In this study, Korean Hallabong produced in Jeju Island and coffee were grafted to prepare coffee containing Hallabong extract and the nutritional components were analyzed. As the amount of Hallabong extract increased, the water content and total polyphenol content increased. However, the crude flour, crude protein, and total flavonoid content decreased significantly. The selenium content per 100 g was 91.28 mg in the 1% Hallabong group, and the iron content was 6.84 mg in the 3% Hallabong group. As the content of Hallabong extract in coffee increased, the L-value (brightness) and b-value (yellowness) increased, but the a-value (redness) showed a tendency to decrease. In the case of DPPH(2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging activity, the group containing 9% of Hallabong extract showed the highest value at 47.20 μmol/g of TEAC. In particular, the ABTS(2,2’-Azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline- 6-sulfonate)) and DPPH radical scavenging activity were significantly increased from coffee powder containing 6% or more of Hallabong extract(p<0.05). The caffeine content decreased as the amount of Hallabong extract added to coffee increased. Therefore, when making powder coffee with Hallabong extract added, it is recommended to set the content of Hallabong extract to 6%.
This study was conducted in order to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of Solanum nigrum L. fruit powder after undergoing different extraction solvent processes. The total phenolic content of Solanum nigrum L. fruit powder measured a 14.66 GAE mg/g after undergoing ethanol extraction, and the total flavonoid content measured at 201.23 mg CE/g when undergoing ethanol extraction. The ABTS radical scavenging activity was 160.38~209.53 TEAC umol/g, and the DPPH radical scavenging activity was 53.99~90.76 TEAC umol/g, which indicated a higher level of antioxidant power in the ethanol extract as opposed to in the water extract. The FRAP (ferric reducing antioxidant power) of Solanum nigrum L. fruit powder was 115.58~194.58 TEAC umol/g, and B. subtilis KCTC 2189 showed greater antimicrobial activity in the ethanol extract (concentration 200 ug/uL) as opposed to the water extract. Solanum nigrum L. fruit powder revealed differences in antioxidant and antimicrobial activity between the different extraction solvents. In particular, ethanol extract had higher antioxidant and antibacterial activity, meaning it is more favorable for usage as a functional food material.
The purpose of this study was to develop a functional senior mixed soymilk for seniors and to provide functional senior-mixed soymilk to prevent disease outbreaks. The isoflavone content of senior soymilk was 0.15±0.01 mg/g. The β-glucan content of senior soymilk was 9.82±0.01 mg/g. The weight gain of mice were significantly higher in the high-fat diet group than in the other groups. The serum triglyceride content was high at 102.67±40.61 mg/dL in the high-fat diet group, but significantly lower at 83.00±42.43 mg/dL in the 20% senior soymilk group. Thus, the results of this study comprehensively suggest that food intake should be ingested for each life cycle with reference to the dietary reference intakes for Koreans. In particular, the elderly in their 50s and older are deficient in protein and weakened immune capacity, so it is imperative that they maintain their health through various foods such as soymilk, which is evenly nutritious.
This study was carried out to investigate the various roles and effects of Morinda citrifolia L.(noni) on the human body and to utilize the findings obtained for future disease related research on food and nutrition. Morinda citrifolia L. has been used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2,000 years and is reported to have a broad range of therapeutic effects. Noni is an alkaloid system such as proxeronine, scopoletin, octanoic acid, terpenoids, alkaloids, anthraquinones, nordamnacanthal, morindone, rubiadin, b-sitosterol, flavone glycosides, linoleic acid, acubin, L-asperuloside, caproic acid, caprylic acid, ursolic acid, rutin. Noni's side effects have been reported to affect anti-inflammatory, analgesics, LDL antioxidant, anti-tumor, antifungal, antibiotic, antiviral, antiparasitic and immunosuppressive effects. In particular, noni’s efficacy is considered to be important for the prevention of diseases by inhibiting active oxygen, which is a direct cause of oxidative stress, through various metabolites through 'xeronine system'. Noni’s functions and effects that have been examined in this study include anti-inflammation, pain relief, antioxidant, anticancer, hepatocyte protection among others. Therefore, noni’s extracts are considered highly useful for diverse scientific and nutritional health functional foods.
