Acorns have been used as a traditional remed as well as food source. However, few studies on their immunomodulating effects have been reported. In this study, the combined immunomodulative effect。of a water extract of acorns was tested on seven to eight weeks old mice (baIb/c). The mice were fed ad libitum on a chow diet, and a water extract of the plant mixture was orally administered every other day for four weeks at two different concentrations (50 and 500mg/kg B. W.). The production of cytokine (lL-lβ, IL-6, IL-2, lL-10, IFN－r）, secreted by macrophages stimulated with LPS or not, detected by ELISA assay using cytokine kit. After 48 h of incubation with mitogen (ConA or LPS) ex vivo study showed that cytokine (IL-lβ, IL-6, IL-2, IL-10, IFN－r） was detected in both of the 50 and 500 mg/kg B. W. supplementation groups with LPS stimulation. The results of this study may suggest that supplementation with acom water extract increase immune function by regulating cytokine Production capacity by activated macrophages.
Cisplatin(ctr-diamminedichlorop1atium) is one of the most effective anti-cancer drugs being clinically used in the treatment of solid tumors. Despite its therapeutic benefits, its use in clinical practice is often limited because of dose related toxicity. It is known that yeast cell wall beta-glucans possess immuno-modulating properties, which allows for their application in antitumor therapy. 1S2 is a kind of beta-glucan derived from the cell wall of mutated Sacchammyces cerevisiae, which exhibits anti-cancer activity in vitro and in vivo. The present study explored the possibility of combination therapy of IS2 with cisplatin. In experimental metastasis of colon26M3.1 cells, prophylactic intravenous administration of IS-2 in combination with cisplatin effectively inhibited tumor metastasis compared with cisplatin alone or IS-2 treatment in vivo. IS-2 effectively enhanced Thl type cytokines including IFN-r, IL-2, ILf2 and GM-CSF. Simultaneously, this combined treatment inhibited production of Th2 type cytokines compared with control. These results suggested that IS-2 can be applied in combination therapy with anti-cancer drugs to minimize their side effects.
Sulgidduk samples containing 1, 2, and 4% Adenophora rernotifora powder and a control were examined for moisture content, gelatinization property, color, textural characteristics, and sensory qualities to determine the optimal ratio of Adenophora remotiflora powder in the formulation. The highest viscosity, lowest viscosity, final viscosity, setback and breakdown decreased as the contents of Adenophora remotiflora powder increased in the gelatinization property of flour blends of rice cake made with Adenophora remotiflora powder. The water content of rice cake with Adenophora remotflora powder was 40.54-41.30% and there was no significant difference between samples with Adenophora remotiflora powder. L values indicating brightness were highest in the control group and all of the a values displayed green color indicating that they were negative. The b values were lowest in the control group and the values increased as the level of Adenophora remotiflora powder increased. Evaluation of the mechanical charcteristics of rice cake with Adenophora rernotiflora powder, hardness, cohesion, adhesion and chewiness were all higher in the control group and as its contents were rich, such properties were reduced. In addition, there was no significant difference between adhesion and chewiness. Adhesion and elasticity were low in the control group and as its contents were rich, such properties increased. The results of the sensory test revealed that the, control group containing 1% Adenophora remotiflora powder had the highest color, flavor, taste and overall preference.
The aim of this study was to investigate antibacterial activities of essential oil from C. morifolium against four Gram-positive bacteria and six Gram-negative bacteria. The antibacterial activity of the oils was determined by agar-well diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration(MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration(MBC). Essential oil of C. morifolium had a large inhibition zones especially against Salmonella enterica(21 mm) and Bacillus cereus(l9 mm). Essential oil of C. morifolium generally show4 higher antibacterial activity against Gm-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria. MIC of essential oil from C. morifolium was 5㎕/㎖ against ten food-borne pathogens. MBC values were determined to be from 5 to 20㎕㎖ against eight bacteria except Salmonella choleraesuis and Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, the essential oil of C. morifolium and its components have a potent antibacterial activity against food-borne pathogens, and is expected to be used as a novel food preservative.
