Vitamin K (phylloquinone) is an essential cofactor in the synthesis of active blood-clotting factors II, VII, IX and X. Deficiency of vitamin K leads to inadequate activity of these factors, resulting in bleeding. In this study, we investigated vitamin K1 content of agricultural products that are widely and specifically grown in Korea including 9 leaves and vegetables, 16 fruits, and 11 cereals and specialty crops. Vitamin K1 analysis of the agro-samples was by a validated, modified, reversed phase-HPLC method with fluorescence detection after post-column derivatization. The vitamin K1 content ranged from 1.83 to 682.73 μg/100 g in leaves and vegetables, 0.17 to 28.22 μg/100 g in fruits, and ND to 279 μg/100 g in cereals and specialty crops. Among the 36 samples, high content of vitamin K1 were found in Gugija (Lycium chinense Miller) leaves (average 682.73 μg/100 g) and Hansan ramie leaves (average 423.12 μg/100 g); however, mushroom, amaranth and Chinese artichoke showed no detectable levels. The results of ourstudy provide reliable vitamin K1 content of Korean grown agricultural products that expand nutritional information and food composition database.
This study was performed to investigate the effects of Acer tegmentosum Maxim. extract (ATE) on non-alcoholic fatty liver in Sprague Dawley (SD) rats. During oral administration of ATE, non-alcoholic fatty liver was induced by treatment with DL-ethionine. The lipid, total cholesterol (T-CHO) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the liver tissue of ATE-fed rats showed lower levels, as compared to ATE-unfed rats. In ATE-fed rats, the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and γ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) were lower than the case of ATE-unfed rats. Oil red staining of the liver showed that the lipid deposits were decreased by feeding ATE. These results strongly indicated that ATE has positive effects of protection against non-alcoholic fatty liver formation.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a nutrition education program for the elderly at a public health center located in Jinhae city. The one group pretest and posttest design was conducted using self-administered questionnaire survey. Nutrition education lessons based on social cognitive theory (2 hours/lesson, 3 times) were provided to 27 female elderly(≥65 yrs) for a month. After the nutrition education, number of exercise increased and preference for sweetness decreased significantly (p<0.05). The outcome expectations, the knowledge of nutrition (p<0.001), and behavioral capability (p<0.05) score were significantly increased. There were significant increases in all nutrient intake. NAR was increased significantly in protein, calcium and vitamin C (p<0.01), dietary fiber, iron, zinc, thiamin, niacin and folic acid (p<0.001), and riboflavin (p<0.05). INQ was increased significantly in thiamin, vitamin B6 and niacin (p<0.05), and dietary fiber (p<0.01). The score of nutrition education satisfaction was high (4.52). The results of this study suggested that the nutritional education program based on social cognitive theory had a positive effect on dietary behavior changes, and nutrition intake status among female elderly even after short-term intervention.
This study investigated the chemical composition of Cirsium japonicum var. ussurience Kitamura essential oil and the quantitative changes of major volatile flavor compounds according to the harvesting season. The essential oils obtained by the method of hydrodistillation extraction from aerial parts of C. japonicum var. ussurience Kitamura were analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Sixty-four volatile flavor compounds were identified in the essential oil from C. japonicum var. ussurience Kitamura harvested in May 2012; hexadecanoic acid (49.31%) was the most abundant compound, followed by 6,10,14- trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (13.72%), phytol (13.40%) and 9-hexadecenoic acid (4.16%). Eighty-three compounds were identified in the essential oil from the plant harvested in October 2012; phytol (40.56%), hexadecanoic acid (17.69%), 6,10,14- trimethyl-2-pentadecanone (13.71%), and caryophyllene oxide (4.15%) were the most abundant compounds. Types and levels of volatile compounds from different harvesting seasons varied. The essential oil composition of C. japonicum var. ussurience Kitamura harvested in the spring and autumn was characterized by higher contents of aliphatic fatty acid, diterpene and sesquiterpene, respectively.
