This study was designed to evaluate the improvement in exercise endurance by Hovenia dulcis fruit hot water extract (HDWE) for the potential application as a functional food material. The effect was based on the evaluation of the forced-swimming capacity and changes in biochemical parameters in mice. Six-week-old mice were classified into four groups based on a randomized block design: the negative control group, the HDWE 50 mg/kg body weight group, the HDWE 200 mg/kg body weight group, and the 1-octacosanol 50 mg/kg body weight group (n=8 mice per group). The swimming exercise time in the HDWE-50 group was increased at 545±43 sec compared to the control group at 263±28 sec. The HDWE-200 fatigue indicators, lactate acid and ammonia content, decreased to 4.99±0.33 mg/mL and 0.63±0.05 mg/mL, respectively. In addition, the content of glycogen in the liver and muscle tended to increase in the group administered HDWE but was not significant. Likewise, the LDH and glucose contents were increased compared to the control group. The muscle damage indicators ALT (52.7±2.6 U/L) and AST (42.5±5.2 U/L) tended to decrease compared to the control group (76.4±10.2 U/L).
The purpose of this study is to investigate the physicochemical properties of jelly made from fermented red ginseng concentrate (FRGC) that can be easily absorbed and digested for the health promotion of the elderly. The pH of the jellies tended to decrease with increasing concentration of FRGC. Soluble solid content has significantly higher value when added more than 2%, and the water content of the sample was significantly lower when the FRGC was added 4%. As the amount of FRGC was increased, the total color difference increased, and the hardness of samples decreased significantly. On the other hand, the total ginsenoside contents of the FRGC was 45.50 mg/g. As the concentration of FRGC increased, the content of polyphenol and flavonoids increased. The increasing pattern of polyphenols and flavonoids showed a similar trend. As the content of FRGC increased, ABTS free radical scavenging activity significantly increased (p<0.05), and in the control, the minimum value (62.6 AEAC) and the 4% sample were highest (116.2 AEAC). DPPH radical scavenging activity was like that of ABTS radical scavenging activity. However, there was no significant difference in DPPH radical scavenging activity of 3% and 4% red ginseng jelly.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the appearance, physicochemical, physical, and fermentation properties of the fermented soybean produced by manufacturing with inoculation the different types of microbial strains. The strains were inoculated by the NSI (natural strains inoculation), and the SSI (selective strain inoculation) were treatments. The appearance showed differences in color, viscous substance, and hardness depending on strains inoculation and fermentation duration. The pH, and total acidity were 6.40~7.26%, and 0.10~0.39% respectively with differences depending on the samples. The moisture content as the fermentation duration increased, the NSI (56.03~57.66%) decreased and the SSI (56.71~58.63%) increased. The physical characteristics of the hardness increased as the fermentation duration increased for the NSI and the SSI decreased. The color values for the L, a, and b values were 47.64~58.56, 7.15~9.08, and 12.41~17.30, respectively. The α-amylase and protease activities of the SSI were the highest among all treatments. The total viable cell counts of the fermented soybean products by strains were 5.02 to 9.77 log CFU/g, and SSI (fermentation, 48 hours) was the highest. The amino-type nitrogen contents of all samples were 301.62~746.97 mg% and the SSI showed the highest content. The amino acid had the highest glutamic acid content.
The purpose of this study was to determine the contents of water-soluble vitamins B1 (thiamine), B2 (riboflavin), B3 (niacin) and B12 (cyanocobalamin) in seafood-based dishes by using the high-performance liquid chromatography with the ultra violet and fluorescence detector. The vitamin B1, B2, B3 and B12 contents were analyzed in 29 seafood-based dishes. The method validation was performed on the method to determine the linearity, accuracy, limits of quantification, limits of detection and precision for vitamin B1, B2, B3 and B12. An excellent linearity range (R2=0.999~1.000) in the calibration curve for the water-soluble vitamins was observed. All analytical methods for the water-soluble vitamins showed the acceptable accuracy (89.4~119.7% recovery) and the precision (0.6~4.8% repeatability and 1.0~4.2% reproducibility). The highest content of vitamin B1 was 2.646 mg/100 g in the kkongchi-jorim, and the highest contents of vitamin B2, B3 and B12 were 0.370 mg/100 g, 10.971 mg/100 g, and 17.193 μg/100 g, respectively, in the kkongchi-gui. Our results provide reliable data on the contents of the water-soluble vitamins of seafood-based dishes in Korea.
