This research aimed to investigate the quality of conventional salted cabbages. Here, we studied the general characteristics and microbiological aspects of purchased salted cabbage samples from 15 companies. The purchased salted cabbages used a sun-dried salt, but two samples used a mixture of sun-dried salt and processed salt. There were 4 times of washing, 3 steps of washing after automatic washing, and 3 steps of washing after bubble washing as washing methods for the salted cabbages and ground water was used as the washing water. Also, three samples received HACCP certification. The salt contained in the purchased salted cabbages ranged from 0.5% to 2.0%, representing low salted cabbages. The pH of the purchased salted cabbages ranged from 5.32 to 6.47, and hardness ranged from 1, 997g to 3, 665g. Rewashing was necessary before using some salted cabbages due to foreign materials such as insects, soil, etc. Total bacterial counts of the purchased salted cabbages ranged from 3.36 log to 6.06 log and coliform bacteria ranged from below 1 log to 6.05 log, whereas other pathogens were not detected.
This study was performed to develop a nutrition education program model for foreign worker patients. Questionnaire and interview were carried out for collecting quantitative and qualitative information from subjects, respectively. All subjects were foreign worker patients who could speak Korean, composed of 75 Chinese, 4 Mongolians and 1 American, aged from 22 to 73 years old. Among the subjects, 36 subjects had gastrointestinal disease(GD), 16 had coronary heart disease(CHD), 6 had diabetes, 6 had liver disease(LD) and the others had various different diseases. List of recommended and restricted foods for foreign workers to prevent GD and CHD were obtained from interviews with the subjects. A nutrition education program model for foreign worker patients having GD and CHD were developed, and small group education method was recommended. The contents of the program include cause and common symptom and basic nutrition care for the patients, choice of foods and cooking methods, behavioral modification, importance of medication and list of foods recommended and restricted for the patients.
This study attempted to estimate the dietary quality and the food diversity by analyzing the military foodservice menu. To evaluate the dietary quality, an analysis of NAR(Nutrient Adequacy Ratio) and MAR(Mean Adequacy Ratio) were carried out. DDS(Dietary Diversity Score), DVS(Dietary Variety Score) and DMGFV(Dairy Product, Meat, grain, Fruit, Vegetable group) were used for assessment of food diversity. A Can-pro 3.0 and an excel were used for dietary data analysis and SPSS 12.0 program was used for statistical analysis. The results were as follows. The NAR of the 9 nutrients was above the RDAs and MAR was 1.71±0.19. For 19 days(61.3%), DDS was 5 and for 12 days(38.7%), DDS was 4. The average of DDS was 4.6±0.25. The Fruit & vegetable groups were not often served compared to other groups and especially fresh fruit were not given enough. The average of DVS and DVSS were 22.48±0.61 and 29.26±0.66 each. The most frequent food pattern was ``DMGFV=11111`` which was served for 19 days(61.3%) and second frequent pattern ``DMGFV=11101`` was served for 12 days(38.7%). DDS was significantly associated with Vit. C intake and DVS and DVSS was significantly related to Vit. B1 and Vit. B2 intakes. The MAR was significantly correlated with only DVSS. It could be interpreted that DVSS is a useful parameter for evaluating nutrient intakes as previous studies verified. Based on these findings, it can be said that military foodservice was provided with adequate nutrition and diversity. Menu was well composed of various foods which met the nutrition standards, but should provide more fresh fruits for adequate provision of vitamins and minerals.
This study attempted to investigate use of information for school foodservice management and perception of informations offered on Office of Education homepages according to Daegu and Gyeongbuk nutrition teachers and dietitians. The most frequently used web site information source and information type were ``charged foodservice information sites``(63.5%) and ``information on nutrition or menus``(63.5%), respectively. Subjects belonging to schools that served more meals per day tended to use informations more frequently. Information on ``management of the foodservice production process`` showed a low satisfaction level as compared to importance in all groups, and information on ``nutrition education`` showed a similar tendency for subjects belonging to schools that served 1 meals per day. Overall, efforts for development and dissemination of information are required to improve the quality and efficiency of school foodservice.
