In this study, we analyzed the biochemical factors in lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) leaf, stem, and yeonjabang and their effects on serum factor levels in mice fed a high-fat (HF) diet. The loutus leaf showed 9.47±0.30% moisture content, 8.25±0.39% ash, 21.45±1.25% crude protein, and 2.21±0.13% crude fat content; the lotus stem showed 11.84±0.43% moisture, 10.21±0.64% ash, 17.55±0.92% crude protein, and 4.16±0.23% crude fat content; and the lotus yeonjabang showed 11.86±0.50% moisture, 6.81±0.51% ash, 18.71±1.02% crude protein, and 3.95±0.15% crude fat. Blood triglyceride levels were higher in the HF group (146.43±38.81 mg/dL), and lower in the HF+yeonjabang groups (98.00±17.18 mg/dL). In particular, blood triglyceride levels were significantly lower in the groups that had 10% dry yeonjabang powder added to the high-fat diet. The inclusion of excessive high-fat diet increased concentrations of serum insulin and leptin. Serum leptin concentrations were highest in the HF group mice (3.00±1.35 ng/dL), whereas they were significantly lower in the HF+yeonjabang groups by 1.34±0.52 ng/dL (p<0.05). Thus, addition of dry yeonjabang powder to the high-fat diet was more effective in regulating the levels of serum triglycerides and leptin in mice. Additional studies would help in the development of yeonjabang as a functional food.
In this study, we determined the effect of the mulberry leaf powder on blood lipid metabolism and liver function improvement of mice fed a high fat diet. The mulberry leaf showed a moisture content of 10.74±0.56%, ash 9.67±0.56%, crude protein 25.24±1.02%, and crude fat 2.66±0.08%. In the group with high fat diet supplemented with mulberry leaf powder, serum low-density lipoprotein (LDL-cholesterol) and total cholesterol levels were significantly lower (p<0.05); also, serum phospholipid and aspartate amino transferase (AST) levels were significantly lower (p<0.05). Serum insulin and leptin levels were high in mice fed a high fat diet; however, addition of mulberry leaf powder 10% in the diet had no significant effect on blood insulin and leptin control. The results of the study suggested that various plant sterols in mulberry leaf improve lipid metabolism and liver function in ICR-mice.
Taurine is an abundant amino acid in many animals, including humans. Relatively large amounts of taurine are found in leukocytes, heart, muscles, retinas, kidneys, bones, and liver. Taurine has antioxidant effects; it reacts with hydrogen peroxide to prevent oxidation of the cell membrane. Taurine enhances the effects of anticancer drugs, while also reducing side effects, and taurolidine, a taurine derivative, has been shown to exhibit anti-cancer effects without notable side effects in several types of cancer. Taurine aids in cholesterol metabolism by increasing the rate of synthesis of bile acids, and, thus, reduces triglyceride levels. In addition, taurine is involved in the growth and differentiation of nerve cells and is associated with some neurological disorders. Taurine aids in bone formation and prevents bone dissolution. Moreover, taurine prevents liver damage from a variety of drugs and, thus, protects the liver. Taurine is involved in the development and function of the retina and lens. It also has anti-atherosclerotic and anti-thrombotic effects that protect against cardiovascular disease. Taurine may have additional physiological functions, and warrants further investigation.
Taurine is one of the most abundant free β-amino acids in the human body that accounts for 0.1% of the human body weight. It has a sulfonic acid group in place of the more common carboxylic acid group. Mollusks and meat are the major dietary source of taurine, and mother`s milks also include high levels of this amino acid. The leukocytes, heart, muscle, retina, kidney, bone, and brain contain more taurine than other organs. Furthermore, taurine can be synthesized in the brain and liver from cysteine. There are no side effects of excessive taurine intake in humans; however, in case of taurine deficiency, retinal abnormalities, reduced plasma taurine concentration, and other abnormalities may occur. Taurine enters the cell via a cell membrane receptor. It is excreted in the urine (approximately 95%) and feces (approximately 5%). Taurine has a number of features and functions, including conjugation with bile acid, reduction of blood cholesterol and triglyceride levels, promotion of neuron cell differentiation and growth, antioxidant effects, maintenance of cell membrane stability, retinal development, energy generation, depressant effects, regulation of calcium level, muscle contraction and relaxation, bone formation, anti-inflammatory effects, anti-cancer and anti-atherogenic effects, and osmotic pressure control. However, the properties, functions, and effects of taurine require further studies in future.
