분해는 혐기성 분해에 비해 안정화에 효과적인 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났으나 분해 시 발생되는 악취 또는 에어로졸 등에 대한 해결 방안이 필요할 것으로 판단된다.
유기성 폐자원(음식물류 폐수, 가축분뇨, 하수슬러지 등)의 해양투기 금지 및 폐자원 바이오매스 에너지화 정책에 따라 유기성 폐자원 에너지화는 중요한 국가적 과제로 부각되고 있다. 유기성 폐자원 처리의 경우 단독 처리시설은 38개소, 병합처리시설은 17개소가 운영 중에 있으나 개소당 처리량은 병합처리시설이 더 많은 것으로 나타났다(단독처리시설: 198천톤/년; 병합처리시설: 345천톤/년). 가축분뇨의 경우 타 유기성 폐기물에 비해 C/N 비가 높고 유기물 함량(Volatile Solids, VS 기준)이 낮아 에너지 전환 효율이 낮은 것으로 보고되고 있다. 이에 반해 음식물류 폐수의 경우 유기물 함량이 높고 C/N 비가 낮다. 따라서 가축분뇨와 음식물류 폐수 병합처리 시 가축분뇨의 원료적 단점을 보완할 수 있다. 병합처리시설 중 음식물류 폐수와 가축분뇨 병합처리 시설은 총 5개소가 운영 중에 있으며 혼합 비율은 1:0.5 ~ 182.5 (음식물류 폐수 기준)로 넓은 범위로 나타났다. 또한 소화효율(VS 기준)은 15.1 ~ 95.1%로 넓은 분포를 나타내었다. 이렇듯 음식물류 폐수와 가축 분뇨의 적정 혼합 비율에 관한 연구는 미비한 실정이다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 음식물류 폐수와 가축분뇨의 병합 비율에 따른 유기물 특성(Excitation-Emission Matrix (EEM), SUVA254, SUVA280 등)과 메탄 잠재량을 평가하였다. SUVA254와 SUVA280분석 결과에 따르면 가축분뇨는 음식물류 폐수에 비해 각각 6.8 및 8.1배 높은 것으로 나타났다. 회분식 메탄 잠재량 평가 결과, 가축분뇨의 비율이 낮아질수록 최대 메탄 발생량은 증가되는 경향으로 나타났다. 그러나 혼합 비율 대비 시너지효과를 평가한 결과, 1:1.5 (음식물류 폐수 기준) 비율에서 14.9%로 가장 높게 나타났다.
Relationship between grain quality-related traits and daily mean temperature/sunshine hours during grain filling stage was analyzed using eleven high quality rice varieties at 24 experimental sites through eight provinces of Korea in 2013~2014. In the data set pooled across varieties, experimental sites and years, grain quality-related traits such as percentage of head rice (PHR), head rice yield (HRY), protein in milled rice (PRO) and Toyo Mido Meter glossiness value (TGV) were higher at the temperature lower than 22.6℃ for 40 days after flowering (DAF), which was optimum for percentage of grain filling in this study. Optimum sunshine hours for 40 DAF were 6.0~6.1 hr d -1 when considered PHR, HRY and TGV. PRO was associated with daily mean temperature and sunshine hours for 40 DAF in more varieties than the other traits. PRO was closely correlated with daily mean temperature during early filling stage and sunshine hours during early to mid filling stage, compared to other stages during grain filling. It is concluded that general trend in the variation of grain quality-related traits could be explained by the changes in daily mean temperature and sunshine hours during grain filling. In addition, climate conditions during early grain filling stage played important roles to enhance grain quality.