The objective of the present investigation was to obtain vitamin, mineral, flavonoid, and polyphenol profiles of Rudbeckia laciniata (RL), and to examine the effects of extract of RL (RLE) on various physiological activities of HaCaT keratinocyte for the utilization of RL as natural raw materials to develop functional food. To accomplish this purpose, we checked the contents of the general nutrients of RL. The contents of vitamin A, vitamin B1 and vitamin B2 were 7.49 μg/g, 51.96 μg/g, and 132 μg/g respectively, while vitamin C and vitamin D3 were not detected. The contents of mineral such as Ca, K and Fe were 2.01 mg/g, 6.06 mg/g and 0.03 mg/g respectively. Total flavonoid contents of RLE were 0.25 mg/g, and total polyphenol were estimated as 1.43 mg/g. Because RL contains high levels of vitamin A which is associated with skin aging, we investigated the effect of RLE on physiological function of keratinocytes with respect to skin aging. We found that RLE significantly increased the growth rate of HaCaT cells and reduced ultraviolet radiation B (UVB)-induced cellular toxicity. Also, the extract of Rudbeckia laciniata attenuated the UVB-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in a dose-dependent manner in HaCaT cells. In addition, treatment with the extract dose-dependently increased migration activity of HaCaT cells. Thus, these findings indicated that RLE could regulate the physiological activity of keratinocytes, and may be used to develop functional foods.
Phagocytosis is a primary and an essential step of host defense, and is triggered by the interaction of particles with specific receptor of macrophages. In this study, we investigated the effect of extracts of Rudbeckia laciniata (RLE) on the phagocytic activity of macrophage, by monitoring the phagocytosis-associated signal transduction. RLE markedly increased phagocytosis of serum-opsonized zymosan particles (SOZ), while phagocytosis of IgG-opsonized zymosan particles (IOZ) or none-opsonized zymosan particles (NOZ) remained unaffected. However, RLE did not affect the binding of opsonized zymosan particles (OZ) with the cell surface of macrophage. This suggests that RLE may regulate SOZ-induced intracellular signaling during phagocytosis of macrophage. To confirm this hypothesis, we investigated whether RLE was involved in the RhoA-mediated signal transduction during phagocytosis of SOZ. Inhibitors of the RhoA-mediated signaling pathway, such as Y-27632 (for ROCK), ML-7 (for MLCK), and Tat-C3 (for RhoA), totally blocked phagocytosis of SOZ enhanced by RLE, as well as phagocytosis of SOZ. Additionally, RhoA activity was markedly increased when cells were treated with RLE, suggesting that RLE could increase the phagocytic activity of macrophage via RhoA-ROCK/MLCK signal pathway. Thus, RLE may be used to develop functional foods for immunity.
This study analyzed the antioxidant properties of Equisetum arvense and its effects on serum factor levels in mice fed a high-fat diet. The aim was to establish a new effective resource for biologically active materials. E. arvense stem and root extracts were obtained using deionized water at 95℃, and 70.5% ethanol at 85℃. These extracts were used to analyze the total phenolic compounds and antioxidant (ABTS, DDPH, and FRAP) activities. The effects of prepared ground samples were evaluated by feeding them to mice. E. arvense extracts showed strong antioxidant effects. The caffeic acid content was highest in the 70.5% ethanol extract of the vegetative stem, as determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. The blood concentrations of insulin and leptin were significantly lower in mice fed a high-fat diet supplemented with extracts of the root, reproductive stem, and vegetative stem of E. arvense than in mice fed only a high-fat diet. These results suggest that the polyphenolic compounds in E. arvense extracts exert various antioxidant effects. The stems and root of E. arvense can lower the blood levels of insulin and leptin, even after consumption of a high-fat diet.