This study was conducted to verify the effects of Erigeron annuus powder on serum lipid levels of high-fat diet-induced mice from a nutritional viewpoint. Erigeron annuus powder has been used as a folk remedy since ancient times in Korea. There was no significant difference in the weight of the kidneys and spleens of the mice. The high-fat diet group had a significantly higher kidney weight compared to other groups (p<0.05). In the group of mice fed 20% Erigeron annuus powder with a high-fat diet, the concentration of serum LDL-cholesterol was high (p<0.05), whereas the concentration of triglyceride was remarkably lower compared to other groups (p<0.05). The group fed 10% Erigeron annuus with a high-fat diet had the lowest concentration of blood phospholipids (p<0.05) as well as the highest alkaline phosphatase and alanine aminotransferase levels in blood (p<0.05). There was no difference in blood insulin concentration. However, blood leptin concentration was significantly higher (5.88±3.53 ng/dL) in mice fed a high-fat diet compared to other groups (p<0.05). Measurements of Erigeron annuus revealed that TPC, ABTS+ radical scavenging activity of trolox, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and the measured value of FRAP were higher in the ethanol extract than in the water extract. Especially, the antioxidant activity effects were excellent for the ABTS+ radical scavenging activities of trolox and FRAP values of Erigeron annuus. Therefore, Erigeron annuus powder showed antioxidant activity. Hence, Erigeron annuus powder drastically lessened triglyceride concentration in blood in high-fat diet-induced mice. Thus, the powder is considered to have utility in the food processing industry. Additional related experiments are ongoing.
Since Korean ancient times, powder of Rosa rugosa Thunberg has been used as a folk remedy. This study was conducted to verify the effects of Rosa rugosa Thunberg powder on in vitro antioxidant properties and serum lipid levels of high-fat diet-induced mice from a nutritional viewpoint. In the case of Rosa rugosa Thunberg powders, measurement of TPC, ABTS radical scavenging activity of trolox, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and measured value of FRAP were higher in ethanol extract than water extracts. For LDL-cholesterol concentration, mice fed 10% powder of Rosa rugosa Thunberg with high-fat diets showed a high numerical value compared with other groups (p<0.05). When testing for triglyceride concentrations in blood, mice fed 10% and 20% powder of Rosa rugosa Thunberg with high-fat diets showed the lowest numerical values (p<0.05). When testing for blood insulin concentrations, the high-fat diet group showed higher levels than compared to the control group (p<0.05). When testing for blood leptin concentrations, the high-fat diet group was 5.88±3.53 ng/dL, whereas mice fed 10% powder of Rosa rugosa Thunberg with high-fat diets showed a blood leptin level of 10.36±5.96 ng/dL (p<0.05). Therefore, results prove that powder of Rosa rugosa Thunberg reduces triglyceride concentrations in the blood, and could be used as an excellent natural antioxidant in the future.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the health status and food habits of male college students in Seoul according to drinking habits. In order to identify risk factors, health surveys were conducted from October 2013 to December 2013. Average height, weight, and BMI of subjects were 175.47±5.27 cm, 67.93±9.28 kg, and 22.04±2.67 kg/m2, respectively. Weight and BMI were higher in the non-drinking groups compared to the drinking groups (p<0.05). Frequency of drinking was 2~3 times per month, and 52.4% of subjects started drinking when starting university. The motivation to start drinking was cited as “From necessity”. Reason for drinking was “Social relations”. The favorite kind of drink was beer. Rate of taking supplements was 24.4% of the subjects. Vitamin preparations were highest in drinking groups and non-drinking groups (p<0.05). The reasons for skipping meal were “too busy” in the drinking groups, and “oversleep” in the non-drinking groups (p<0.05). The preference for snacking in drinking groups were milk, milk products, and fast food, with the highest being listed first. The non-drinking groups preferred carbonated drinks and ice cream. The drinking groups need more education about their drinking habits. Drinking groups also need an increased intake of vegetables and fruits.