This study investigated the effect of addition of pumpkin on the physicochemical properties of rice sponge cakes. Water retention capacity(WRC) was lowest in control preparations to which no pumpkin flour was added. WRC increased as more pumpkin flour was added and rice flour with 25% of added pumpkin flour showed a WRC of 89.0%. Similar to WRC, alkaline water retention capacity(AWRC) also increased as more pumpkin flour was added and ranged h 69.7% to 80.7%. As the amount of pumpkin flour added increased, the pH increased. Similar to the sedimentation value, the Pelshenke value also increased as the amount of the added pumpkin flour increased. The gelatinization temperature did not vary significantly between the samples(p＜0.05). The midline peak height, which is the height of the peak point from the baseline, showed the same tendency with that of the midline peak time, but was not significantly different between samples(p＜0.05). Volume was decreased as the amount of the added pumpkin flour increased. The weight of the rice sponge cakes showed significant difference increasing with the increasing added pumpkin flour(p＜0.05). There was significant difference as the specific loaf volume decreased with the increasing pumpkin flour(p＜0.0 5).
Serratia marcescens catabolic threonine dehydratase는 streptomycin sulfate treatment, Sephadex G-20O gel filtration, AMP- Sepharose 4B affinity chromatography 등의 방법으로 정제하였는데, 최종 단계에서 회수율은 15.5%이었으며 50배 정제되었다． Native 분자량은 native pore gradient polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) 방법으로는 120, 000이었다． SDS- PAGE 에 의한 subunit의 분자량은 30, 000이었고, 즉 S. marcescens 효소는 4개의 동일한 subunit으로 구성된 homo-tetrameric protein임이 판명되었다． S. marcescens 효소의 L-threonine에 대한 Km값은 AMP가 있는 조건에서 7.3 mM, AMP가 없는 조건에서 92 mM이었다． S. marceseens 효소는 효소 l mole 당 각각 2 mole의 Pyridoxal 5`-PhosPhate(PLP), l6개의 free-SH group을 가지고 있었다． S. marcescens 효소는 AMP의 존재 하에서 α－ketobutyrate, pyruvate, glyoxylate, phosphoenol pyruvate(PEP）에 의해 효소 활성이 억제되었으며, cAMP와 ADP에 의해서는 효소 활성이 증가되었다． 효소학적 성질 면에서 S. marcescens 효소는 E. coli 효소보다는 S. typhimurium 효소와 유사하였다． 한편, E. coli 효소는 cAMP에 의하여 효소 활성이 증가되고, S. typhimurium 효소는 ADP에 의해 효소 활성이 증가되는 것과 다르게, S. marcescens 효소는 AMP와 ADP 모두 효소 활성이 증가되었다． 따라서 이상의 연구 결과들은 세 enteric bacteria의 catabolic threonine dehydratase가 서로 작은 차이점이 있다는 것을 반영하며, 이러한 사실을 규명하기 위해서는 향후 보다 심층적인 연구를 수행하여야 할 것으로 사료된다．
Barley leaves tea white bread were prepared by the addition of 0.005, 0.010, 0.015, and 0.020% hemicellulase to flour of the basic formuiation. The experiments and control were then compared in terms of quality characteristics, including pH, total titratable acidity, fermentation power of dough expansion, specific volume, balung loss, moisture content, color, textural characteristics, internal surface appearances, and sensory qualities in order to determine the optirnal ratio of hemicellulase in the formulation. There were no significant differences in pH and total titratable acidity of dough and bread among the experiments. Fermentation power of dough expansion were increased as incubation time increased. Bread made by the addition of hemicellulase had significantIy higher specific volume than the control group. However, lightness and yellowness showed the reverse effect. Greenness was not significantly different among the samples. Baking loss was the highest at the 0.020% addition level, and moisture content was maximal with the 0.010% addition, while the lowest in the control bread samples. As hemiaellulase contents increased, harness and fractumbility decreased. Resilience was maximal with the 0.015% addition, and was minimal in the 0.005% group. In the sensory evaluation, color, flavor, softness, overall acceptability, barley leaves flavor, delicious taste, astringency, bitterness, and off-flavor were not significantly different among the samples. In coclusion, the results indicate that adding 0.010% hemicellulase in barley leaves tea white bread is optimal for quality and provides a product with reasonably high overall acceptability.