The objective of this study was to develop functional rice coated with yacon roots extracts and to evaluate the antioxidant properties and physiological activity of rice coated with yacon extract. The washed rice was coated by spraying yacon extract at 10, 20, 30, and 40 °Brix and dried at room temperature. The moisture contents, color changes, antioxidant properties as total polyphenolics and DPPH radical scavenging activity and instrumental texture property and sensory evaluation change in the yacon root extracts coated rice and uncoated cooked rice were observed during 3 days of storage. Increasing the coating concentration was associated with lower color values(L value) and moisture contents. Total phenolics and DPPH radical scavenging properties generally increased in the cooked rice coated with yacon root extract more than the control (non-coated rice). However, D-20(20 °Brix of the yacon root concentration) resulted in better textural properties and sensory overall acceptability in cooked rice on 0 and 3 storage days. It was concluded that the optimum coating ration of rice and added functional yacon rice were 20 °Brix and 7% respectively, in proportion to the total weight of raw rice.
The purposes of this study were to investigate the eating of breakfast by students, the perception of the school breakfast program(SBP), and the operational status of the SBP. The survey was administered to students, parents, and nutrition teachers at practiced and unpracticed middle and high schools in Seoul and Kyunggi-do. The questionnaires were distributed to 46 school dietitians who practiced the SBP, 53 school dietitians who did not practiced the SBP, 2, 340 students and 1, 360 parents in July, 2007. Eating place and the frequency of breakfast were the significantly between the students of practiced and unpracticed schools. Students, parents, and nutrition teachers had positive perceptions and opinions of the SBP. The advantages of the SBP were the formation of regular dietary habits and saving time for breakfast, whereas complaint factors were menu duplication and taste. Therefore, the results suggest that unpracticed schools should refer to the SBPs case of practiced schools and make an efforts for efficient operation.
본 연구에서는 녹두 유전자원의 지방산 함량을 신속 대량 검정하는 기술을 개발하여 유전자원 활용 및 육종 촉진에 기여하고자 하였다. 유전자원 평가에 적합한 신속하고 비파괴적인 지방산 함량 평가기술을 개발하기 위해 공시자원 1, 125점의 녹두 종자를 종실상태와 분쇄한 분말상태로 근적외선분광분석기(NIR)를 이용하여 1, 104~2, 494 ㎚에서의 스펙트럼을 얻고 이들 중 스펙트럼이 중복되지 않는 원산지가 다양한 대표자원 106점을 선발하여 일반적인 방법으로 지방산 함량을 분석하고, 이 값과 NIR 스펙트럼 흡광도값 간의 상관분석을 위한 calibration set로 활용하였다. 그 결과 palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, linolenic acid 및 total fatty acid에 대한 NIR 흡광도와의 상관 계수 R2이 각각 0.74, 0.18, 0.12, 0.72, 0.48 및 0.78로 나타났고, 이들 중 R2가 높은 검량식을 미지의 시료 10점으로 검증한 결과, palmitic, linoleic 및 total fatty acid에 대한 검증 상관계수 R2이 0.96, 0.74, 0.81로 나타나, 다양한 녹두 유전자원의 지방산함량 신속 대량 예측에 유효하게 활용될 수 있는 것으로 나타났다. 한편, 공시된 녹두 유전자원 115점 중에서 자원번호 IT208075 자원은 저 지방산 자원(14.24 ㎎g-1)으로 선발되었고, IT163279 자원은 고 지방산자원(18.43 ㎎g-1)으로 선발되어 향후 녹두작물의 성분육종에 유용할 것으로 생각된다.