본 연구는 다양한 치즈 생산과 치즈 산업의 기초를 마련하기 위해 대두를 이용하여 만든 소이 발효 치즈와 일반치즈의 영양성분을 비교․분석하여 제시하였다. 소이 발효 치즈는 A회사의 우유치즈에 비해 단백질과 회분 함량이 유의하게 높았으며(p<0.05), 지방의 함량은 낮았다. 유리아미노산 중 소이 발효 치즈에서는 alanine, phenylalanine, tyrosine 및 arginine 의 함유량이 높았으며, A회사의 우유치즈에서는 valine, leucine, isoleucine, proline, serine, glutamate 및 histidine 등의 함량이 높았다. 구성아미노산의 함량은 100 g당 소이 발효 치즈의 경우, glutamate, aspartate 및 leucine의 함량이 높았고, A회사의 우유치즈는 glutamate, leucine 및 proline이 많이 함유되어 있었다. 소이발효 치즈의 무기질 함량은 100 g당 각각 칼슘 120.29 mg, 철 0.92 mg, 아연 0.78 mg, 셀레늄 0.40 mg이었으며, A회 사의 우유치즈에 비해 철과 아연 함량이 높았다. 또한 소이 발효 치즈는 A회사 우유치즈에 비해 100 g당 비타민 B1과 β- glucan의 함량이 높았다. 따라서 본 연구결과를 종합해 보면, 대두를 이용한 소이 발효 치즈는 일반 우유치즈와 비교했을 때 영양성분의 큰 차이는 없었다. 아직은 대두를 이용한 치즈의 개발이나 상품화가 미흡하지만, 지속적인 개발연구를 통해 대두의 활용도를 증가시킨다면 동물성 단백질에 알레르기를 가진 사람이나 채식주의자, 다이어트를 원하는 사람 및 영유아의 건강식을 위해서는 소이 발효 치즈의 활용도가 높을 것으로 사료된다.
본 연구는 국내산 버찌가 수입산인 아로니아와 마키베리의 일반성분과 항산화 활성에 차이가 있는지 비교함으로써 새로운 식품소재 개발에 도움을 주고자 본 연구를 실시하였다. 버찌는 수분이 6.71%, 조단백질이 4.61% 및 조회분이 5.33%로 나타나 아로니아와 마키베리보다 높은 함량을 보였으며, 조지방 함량의 경우 버찌는 1.46%로 가장 낮은 함량을 보였다. 또한, 100 g당 철의 함량은 버찌에서 0.96 mg으로 다른 베리류에 비해 유의하게 높았다. 총 플라보노이드의 함량은 탈 이온수 추출물의 경우 아로니아와 마키베리에 비해 버찌에 2.07 QE mg/g으로 가장 높았으며, 버찌의 FRAP 환원력(156.50 TEAC μmol/g)은 탈 이온수 추출물의 경우 아로니아(121.72 TEAC μmol/g)에 비해 높은 수치를 보였다. 버찌의 탈 이온수 추출물의 경우 ABTS 라디칼 소거활성은 아로니아에 비해 높았다. 또한, ABTS 라디칼 소거활성과 DPPH 라디칼 소거활성의 EC50 value는 버찌의 에탄올 추출물과 탈 이온수 추출물이 아로니아와 마키베리에 비하여 대단히 높은 ABTS 소거활성과 DPPH 소거활성을 나타내었다는 것을 알 수 있었다. 따라서 본 연구 결과를 종합해 보면, 버찌는 우리나라 전역에서 쉽게 채취할 수 있고, 가격이 저렴하며, 항산화 활성과 철 함량이 아로니아나 마키베리에 뒤쳐지지 않는다. 따라서 국내산 버찌를 기능성 식품의 재료로 활용하는 다양한 제품생산의 방안을 구축하는 것이 중요하다고 사료된다.
This paper defines the common features of synbiotics based on the definition of probiotics and prebiotics, and reviews the effectiveness of synbiotic food. The concept of synbiotics is defined as ‘a mixture of prebiotics and probiotics that have a beneficial effect on the host, as a dietary supplement that alters living organisms in the gastrointestinal tract and improves their survival.’ Synbiotic food contains ingredients with beneficial microbes that are expected to improve interactions between microbial and useful substances. Synbiotic foods may have anti-cancer and immune system-boosting effects. Improved digestion, healthier bowel movements, and overall increased intestinal health has been reported were reported after increasing the healthy microorganisms within the intestinal tract. In addition, depending on the type of food containing the symbiotic ingredients, more consistent weight control, improvement of cardiovascular health, and lower blood glucose levels may also be expected. Unlike previous studies, this review of synbiotics has shown that it is necessary for synergistic effects to take place among microorganisms and components to be further studied. Further research is needed on the safety and ingestion of microorganisms contained in synbiotics.