The acknowledgement and preference for Korean food by Chinese students in the Daejeon area of Korea was surveyed. The students(n=132) were comprised of 57.6% males and 42.4% females, with 56.1% being >20-years-of-age and 43.9% being＜20-years-of-age and 42.4% being Korean residents for over 1 year. The most recognizable aspect of Korean food was familiarity with Kimchi, Bulgogi and Bibimbap. Participants were least aware of the affordability of Korean food. Average understanding for Korean food of the Chinese students was 2.77-3.00 on a 5 point scale. Participants highly preferred(in order) Ssalbap, Gomtang and Bulgogi, while Dolsotbap, Samgyetang and Gimgui were not preferred. Female students preferred Gamjatang and Manduguk more than male students. Those students who bad lived in Korea for over 1 year preferred Bulgogi and Samgyeopsal, and those residing<3 months preferred Guksujangguk. Over half of the students surveyed had knowledge of Korean food and its preparation; of these students, Korean food preferences were for Kalguksu, Mu1 Naengmyeon, Moosengchae, and Oisengchae.
The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the quality characteristics of black ginseng jelly prepared with different 5 levels(0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0%) of black ginseng extract. We assessed the ginsenosides level of white and black ginseng for comparison between white and black ginseng. And we conducted the pH, sugar content, Hunter`s color values, the mechanical characteristics and sensory evaluation of black ginseng jelly samples. The levels of ginsenoside Rg3, Rh1, and Rh2 of black ginseng were higher than those of white ginseng. The more black ginseng extract was increased, the sugar contents of black ginseng jelly were significantly increased(+O.05). We noted that the luminance and Hunter`s b values of jelly samples were decreased according to black ginseng extract was increased, but in Hunter`s a values 0.5% black ginseng jelly was the highest of the all. With regard to the mechanical properties of the black ginseng jelly samples, the score of hardness, gumminess and chewiness were significantly increased. In color, taste and overall quality, the score of jelly with 1.0% black ginseng extract was significantly increased than those of the all.
The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the perceived management performance and importance level of nutrition teachers by school administrators in the Chonbuk area. Self-administered questionnaires were collected from 142 school administrators. Statistical data analysis was completed using SPSS v. 12.0. Approximately 74.6% of the subjects were men. About 37% of subjects were principals, 33% were vice principals, and 35% were administrative directors, with over 60% aged 40-50 years(p<0.05). Among the 142 schools evaluated, 82.7% were located in urban areas and 17.3% were in ml areas. About 98% of the schools served meals in the dining room(pd0.05). Approximately 68% of the schools employed nutrition teachers and 33.4% had school dietitians(p<0.001). The result indicated that the overall importance level(4.24) was higher than the performance leve1(3.97)(p<0.001). In a survey of the degree of task performance by nutrition teachers, administrators regarded sanitation management was evaluated as the most important performance parameter(4.49), other management attributes as very important parameters(4.41), with nutrition counseling being much less important(2.76) and meal service being least important(3.29; except for classroom teachers). According to the tide of the subjects, evaluations of administrative directors were lower than evaluations of principals and the vice principals. The results indicate that nutrition teachers should not only have meal service management as their main duty, but should also be involved in constructing a life-long health management system for students and teachers by conducting nutrition education and counseling, and should be active in the development of nutrition education programs and in the duties of sanitation management of school meals.
To enhance the quality of traditional Dasik, pollen Dasik containing brown rice flour fortified with 5, 10, 15 and 20% pollen powder were prepared, and their physicochemical properties were evaluated. Pollen Dasik possessed higher amount of mineral such as K and Ca than brown rice Dasik. The L value of pollen Dasik decreased with increasing pollen powder compared to brown rice Dasik, while the b value of pollen Dasik was increased with increasing pollen powder compared to brown rice Dasik(p<0.05). Hardness of pollen Dasik decreased with increasing amounts of pollen compared to the brown rice Dasik(p<0.05). Sensory evaluation on pollen Dasik preparewd with over 10% pollen showed the highest sensery evaluation value in overall preference.