The purpose of this study was to assess dietary variety by body mass index, waist circumference and exercise habits in 138 female university students residing in Bucheon and its adjacent area. Body mass index(BMI), waist circumference (WC) and exercise habits were assessed via a self reporting questionnaire, and a 3-day dietary recall survey was conducted by interviewing. Dietary variety was assessed by dietary diversity score(DDS), meal balance score(MBS), and dietary variety score(DVS). The average BMI, WC, DDS, MBS, and DVS were 20.7±2.59㎏/㎡, 69.3±5.03㎝, 3.87±0.57, 7.27±1.48, and 12.59±3.14, respectively. The DDS for breakfast, lunch, supper and snack were 1.80±0.92, 2.45±0.48, 2.49±0.55 and 0.53±0.52, respectively. DDS, MBS, and DVS were not significantly correlated with BMI, WC and exercise habits. However, DDS for breakfast and supper were significantly higher(p<0.05) and lower(p<0.05) respectivly in subjects who exercised regularly compared to those who did not exercise regularly. And DDS for snack was significantly higher in subjects whose awareness of health status was good or somewhat compared to those whose that was bad(p<0.05). These findings suggest that nutritional education based on female university students` eating variety and regular exercise may be required to improved dietary variety.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Acanthopanax senticosus extracts(ASE) on alcohol administered mice. The administration of Acanthopanax senticosus extracts(60㎎/㎏) had beneficial actions toward alcohol degradation in acute alcohol treated mice. In the acute alcohol degradation experiment, serum alcohol concentration were lower 3 and 6 hours after taking ethanol(5g/㎏) in ASE treated mice. The oral administration of ASE showed decreased gastric mucous membrane damage produced in ethanol treated mice. In addition, intraperitoneal(i.p.) administration of ASE showed anti-inflammatory effects in inhibition tests of vascular permeability produced by acetic acid. ASE also reduced concentrations of nitric oxide(NO), tumor necrosis alpha(TNF)-α and interleukin(IL)-6 in macrophages that were activated by LPS. These results demonstrate that Acanthopanax senticosus extracts possesses the potential to stimulate alcohol degradation and inhibit inflammatory effects in mice.
The purpose of this study was to analyze the dietary habits and food intake by age, based on the nutrition counseling data of medical health examination. The subjects were 5, 511 adults(3, 139 males and 2, 372 females) who took comprehensive medical test in Gyeonggi area, and they were evaluated from January 1, 2007 to December 31, 2007. Survey samples were divided by age groups: 30>, 30~39, 40~49, 50~59, 60~69, 70≤ years. The subjects were composed of 57% male and 43% female. The results showed that the dietary habits of ≥50 group were relatively good. On the other hand, in 30> yrs group had more dietary habit problems, they had irregular meals and the ratio of skipping breakfast was high. And they frequently had meals out. regularity of meals, eating breakfast was higher in ≥70 yrs groups than in other groups(p<0.001). frequency of overeating was higher in 30>, 30~39≥yrs groups than in other groups(p<0.001) and speed of eating meal were fast in 50~59 yrs groups than in other groups(p<0.01). For foods with high cholesterol and fat, it was shown that the older the subject, the fewer the frequency of consumption(p<0.001). For kimchi and salty foods, food intake showed a negative relationship with age(p<0.001), whereas for fresh vegetables and high-calcium fish, it showed a positive relationship(p<0.001). All in all, it was shown that as the people get older, their dietary habits tend to get more appropriate. In conclusion nutrition education based on their dietary habit by age should be taught, so that people have a healthy dietary habit and food intake for the rest of their life.
Isopentenyl diphosphate(IPP) isomerization to dimethylallyl diphosphate(DMAPP) is an important step for the efficient production of isoprenoids such as lycopene, β-carotene, astaxanthin, etc. The type Ⅱ isopentenyl diphosphate isomerase gene from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803(sll1556, Syidi2) was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli DH5α. When E. coli DH5α harboring lycopene synthesis genes, crtE, crtB, and crtI and mevalonate pathway genes, MvK1, MvK2, and Mvd, was cultured on LB medium containing mevalonate, the strain grew very slowly be due to the toxicity of isopentenyl diphosphate derived from mevalonate. When Syidi2 was introduced to E. coli DH5α harboring the lycopene synthesis genes and mevalonate pathway genes, growth on mevalonate medium was fully restored and the colony showed red color indicating lycopene formation. The growth rate of the mutant strain, E. coli DH5α(idi::Δkm), was very slow because of IPP accumulation and DMAPP deprivation. Ultimately the idi mutant was complemented by introducing the Syidi2 gene.