The purpose of this study was to analyze existence of active senior and their sodium intake using the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Survey. The samples used for this study were 1,336 males and 1,857 females older than age 45. We used the K-means cluster analysis to distinguish the elderly and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare the means statistically among the groups. The analysis confirmed the existence of active seniors and showed different characteristics from other clusters. Also, the sodium intake in active seniors varies with other clusters depending on gender, economic status, social participation and health. In conclusion to reduce the unnecessary social cost of health deterioration of the elderly caused by aging, it is desirable to implement a class-specific policy based on the results of this study.
This study aimed to investigate the dietary guidelines from the dietitians and parents’ perceptions in kindergarten. The survey was carried out by 39 dietitians and 320 parents in kindergarten of Sejong city from April 18 to May 14, 2019. Approximately, 48.6% of dietitians responded that the amount of food provided was adjusted according to the age and weight of the infant. Both dietitians and parents responded the most to ‘to build the right eating habits’ as the reason for dietary guidance. As a guiding method for infants who sneaked unpleasant food, 62.9% of dietitians responded ‘teach them about the wrong behavior on the spot’, and 63.7% of parents stated ‘talk about wrong behavior later’. The necessity of linking the dietary guidance between kindergarten and the family was recognized by dietitians and parents. The most important content for the linkage of the dietary guidance was ‘correct eating manners and attitude’. The biggest problem in the dietitian's dietary guidance was the guidance on an unbalanced diet. Our results indicated differences in the dietary guidance contents of dietitians’ and parents’ perception of importance. Apparently, it is considered essential to link kindergarten with the family to provide correct and effective guidance for children.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the qualitative changes of the citron by identifying the type of solution and addition of the solution to prevent the browning reaction of the citron in a way that inhibits the browning of the citron. The browning inhibitor solution was investigated using the individual and mixture, and the results of the degree of browning and chromaticity showed that vitamin C+NaCl+cyclodextrin (CD) had the lowest browning of 0.52. In chromaticity, the ΔE values indicate that the higher the value, the greater the change in color, and the lowest value of the vitamin C+NaCl+CD mixture was 47.0, indicating that there was minimal browning compared to other treatment. The active change of the polyphenol oxidase (PPO) in the citron increased enzyme activity as the browning progressed, and the vitamin C+NaCl+CD solution was the lowest at 68.40 μ/g among the anti-browning solution. Based on these research results, it seems that the CD mixing solution can be used as a citron browning inhibitor.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the current status of chronic diseases according to obesity in the elderly older than age 65 using data from the 7th Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2016~2018). The subjects of the survey were 3,245 elderly older than age 65 who participated in the health survey and nutrition survey, 45.8% of the subjects were males and 54.2% of the subjects were female. 37.5% of all the elderly were obese, and the females (42.4%) were more obese than the males (31.8%) (p<0.001). Diabetes, hypertension, and hypertriglyceridemia had a similar prevalence of 24.6%, 63.0%, and 12.7% in males and females, respectively. Hypercholesterolemia was higher in the elderly females (44.2%) than in the elderly males (24.9%) (p<0.001). Through the logistic regression analysis, it was found that the prevalence of chronic diseases was higher in obesity than normal in elderly males and females (p<0.001). The total food intake increased from ‘under weight’ to ‘obesity’ in males (p<0.01) and females (p<0.001). In the case of the elderly males, the higher the degree of obesity, the higher the energy intake (p<0.05), and ‘pre-obesity’ consumed the most energy in elderly females. As a result of this study, the higher the obesity rate of the elderly, the higher the prevalence of chronic diseases.
The purpose of this study was to derive the conditions for manufacturing rice porridge with optimum properties after reheating. The characteristics of rice porridge according to the soaking time, water addition rate, heating temperature, heating time, and cooling conditions were compared using the ‘Samkwang’ cultivar. In Step Ⅰ, as the heating temperature increased, the weight change decreased and the viscosity increased, and the temperature known as the main factor of the gelatinization also appeared to affect the viscosity increase. In Step Ⅱ, the viscosity and the texture properties was not significantly different as the soaking time was reduced, and 10 minutes was suitable because of due to the shortening effect of the total process time. In Step Ⅲ, the residual heat was lowered by cooling after the rice porridge production, so the viscosity could be greatly reduced. Also, it was confirmed that the water addition rate of 900% and the heating temperature of 15 minutes were optimal manufacturing conditions. The next study will investigate the porridge processability of rice cultivars using these results.