To make sponge cake using Lentinrrs edodes powder, which is useful and valuable as a functional food material, we tested samples with 3, 6, 9, and 12% L. edodes powder to ascert200ain the quality characteristic and make optimize preparation. Samples and L. edodes powder-free control sponge cakes were compared in terms of quality characteristics including batter viscosity and specific gravity, moisture content, volume index, weight, color, textural characteristics, and sensory qualities, to determine the optimal ratio of L. edodes powder in the formulation. Viscosity and specific gravity of sample and control batter were not significantly different. Moisture content of the sample and control sponge cake also did not differ appreciably, and weight of sample and control sponge cakes did not differ appreciably. The volume index of the samples displayed contrasting values, increasing with 3-6% L. edodes powder and decreasing with 9-12% powder. L, a, and b crust color values of samples sponge cakes were lower than those of control cakes. The L and a values of the control cakes was maximal, with values progressively decreasing with incorporation of more L, edodes powder. The b value decreased by 3% with the addition of up 6% L. edodes powder with no further decrease thereafter. L edodes powder was the lower value. So was the color a, and L. edodes powder increased, a-values decreased. 3% difference was shown in b, the color and none between the samples with 6-12%. L. edodes powder showed lower values making a comparison with the control. Hardness and fracturablility were not appreciably affected by 3% L. edodes powder, but was affected by concentrations 6%. Fracturability og sample sponge cakes was consistently lower than control cakes. Fracturability made little difference in 3% samples, but it was not the same with more than 6% L. edodes powder samples; the samples showed lower value than the control. Adhesiveness was not significantly affected. Chewiness was lower in a11 sample cakes except those prepared with 3% L. edodes powder. Use of L. edodes powder conferreds higher resilience values as compared to thecontrols. Sensory attributes of color, flavor, softness and overall acceptability were the highest in control sponge cakes, as the mount of L, edodes powder increased, the acceptability decreased. L. edodes-flavor, pleasant taste and off-flavor were the lowest in control cakes, and values increased as the amount of L. edodes powder increased. The control sponge cakes showed the highest values in egg-flavor and moistness, which progressively increased as added L, W e s powder increased. The results indicate that control sponge cakes displayed were. the highest overall acceptability, with acceptability decreasing and it decreased as L. edodes powder content increased. However, 3-6% L. edodes powder can produce an acceptable product, and may be used as anoptimized mixture ratio.
Phenolic acid concentrates of rice bran(RB-ex) and hydroxycinnamic acids were investigated for their anti-hyperglycemic activities through glucose uptake and glucokinase activity using HepG2 cells and stimulatory effects on insulin secretion using HIT-TI5 cells. RB-ex was prepared as an ethylacetate extract after alkaline hydrolysis and hydroxycinnamic acids, found as major compositions of RB-ex, such as ferulic acid(FA), sinapic acid(SA) and p-coumaric acid(p-CA) were investigated to compare with the properties of RB-ex. The properties of glucose uptake in HepG2 cells were examined in the absence of insulin and two different glucose concentrations(5.5 mM and 25 mM). RB-ex and FA showed anti-hyperglycemic activities through the increase of glucose uptake and the stimulation of glucokinase activity in HepG2 cells. RB-ex exhibited higher glucose uptakes with higher glucose concentrations, whereas FA exhibited the same increasing effects on both concentrations of glucose. RB-ex and FA exhibited doubled glucokinase activities relative to control. In the presence of insulin in the 25 mM glucose-containing medium, the levels of glucose uptake were increased in all treatments compared with control. As stimulatory effects of samples on insulin secretion were estimated, RB-ex and FA stimulated insulin secretion at a concentration of 25㎕/㎖ and in particular, FA showed the highest amount of insulin-release in HIT-TI5 cells. Antioxidative effects on BIT-TI5 cells, RB-ex and hydroxycinnamic acids, excluding p-CA, showed inhibitory activities of 78% to 80% at a concentration of 100㎕㎖. On the basis of these results, we conclude that RB-ex and FA could help decrease blood glucose levels and prevent the cell damages via antioxidant activity.
This study aimed to determine microbiological quality on vegetable salad used dressing added with Prunus mume extracts. For this study, Dressing were blended with Prunus mume extracts to different concentrations of 0, 10, and 20%. Microbiological effects of vegetable salad used dressing added with Prunus mume extracts were assessed during production process by measuring process time, temperature, pH and Aw and determining total plate counts and coliforms. Effects of vegetable salad used dressing added with Prunus mume extracts on total plate counts and coliforms were observed during holding at 3. 25±1 ℃ for 12 hours. Dressing added with Prunus mume extracts improved the microbiological quality and showed antibacterial properties when they are added to vegetable salad.