Flaxseed has recently gained attention as a functional food. In this paper, physicochemical analyses of flaxseed and its oil were performed. Crude fat content ranged from 37~43%, moisture 0.2~6.8%, carbohydrate 30~35%, crude protein 18~23%, and crude ash 3~4%. Flaxseed is also an important source of dietary fiber. The TDF(total dietary fiber) contents of the flaxseed samples were 28~31%, and the SDF(souble dietary fiber) content of roasted flaxseeds was higher than that of raw flaxseeds. The major minerals found in flaxseed were calcium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphate. The flaxseeds were rich in γ-tocopherol with 234.3㎎/㎏ in raw brown flaxseed and 134.1㎎/㎏ in raw gold flaxseed, respectively. Roasted flaxseeds showed slightly lower vitamin and amino acid contents than those of the raw samples. The iodine, saponification, and acid values of brown flaxseed oil were 204.1g/100g, 193.6㎎/g, and 1.59㎎/g, and for gold flaxseed oil were 203.0g/100g, 189.9㎎/g, and 2.35㎎/g, respectively. α-Linolenic acid(ALA, C18: 3n-3) was highly concentrated in the flaxseed oil, which constituted about 55.5~56.1% of total fatty acids. Thus, flaxseed oil is a good source of omega-3 fatty acids and beneficial for the heart. Flaxseed contains high levels of dietary fiber including lignans, as well as minerals and vitamins, which may have antioxidant actions and help protect against certain cancers.
This study conducted a questionnaire survey of 482 male and female second graders in middle schools located in Cheongju, Chungcheongbukdo. This study lays its purpose on establishing the nutrition facts labeling system by understanding eating habits and analyzing the actual state of reading nutrition facts labels and degrees of understanding them among middle school students, and helping them to engage in right food purchasing activities and through it result in developing sound eating habits by providing them with basic material to be employed to actively utilize nutrition facts for choosing and buying healthy foods. As a result of surveying regarding the actual state of reading food labels, regarding degrees of recognition of food labels, it was revealed that 91.1% of female students recognized them, while 42.1% of male students did not recognize them, indicating lower levels of recognition among the male group. Regarding reasons for not checking food labels, 49.2% indicated habitual purchasing, followed by poor contents in the label(20.2%), ununderstandable contents(17.7%), and the lower reliability of the contents(6.9%). As a result of surveying regarding the actual state of reading nutrition facts labels, in recognition of nutrition facts labels, female rather than male students showed higher degrees of recognition, and degrees of recognition were found to differ according to parents` total income and mothers` educational attainments.
With an increase in the number of people suffering from ageing-related diseases in our rapidly aging society, interests in natural products such as maca(Lepidium meyenii), which has properties of enhancing cognition and sexual performance, have increased. This study was conducted to assess the effects of 7 weeks of maca extract supplementation(0.5~2.0g/㎏ BW) on scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice and on sperm count in male mice. All doses of maca supplementation significantly protected against scopolamine-induced amnesia as determined by a Morris water maze, but not according to passive avoidance tests. Maca supplementation did not affect acetylcholinesterase activity in the whole brain, nor the testicular sperm count of male mice. This study suggests that maca may have some neuroprotective properties in mice, which will be further examined by future studies.
This study was performed to investigate the quality characteristics of sponge cake made with leek(Allium tuberosum Rottler) powder. In order to evaluate the physical and sensory properties of different cake, the leek powder was added to wheat flour at various ratios(3, 5, 7, 9%, w/w). The specificgravity of bread dough tends to increase with the addition of leek powder. The moisture levels of the sponge cakes made with leek powder were higher than that of the control. Crumb color values, lightness(L) and redness(a) decreased by leek powder addition, while yellowness(b) was significantly increased (p<0.05). In texture analyses, hardness, cohesiveness, springiness andgumminess decreased with the addition of leek powder. In sensory evaluations, the 3% leek powder sponge cake showed higher sensory property scores than others(p<0.05).