The objective of this study is to investigate the perception and satisfaction of elementary and middle school students on free school food service. We surveyed education related to school food service, concerns about food ingredients, perceptions of free school food service and satisfaction for the quality of the school food service. The investigation is classified into two groups, schools that operate as a food service center or those that do not. Those who are provided food ingredients by school food service centers are educated about the agricultural products’ country-of-origin and their environmentfriendly food service. The more individuals are educated of the foods’ county-of-origin and environment-friendly food service the more they will have a higher concern of the food materials and subsequently a higher satisfaction for the quality of school food service. School food service centers managed directly by the local government would probably receive higher satisfaction than those consigned to a private sector. The results of this study will be meaningful to establish policies on school food service and school food service centers.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the dietary life status according to smart device use among university students. In 2015, data was collected during a 3 month survey of the eating behaviors, lifestyles, eating habits, and use of smart devices of 550 university students, as well as their dependency on smartphones. Ultimately, 520 subjects (94.5% analysis rate) were divided into three groups based on their daily use time of smart device: low-use group (<4.7 hours, n=173), medium-use group (≥4.7 hours and <6.4 hours, n=174), and high-use group (≥6.4 hours, n=173). The more frequent use groups showed a higher level of dependency on the smartphone. Breakfast was found to be the most commonly skipped meal; and the high-use group showed a higher response of irregular meals than low-use group. In assessment of eating habits, the subjects with less smart device usage ate more regularly and at fixed times, did not overeat, drank milk everyday, and did not consume processed food as often. To sum up, more irregularity of meal and undesirable eating habits were found among university students with higher use of smart devices. These results suggest that a control of smart device usage would lead to a more desirable dietary life in university students.
The present study investigated the effects of processing parameters such as time (10, 20, 30, 40 min), pressure (25, 50, 75, 100 MPa), and the salinity of brine (0~10%(w/v)) on jacopever (Sebastes schlegeli Hilgendorf) in order to establish optimization of the three factors using a high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) machine. To do so, it analyzed the quality characteristics of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN), trimethylamine (TMA), total bacterial counts, dynamic viscoelasticities, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) properties. First, when the time increased to 40 mins, by 10 min intervals, the total bacterial counts in HHP groups under 25℃, 100 MPa, and 4%(w/v) brine were significantly decreased except for the first 10 min in comparison to the control group. In regards to DSC properties, the onset temperature (TO) of the first endothermal curve was significantly reduced. Second, when the pressure level increased up to 100 MPa by 25 MPa increments, the total bacterial counts in the HHP samples significantly decreased for 20 min at 50 MPa or higher. As the pressure increased, G′, G″ and the slope of tan δ decreased (except for 50 MPa). Third, in regards to the salinities of brine, when the HHP processing was treated at 100 MPa, 25℃ for 20 min, the total bacterial counts of all the HHP groups significantly decreased in comparison to those of the control group. A significant difference was found in the enthalpy of the second endothermic curve in the 6~10%(w/v) (except 7%(w/v)) HHP groups. Therefore, the salinity of the immersion water under the HHP condition was appropriate when it was lower than 6%(w/v). The present study demonstrated that the optimum parameter condition according to/under the condition of the microbial inhibition and economic effects using an HHP would be the reaction time for 20 min, reaction pressure at 100 MPa, and the salinity of 4%(w/v) brine.