This study, analyzed the general and minerals composition of kamut and investigated its effect on blood components in mice fed a high fat diet. The content of each general component of kamut was as follows: 11.02±0.75% water, 13.16 ±1.28% crude protein, 1.85±0.19% crude fat, and 1.97±0.13% ash. The leptin level was the highest in the HF group(30.00± 0.00 ng/mL) when compared to the control group. There was a significant decrease of 23.65±5.54 ng/mL in the HFK group when compared to the HF group (p<0.05). The blood LDL-cholesterol concentration was the lowest in the control group at 10.00±2.00 mg/dL. The level was highest in the HF group at 28.00±0.00 mg/dL when compared with the other groups (p<0.05). The aspartate transaminase (AST) level was significantly higher in the HFK group (179.33±173.88 U/L) than in the control (61.00±12.73 U/L) and HF groups (132.00±0.00 U/L). According to the results of this study, the consumption of kamut lowers the blood LDL-cholesterol level more than the consumption of wheat flour. Additionally, kamut contains antioxidant substances such as selenium and zinc, which are thought to contribute to vascular health and thus aid in maintaining good health. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a variety of health foods using kamut; it should be used as a functional food for the maintenance of good health.
The purpose of this study was to investigate and analyze the total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activities (FRAP, ABTS, and DPPH), and antibacterial properties of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) extracts. Lotus leaves, stems, and seed pods were extracted with deionized water at 95℃, and with 70.5% ethanol at 85℃. The TPC ranged from 8.12 to 215.12 GAE mg/g. The ethanol extract of the seed pod had the highest TPC, and the TPC of the corresponding deionized water extract was 161.45 mg/g. FRAP values ranged from 104.03 to 3,546.39 TEAC μmol/g, ABTS radical cation scavenging activities ranged from 105.11 to 3,956.94 TEAC μmol/g, and DPPH radical scavenging activities ranged from 37.29 to 2,549.46 TEAC μmol/g. EC50 values ranged from 0.26 to 9.63 mg/mL, and 0.31 to 21.21 mg/mL for ABTS and DPPH, respectively. The ethanol and deionized water extracts of the seed pod showed higher TPC and stronger antioxidant properties (FRAP, ABTS, and DPPH) than those of characteristic of the leaf extracts. The ethanol and deionized water extracts of the seed pod showed antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with inhibition zones of 9.0 to 14.0 mm, and the ethanol extract of the leaf showed antimicrobial activity against B. subtilis and S. aureus with inhibition zones of 9.0 and 10.0 mm, respectively. Thus, the lotus seed pod could be used to produce novel teas, and could be a potential source of therapeutic ingredients for food and medicine.
Probiotics may be defined as microbial agents that can benefit humans and have been used primarily by mankind in fermented foods. A representative of probiotics is lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which has received attention recently due to its perceived health benefits. We reviewed research papers about Bifidobacerium and Lactobacillus, which are two of the most known of the LAB. Bifidobacerium alleviates diarrhea from various causes by improving intestinal microflora, and it has been reported that it reduces Helicobacter pylori bacteria known as the cause of gastric ulcer and stomach cancer. Bifidobacerium has also reported to be effective on immunization and allergy, reduce blood cholesterol, cancer, lactose intolerance. Lactobacillus alleviates diarrhea but has not fully demonstrated its effectiveness relative to other health issues. Several lactic acid bacteria and yeast are expected to act as probiotics, so, in the future, more research on the health benefits of lactic acid bacteria is needed.
This study was conducted to investigate the characteristics of major prebiotics and the related studies, and to provide basic data for future research. Prebiotics are defined as ‘nondigestible food ingredients that beneficially affect the host by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of one or a limited number of bacteria in the colon, and thus improve host health’. Well-known prebiotics are inulin, oligofructose, and galacto-oligosaccharide. Prebiotics assist in the health activity of lactic acid bacteria by acting as a substrate for lactic acid bacteria, with their unique physical and chemical properties. Bifidobacteria are known to be beneficial bacteria that prevent intestinal inflammation, maintain intestinal microflora balance, inhibit carcinogenesis, reduce cholesterol, and enhance immunity. However, Bifidobacteria, Lactobacillus, Bacillus, and Weissella are also found in animal-based fermented foods such as milk, cheese, yogurt, and salted fish. Prebiotics can act as a substrate for lactic acid bacteria, helping the activity of lactic acid bacteria and improving health. Therefore, the authors suggest that investigation into the category and effectiveness of prebiotics should be extended in the future through research.