The purposes of this study were to identify the evaluation categories, areas, attributes of the hospital food service and to define the relative importance of the evaluation categories, areas, attributes of the hospital food service using analytic hierarchy process. A survey was conducted from January 8th to 25th in 2007. Questionnaires were mailed to the 310 directors of dietetic departments of hospitals that included 160 primary hospitals, 107 secondary hospitals, and 43 tertiary hospitals. The result of the analytic hierarchy process indicated that relative importance of evaluation category was 0.5259 for food service management and 0.3407 for nutrition care. The food service management consisted of four subcategories, which are equipment standard, sanitation, production, and delivery service. Sanitation(relative importance: 0.2652) was the most important area among the subcategories and it was followed by equipment standard(0.2067), delivery service(0.1864) and production(0.1848). The nutrition care has two subcategories, menu management and meal management. The relative importance of menu management(0.4174) was higher than that of meal management(0.3555). The quality of food service and nutrition care to inpatients can be improved by the evaluation system based on appropriate applications of the developed evaluation indicators for hospital food service systems.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate nutrient and food intake status and dietary, quality according to obesity based on nutrient and food group intake, in female university students. Surveys were conducted using questionnaires and 3 days, dietary record in 360 female university students residing in Seoul. The subjects were divided into two groups by percent of body fat: an overweight group(percent of body fat more than 23%, n=249) and normal group(percent of body fat below 23%, n=111). The overweigh group had a larger proportion of subjects who binged compared to the normal group. There was no significant difference in energy intake between the two groups. The densities of plant calcium and dietary fiber in the overweight group were significantly lower than those of the normal group. However, animal fat density was significantly higher in overweight subjects. The Korean`s dietary diversity score(KDDS) of the overweight group was 4.65, and that of the normal group was 4.67, indicating no significant difference. There was no significant difference of DQI-I between the overweight group(50.8) and normal group(51.1). However, the macronutrient ratio score was significantly lower in the overweight group. These results indicate that overweight female college students may have improper dietary habits, and have lower overall balance aspect macronutrient ratios.
In this study, Boehmeria nivea were extracted with water and ethanol, and antioxidative activity was investigated along with the quality of cookies prepared with added Boehmeria nivea, as a functional food. Among the water and ethanol extracts, high electron donating abilities were found. we selected various quantities of Boehmeria nivea(0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, 15%) to add to the cookies as an independent variable and performed sensory tests, as well as, measured chromaticity, and property of matter measurements. The rates of brightness, redness, and yellowness(p<0.001) changed significantly with increasing quantities Boehmeria nivea. The rates for spread ratio, hardness, brittleness, and chewiness(p<0.001) also changed siginificantly with increasing amounts Boehmeria nivea. Finally, texture(p<0.05), appearness, sweetness(p<0.01), bitterness, and overall quality(p<0.001) were examined in sensory tests and showed significant differences. Based on the above results, the cookies that contained 3~9% of Boehmeria nivea presented the best quality.
Effect of brine mineral water(BMW) on contact hypersensitivity reaction(CHR) was estimated using trimellitic anhydride (TMA) induced CHR in the mouse. BMW exhibited potent inhibitory activity on TMA induced CHR. BMW treatment suppressed the ear swelling, and attenuated hyper-activated lymph nodes stimulated by TMA challenge, thereby reduced their weight. The immunological index was analyzed after BMW administration in CHR. The level of serum IGE was significantly down regulated after BMW treatment. Furthermore, BMW showed inhibitory property of cytokine production. BMW treatment suppressed not only Th2 type cytokine, IL-4 but also pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6. From the histological analysis, the inflammatory context appeared by atopic dermatitis lesion after challenging with TMA are diminished by BMW treatment. Our results suggest that BMW may attenuate the development of CHR, and can be available for functional ingredient.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inlfammatory effects of glycyrrhiza glabra Linne extract on ulcerative colitis induced by 3% dextran sulfate sodium in mice. The experimental animals were divided into six groups: control(normal), DSS-induced colitis(control), 1㎎/㎏, 10㎎/㎏, and 100㎎/㎏ of glycyrrhiza glabra Linne extract, and 150㎎/㎏5-aminosalicylic acid(5-ASA)(positive control). We evaluated the pathological disease activity index(DAI), change in weight, colon mucosa damage and myeloperoxidase(MPO) in colon mucosa. Treatment with 10㎎/㎏ and 100㎎/㎏ of glycyrrhiza glabra Linne extract led to significant loss of body weight, the decrease of MPO activity and clinical symptoms such as DAI and histological change. In particular, 100㎎/㎏ Glycyrrhiza glabra Linne extract led to markedlygreater improvement than 150㎎/㎏ 5-ASA treatment. These results suggest that glycyrrhiza glabra mediated anti-inflammatory action on colorectal sites may be a useful therapeutic approach to ulcerative colitis.