The purpose of this experiment was designed to investigate the effects of medicinal herbs (MH) extracts on dementia induced by trimethyltin chloride (TMT) in rats. Six-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups; normal group (group 1), control group (group 2), MH extracts group (250, 500 mg/kg) (group 3, group 4) and positive control group (tacrine group, group 5). In the control group to induce dementia, a 2.5 mg/kg of TMT intraperitoneal injection was used for 14 days (1 per day) in the rats. In the MH extracts group 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of MH extracts were medicated in an oral inoculation for 20 days (1 per day). After 30 minutes, a 2.5 mg/kg of TMT intraperitoneal injection, which causes dementia, was used for 14 days (1 per day). In the positive control group (Tacrine group) 10 mg/kg of Tacrine, the dementia treatment, was medicated in an oral inoculation. After 30 mintues, 1 mg/kg of TMT intraperitoneal injection, which causes dementia, was used for 14 days (1 per day). The present author observed the passive avoidance performance test, and memory ability test (Y maze test), the values of MDA, acetlycholinesterase (AchE) activity in the brain and antioxidant enzyme in serum. MH extracts significantly improved memory of AD model rats in the Y-maze test, and also significantly improved memory of AD model rats in the passive avoidance test. MH extracts significantly reduced AChE activity, and significantly increased the SOD level, but not catalase and MDA. From the results above, MH extracts is thought to be effective in the improvement of antioxidant enzymes and memory ability.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the relations between HbA1c level and health risk factor. For analysis, 330 elderly women aged 65 years and over were recruited in Jeonla province, Korea. The subjects were classified into two groups according to their HbA1c level; the diabetic group (HbA1c level≥6.5%, n=68, 20.6%) and control group (HbA1c level< 6.5%, n=262, 79.4%). Demographic characteristics were collected, as well as information on physical measurements, blood tests for biochemical indicators, a health status and health-related life style, dietary behavior, favorite food groups, consumption frequency of food groups and nutrient intake. Educational level of the diabetic group was significantly lower than that of the control group. The height of the diabetic group was shorter, and percentage fat of the diabetic group was higher than those of the control group. In the diabetic group, the higher concentrations of creatinine and activity of alkaline phosphatase were found to be significantly unfavorable factors. Therefore, the diabetic group was assumed to be at risk of decreased liver and renal function. The self-rated health level of the diabetic group has a declining tendency, while the medicine intake was significantly higher than that of the control group, but there are no significant differences in visiting frequency of hospital and community health center. The distribution of physical activity showed a significant difference between the groups. Although there are no significant differences in nutrient intake, the diabetic group had relatively inferior nutrient intake of diet, especially vitamin C, as contrasted with the control group. In conclusion, the weight control and increasing physical activity may be effective in the prevention of the diabetes and continuous education and intervention by specialized nutritionists will be needed for diabetic patients. These results could be useful to plan effective strategies to increase the health-life expectancy and the prevention of the diabetes of Korean elderly people living in rural areas.
This study aims to investigate the satisfactions with school food service for elementary and middle school parents. We surveyed parents about their concerns regarding food materials, the perception of free school food service, improvement of free school food service and satisfaction with the quality of school food service. The regions were classified into two categories according to the operation of a school food service center. The respondents with greater concern and cooperative purchase of food materials had higher satisfaction with the quality of school food service. It is interesting to note that school food service centers managed directly by the local government had higher satisfaction than those operated by private enterprises with respect to the quality of the school food service. The results of this study can contribute to the establishment of school food service and school food service center policies in the future.
In this study, we determined the effect of the mulberry leaf powder on blood lipid metabolism and liver function improvement of mice fed a high fat diet. The mulberry leaf showed a moisture content of 10.74±0.56%, ash 9.67±0.56%, crude protein 25.24±1.02%, and crude fat 2.66±0.08%. In the group with high fat diet supplemented with mulberry leaf powder, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol) and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower (p<0.05); also, serum phospholipid and aspartate amino transferase (AST) levels were significantly lower (p<0.05). Serum insulin and leptin levels were high in mice fed a high fat diet; however, addition of mulberry leaf powder 10% in the diet had no significant effect on blood insulin and leptin control. The results of the study suggested that various plant sterols in mulberry leaf improve lipid metabolism and liver function in ICR-mice.