This study examined the utilization of processed food and the recognition of food labels among 257 university students (201 females and 56 males) in Seoul and Kangwon-do. The results of the study showed that the most important considered information on food labels are shelf life, nutrition facts, and price in sequential order. Female students’recognition of nutrition facts was significantly higher than that of male students (p<0.05). Female students more attentively checked the manufacturer, origin of the products, and shelf life information on food labels than did the male students. In checking out the food labels information, the most checked items on food labels were calories, trans fatty acid and cholesterol in that order and the least checked information was the sodium contents. Among processed foods, male students’consumption was dominant in instant noodles, frozen dumplings, and canned goods, while female students had more candies/chocolates. In selecting processed foods, male students showed strong preference for cheaper and quantitative products, while female students chose more tasty, brand new, well-known brand, and products of domestic origin. Frequency of canned and frozen food consumption showed a positive correlation with BMI, while candies/chocolates showed a negative correlations with BMI. Negative correlations were found in the attitude of selecting food with longer shelf life and BMI. The results of this study suggest that university students need to be well informed to make wise food choices that contribute to a healthy diet. Additionally, food manufacturers and government authorities concerned should make certain that consumers know how to use food label information more easily and effectively through proper education.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the eating patterns, nutrient intakes, blood levels, and health status of male college students in Seoul according to body mass index (BMI). In this study, we classified subjects into normal weight (n=240), under weight (n=11), and obese (n=46) groups according to BMI. The weight and BMI were significantly higher in the obese group compared to other groups (p<0.0001). The obesity was associated with overeating and frequent eating. The under weight group showed significantly higher consumption of fast food, snacks, and fried foods compared to the other groups (p<0.05). The intakes of milk, meat, fish, eggs, and fried food and preference ratios were higher in the obese group (p<0.05). The male college students in this study showed insufficient intakes of calories, vitamin C, folic acid, and calcium. The plasma LDL-cholesterol levels in the obese group were higher compared to the other groups. In conclusion, intake of nutrients among male college students is found to be insufficient and requires nutritional education. The under weight group showed regular eating habits and increased nutrient intake. The obese group was shown to need more exercise with higher intakes of vegetables and fruits.
우리나라 밀 품종 중 농가에서 많이 재배되고 있는 금강밀품종에 대하여 출수기 및 수량의 안정성을 전·답리작별 각 4개 지역에서 검정한 결과를 요약하면 아래와 같다. 1. 금강밀 품종의 평균출수기는 전작재배에서 대구가 4월 26 일로 가장 빠르고, 대전 및 청주가 각각 5월 2일, 5월 3일이 며, 수원이 5월 9일로 늦었다. 답리작재배에서는 나주가 4월 27일로 빠르고 진주, 밀양이 4월 28 ~ 29일, 익산이 5월 3일로 늦었다. Fig. 1. Regression coefficient of the wheat yield and environment index at four locations in cultivated upland in wheat variety “Keumkangmil”. Fig. 2. Regression coefficient of the wheat yield and environment index at four locations in cultivated paddy in wheat variety “Keumkangmil”. Fig. 3. The relationship of regression coefficients and mean yield in cultivated upland and paddy at four locations in wheat variety “Keumkangm 2. 10 a당 평균수량은 전작 530 kg, 답리작 417 kg으로서 전작에서 답리작보다 27% 증수되었으며, 전작재배에서는 수원 및 청주에서 평균수량 대비 각각 7%, 3% 증수하였으나, 대구는 11% 감수, 대전은 비슷한 경향을 보였다. 답리작재배에서 는 밀양에서 7% 증수된 반면, 나주는 4% 감수하였다. 3. 평균 m2당수수는 답리작에서 평균 751개로 전작의 656개보다 95개 많았으며, 지역별로는 거의 비슷한 경향을 보였다. 4. 평균 1수립수는 답리작에서 32립으로 전작의 25립보다 7립 정도 많고, 평균 천립중은 전작 47.9 g으로 답리작 45.3 g 과 비슷하였다. 5. Stroike and Johnson의 모델을 분석한 결과, 금강밀 품종의 환경지수는 −61에서 +35 미만으로서 환경 차이가 매우 작아 전 지역에서 안정적이며, 지역별 회귀계수는 수원, 청주, 대전 그리고 답리작의 밀양, 진주에서 1미만이고 표준편차평방화 값도 작어 평균 이상의 적응지역으로 나타났다. 6. Finlay and Wilkinson의 모델을 이용하여 안정성을 검정한 결과, 전작의 수원, 청주 그리고 답리작의 밀양, 진주가 가장 적응력이 높은 지역인 반면, 전작의 대구 및 답리작의 익산, 나주는 평균 안정성 이하의 지역으로 나타났다.