This study was conducted to examine the hypoglycemic effects of complexcity extract(DB 55) from five oriental medicinal plants on the intake of food, body weight, blood glucose level, insulin content, serum GOP, GPT, BUN and hematocrit value in streptozotocin(STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Genera1 nutritional composition was also assessed. Thirty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to five groups: normal control group(NC), STZ-diabetic control group (STZ-control), STZ-diabetic DB-1 group(DB 55-1), STZ-diabetic DB-2 group(DB 55-2) and STZ-diabetic DB-3 group(DB 55-3). The animals were fed an experimental diet for 12 weeks. Body weight gain of the STZ-diabetic group was significantly lower but diet intake was significantly higher than the NC group. Blood glucose levels of the DB-1, DB-2 and DB-3 rats were significantly lower than the STZ-control animals. Insulin level of STZ-control rats was lower than the NC serum GOT, GPT and BUN levels were significantly higher in the NC group, but hematocrit value was not significant as compare to the STZ-diabetic group. Blood glucose level was lower observed for the DB 55-1, DB 55-2 and DB 55-3 group. The results will be useful in oriental diet therapy and in the developing functional food resources.
The current exploratory study attempted to investigate the influence of environment-friendly agricultural products(EAPs) perception on EAPs consumption behavior. The survey was conducted to parents of elementary school in Chung-buk area by the help of h o m teachers of each school. Out of 500 questionnaires administered, a total of 305 completed questionnaires were returned, yielding a response rate of 61%. Regarding buying behavior, 89.6% of respondents have ever bought EAPs, among them, 52.9% usually bought in a mart. The reason to buy EAPs was mostly safety(57.6%), nutrition & health(30.4%), and quality(7.0%). The 11 item representing the attitude and knowledge were analyzed, resulting in three distinct dimensions-`attitude`, `knowledge`, and `concern`. The knowledge level of EAPs was slightly higher than medium. Concerning the influence of EAPs perception on EAPs consumption behavior, the more having high knowledge and attitude level on EAPs, the more lead to the EAPs consumption behavior. This implicit the importance of education to enhance the knowledge level and positive attitude towards EAPs.
The effects of different dietary fatty acids on the hepatic glutathione S-transferase(GST-P) positive foci and glutathione related enzyme system were investigated in carcinogen treated rats. Weaning male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into three groups and fed the diets of 15% corn(CO), perilla(PO), and sardine oil(SO), respectively. Hepatocellular carcinogenesis was initiated with diethylnitrosamine(DEN) and then fed the diet containing 0.02% 2-acetylaminoflumene(2-AAF) followed by 0.05% phenobarbital for 10 weeks. The hepatic tissues were homogenized and centrifugated to prepare microsoma1 and cytosolic fractions. The enzyme activities of hepatic glutathione S-transferase(GST), glutathione reductase(GR), and glutathione peroxidase(GPx) were determined from cytosoIic Mans. The number of GST-P hyperplastic nodules was the highest in corn oil group at 6th week, the early stage of hyperplastic nodule formation. GST activities were increased significantly by carcinogens in a11 dietary groups after 6th wk. GR activities followed the same tread as GST activities. GPx activities were decreased by carcinogens in all dietary groups at 10th week. In this experiment, corn oil diet may have promotive effect on hyperplastic nodule formation during the early promotional stages of chemical carcinogenesis.
How to appropriately apply the theories of oriental diet therapy in terms of direction and development are pressing concerns. To address these concerns, this study was performed to provide basic ideas to further the understanding oriental medicinal cuisine(Yack-Sun) and aid its application. Presently, basic data on the nutritional composition and oriental diet therapy area approach of Reajerksodo-rang was acquired to predict the usefulness of Reajerksodo-tang as an edema-related diuretic to promotes urination, drains heat and leaches out dampness. Reajerksodo-tang energy was 67.3 kcal per 100 g, crude protein was 77.2 g, crude fat was 5.7 g crude ash was 0.6 g and carbohydrate was 16.5 g per 100 g. This basic data could help guide the application of oriental medicinal resources into other foods and serve as a stepping-stone for use of Reajerksodo-tang in the burgeoning field of function foods. Lastly, the scientific effects of oriental medicinal foods developed according to oriental medicinal theory. It is believed to be essential for government policy development concerning validation of medicinal effects and assessment, with the aim of fostering systematic development and providing guidance to food development in the interest of national health.