This study was conducted to investigate the awareness and preference regarding Korean Samgyetang by the Chinese. An online survey was conducted to determine the awareness regarding Korean Samgyetang among the local Chinese, and a consumer preference test was performed to design the recipe of Samgyetang for Chinese students in Korea during April 2016. The results of the online survey showed that 88.2 % and 88.4 % of local Chinese men and women, respectively, were aware of Korean Samgyetang. Samgyetang recognition by the local residents of China was the highest in the Hubei region that includes Beijing. Traditional Samgyetang received the highest preference and Samgyetang with mung bean received the lowest preference in the preference test based on the Samgyetang type. In consumer preference tests among Chinese students, Samgyetang with broth of chicken feet (Sample-1) and Samgyetang with medicinal herbs (Sample-3) showed high acceptability than Samgyetang in water (Sample-2) in terms of the overall sensory properties. According to the results of the electronic tongue, Sample-1 showed a high value in terms of the strength of the saltiness and Sample-3 showed a high value in terms of the strength of bitterness and sweetness. Sample-2 showed a high value in terms of the strength of umami and sourness.
Macrophages play a pivotal role in the innate and adaptive immune systems. This study investigated the immuno-modulatory activities of polysaccharides separated from Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum (CZPS) in macrophages. Polysaccharides from Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum were extracted by the ethanol precipitation method. RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cell line was treated with CZPS (4 to 128 μg/mL), and there was no cytotoxicity at a dose below 32 μg/mL. The levels of nitric oxide (NO) and pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β) production in the CZPS treated group (32 μg/mL) were 6.5±0.12 μM (NO), 1252.8±79.85 (TNF-α), 305.4±29.41 (IL-6), and 683.3±59.71 (IL-1β), respectively, and they were significantly increased when compared to the control group; 2.2±0.03 μM (NO), 452.3±38.34 (TNF-α), 31.7±5.75 (IL-6), and 184.1±11.52 (IL-1β). Additionally, protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and phosphorylation of MAPKs and NF-κB expression were significantly increased upon CZPS treatment. Therefore, these results indicated that polysaccharides separated from Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum (CZPS) may have a potential immunomodulatory activity in macrophages through MAPKs and NF-κB signaling, and this information is useful for the development of immune enhancing adjuvant materials using a natural ingredient.
본 연구에서는 최대한 인삼의 외형을 원형삼 형태의 홍삼 과 유사하게 유지하면서도 기능성은 증진시킬 수 있는 신속 한 고온고압 처리 공정을 확립하기 위하여 다양한 고온고압 처리공정 조건에 따른 이화학적 성분 특성 및 항산화 활성 변화를 살펴보았다. 산성다당체 및 홍삼 특유의 진세노사이 드 Rh1, Rg2, Rg3의 함량은 140℃, 3 kg/cm2의 고온고압 처리 조건에서 가장 높은 반면, 총 페놀 화합물 및 말톨 함량은 156℃, 5 kg/cm2의 고온고압 처리조건에서 가장 높았다. 그러 나 홍삼의 증자 처리 시 156℃, 5 kg/cm2의 처리조건에서는 시 료가 터지거나 외형의 변형이 심하기 때문에 140℃, 3 kg/cm2를 최적 온도 및 압력으로 설정하였다. 한편, 증자 시간이 증 가함에 따라 총 페놀 화합물, 말톨 및 흑삼특이 진세노사이드 함량은 지속적으로 증가하는 경향을 나타내었으나, 20분간 처리한 군의 외형이 기존의 홍삼과 가장 유사한 외관을 나타 냈으므로, 140℃, 3 kg/cm2에서 20분 동안 증자 처리하는 것 을 본 실험의 최적 조건으로 설정하였다. 최종적으로 이러한 최적조건을 통해 제조된 홍삼의 항산화 효능을 분석한 결과, 시중에서 판매되는 백삼, 홍삼 및 흑삼과 비교하여 높은 항산 화 성분 및 항산화 활성을 나타냈다. 따라서 본 연구를 통해 확립된 고온고압 처리를 통한 신규홍삼 제조기술은 그 형태 가 기존의 홍삼 제품과 유사하면서도 공정이 신속하고, 품질 은 흑삼과 비슷한 고기능성 신규 인삼제품 개발 시 응용 가능 한 공정으로 사료된다.