본 연구는 50~64세의 성인 남자를 대상으로 설문지를 통 해 일반사항, 건강관심도, 흡연 습관, 식습관 조사, 식생활 평 가 및 영양소 섭취 상태를 조사하였다. 1. 직업의 종류로는 비흡연군는 전문직, 흡연군의 경우는 영업직이 가장 많은 비율을 차지하였다(p<0.05). 한 달 수입 은 조사 대상자의 29.8%가 500만원 이상이라고 답하였으며, 한 달 용돈은 전체 조사 대상자의 58.7%가 20만원 이상이라 고 답하였다. 2. 흡연군(42.0%)은 비흡연군(67.2%)에 비해 건강에 대한 관심도가 낮았으며, 운동을 하는 비율(비흡연군의 85.9%, 흡 연군의 50.0%)도 낮게 조사되었다. 3. 흡연 습관을 보면, 흡연은 처음 군대에서 호기심으로 시 작한 비율이 높았으며, 하루에 흡연량은 10개피 이상 피는 비 율이 68.0%로 조사되었다. 흡연자의 88.0%는 금연을 시도한 적이 있지만, 대부분 의지 부족(62.0%)으로 실패했다고 응답 하였다. 4. 흡연군에서는 고지방 육류를 일주일에 두 번 이상 섭취 하는 비율이 높았으며, 비흡연군의 경우 54.7%는 고지방 육 류 섭취를 하지 않는 것으로 조사되었다(p<0.01). 비흡연군이 흡연군에 비해 세끼 식사를 규칙적으로 하는 것으로 조사되 었다. 5. 흡연군과 비흡연군에서 비타민 B2, 엽산 및 칼슘의 섭취 가 한국인영양섭취기준(2010)보다 매우 낮았다. 그러나 조사 한 영양소 중 나트륨의 섭취량은 두 군 모두에서 기준치(2010) 의 3배 이상을 섭취하는 것으로 조사되었다. 이상의 연구결과를 종합해 보면, 흡연군에 비해 비흡연군 에서 건강의 관심도가 높았으며, 고지방 육류의 섭취비율이 낮았고, 세 끼 식사를 규칙적으로 하는 것으로 조사되었다. 그러나 흡연군은 건강에 대한 관심도가 낮았고, 운동하는 비 율도 낮게 조사되었으며, 고지방 육류를 일주일에 두 번 이상 섭취하는 비율이 높았다. 영양소 섭취 상태에서는 두 군 모두 에서 비타민 B2, 엽산 및 칼슘의 섭취가 낮았고, 나트륨은 과 잉 섭취하는 것으로 조사되었다. 따라서 흡연자의 경우에는 육류의 섭취를 줄이고, 항산화 물질이 많이 함유한 과일이나 채소의 섭취를 늘리도록 유도해야 하며, 저염식을 위한 영양 교육이 실시되어야 할 것이다.
본 연구는 ICR-mouse를 실험군당 5마리를 공시하여 식이에 산벚나무 씨앗 기름 및 옥수수 기름을 첨가하여 배합한 사료의 섭취가 쥐의 혈중 지질 수준에 미치는 영향을 비교․ 분석하였다. 1. 산벚나무 씨앗에는 palmitic acid, oleic acid 및 linoleic acid 등이 함유되어 있으며, linolenic acid와 erucic acid가 소량 함유되어 있다. 2. 산벚나무 씨앗 기름의 항산화 값(DPPH)은 4.63%로 나 타났으며, 신장의 무게는 다른 두 군에 비해 산벚나무 씨앗 기름을 섭취한 군(1.24±0.22 g)에서 유의적으로 높았다(p<0.05). 3. 산벚나무 씨앗 기름을 섭취한 군에서 HDL-cholesterol 농 도는 가장 높았으며, 혈중 LDL-cholesterol 농도는 가장 낮았 다(p<0.05). 이상의 결과를 정리해 보면, 산벚나무의 씨앗 기름의 지방 산 조성은 다른 식물성 씨앗 등의 지방산 조성과 큰 차이가 없었으며, 혈중의 HDL-cholesterol 농도를 높여주는 반면에, LDL-cholesterol 농도는 낮추어 주는 것으로 나타났다. 따라서 산벚나무의 씨앗 기름을 현재 유지 자원으로 사용되고 있는 참깨나 들깨와 같이 식용유지 자원으로 개발하기 위해서는 Choi 등(2012)의 연구에서 지적했듯이 씨앗 기름의 항산화 효과, 산패 진행 정도 및 인체에 미치는 영향 등의 지속적인 연구가 이루어져야 한다고 사료된다.