This study was carried out to investigate milling's effect on the pasting properties and storage stability of dry-milled rice flour. Rice flour's moisture content was increased from 9.48% to 9.80% after going through a rice polisher, and the crude fat content of rice flour was decreased from 0.91% to 0.62% after going through a rice polisher. In the color index of rice flour, the rice polisher was only affected by yellowness. The pasting properties were verified through RVA, and it was confirmed that the use of a rice polisher had no significant effect on the pasting properties. As a result of observing the changes in fatty acid value, it was ascertained that the storage period could be increased using the rice polisher. These results suggest that the rice polisher can increase the storage period without changing the pasting properties.
The purpose of this study was to derive the conditions for manufacturing rice porridge with optimum properties after reheating. The characteristics of rice porridge according to the soaking time, water addition rate, heating temperature, heating time, and cooling conditions were compared using the ‘Samkwang’ cultivar. In Step Ⅰ, as the heating temperature increased, the weight change decreased and the viscosity increased, and the temperature known as the main factor of the gelatinization also appeared to affect the viscosity increase. In Step Ⅱ, the viscosity and the texture properties was not significantly different as the soaking time was reduced, and 10 minutes was suitable because of due to the shortening effect of the total process time. In Step Ⅲ, the residual heat was lowered by cooling after the rice porridge production, so the viscosity could be greatly reduced. Also, it was confirmed that the water addition rate of 900% and the heating temperature of 15 minutes were optimal manufacturing conditions. The next study will investigate the porridge processability of rice cultivars using these results.
Abstract In this study, the antioxidant activity of water and ethanol extracts from Hibiscus esculentus, Cirsium japonicum, Zizania latifolia and Kalopanax pictus for functional food source were examined. The optimal conditions for phenolic compounds extraction from medicinal plants were at 50% ethanol with Hibiscus esculentus and Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense, at 40% ethanol with Kalopanax pictus and at 60% ethanol with Zizania latifolia. The total phenolic contents from the extracts of medical plants were determined to be 2.72~34.15 mg/g in the water extracts and 2.83~34.23 mg/g in the ethanol extracts. The electron-donating abilities (EDA) of the water and ethanol extracts were both above 74% at the low concentration of 50 μg/mL. The ABTS radical-cation decolorization was above 88% at 100 μg/mL concentration in all the extracts of various medicinal plants. The antioxidant protection factor (PF) in the water and ethanol extracts of the Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense extracts was 1.73 ± 0.02 PF and 1.76 ± 0.01 PF at 50 μg/mL concentration respectively, and was higher than those of the other medicinal-plant extracts. The TBARs inhibition rates of all the medicinal-plant extracts, were above 80% at the 50 μg/mL concentration except Hibiscus esculentus. These results confirmed that the various oriental medicinal plants (Hibiscus esculentus, Cirsium japonicum var. ussuriense, Kalopanax pictus and Zizania latifolia) that were included in this study are useful anti-oxidant and functional-food resources.
The aim of this research was to investigate the anti-oxidantive activities of extracts from Chionanthus retusus leaves, fruits and flower. The content of phenolics were 20.8 mg/g in water extracts and 32.2 mg/g in 90% ethanol extracts from flower. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity of extracts from Chionanthus retusus was above 70% at phenolic concentration 100 μg/mL. The ABTS radical decolorization activities of water and ethanol extracts were both above 80% at 100 μg/mL phenolic concentration, respectively. The antioxidant protection factor(PF) of water and 80% ethanol extracts from leaves was the highest as 2.27 PF and 1.70 PF at 50 μg/mL phenolic concentration. The TBARs inhibition rate of the Chionanthus retusus extracts, was above 70% at 200 μg/mL phenolic concentration. The anti-oxidantive activities of extracts from leaves were shown more active than BHT as a positive control except TBARs. These results confirmed that the extracts from Chionanthus retusus leaves, fruits and flower was shown the high anti-oxidant activity. The results can be expected isolated phenolic compounds from Chionanthus retusus to use as functional beauty food resource.
The extracellular polysaccharide production from suspension culture of Aloe vera L. was analyzed, and the optimization for suspension cultivation was investigated. From specific polysaccharide assay of glucomannan, FT-IR and 1H NMR spectrum, the extracellular polysacchride from suspension culture was found to be similar to β-1,4-glucomannan originated from Aloe vera fresh leaf. The polysaccharide existed in an acetylated form and its molecular weight by gel permeation chromatography was estimated to be 490 kD (Mn = 440 kD; polydispersity = 1.115). From medium optimization by simplex-cemtroid design using MINITAB®, the callus growth on the 2,4-D of 11.82 μM, kinetin of 13.84 μM and α-naphthalene acetic acid of 4.34 μM was turned out to be significantly superior than the growth on the other culture media combinations. Under this optimal culture media, other conditions such as the suspension culture's temperature, pH and the growth terms were determined. These results showed that the callus growth was optimum at 25oC, pH 5.5 and in 2 weeks. The maximum levels of growth and extracellular polysaccharide production of callus by optimal conditions were about 20.4 and 2.5 g/L, respectively, showing the profile of extracellular polysaccharide production was closely related to the callus growth.
우리나라 전통수산건제품인 마른멸치의 고품질화를 위한 연구로서, 녹차추출물을 분무처리한 마른멸치(분무처리 녹차멸치)를 가공하여 상온 및 저온 저장 중 품질안정성과 shelf-life 특성에 대하여 살펴보았다. 상온 및 -20℃ 동결저장 중 일반마른멸치 및 분무처리 녹차멸치의 수분함량은 약간씩 감소하는 경향을 보였으며, pH는 저장기한이 경과할수록 양 시료 모두 약간씩 감소하는 경향을 나타내었다. 일반마른멸치의 경우 휘발성염기질소 함량은 상온저장 10일 및 동결저장 50일째 이후 약간씩 증가하는 경향을 보였으나, 분무처리 녹차멸치는 상온 및 동결저장 기간 중 휘발성염기질소 함량의 증가가 거의 없었다. 상온저장 중 일반마른멸치 및 분무처리 녹차멸치의 과산화물값은 모두 저장 10일경에 각각 77.7 meq/kg 및 31.4 meq/kg으로 최고값을 나타낸 후 감소하였고, 동결저장에서는 저장 50일 경에 각각 47.7 meq/kg 및 24.8 meq/kg으로 최고값을 나타낸 후 점차 감소하는 경향을 나타내었다. TBA값은 양 시료 모두 상온 및 저온저장 중 계속 증가하는 경향을 보이고 있었으며, 일반마른멸치 C의 증가폭이 분무처리 녹차멸치에 비해 월등히 컸다. 상온저장 중 시료 마른멸치의 색조변화는 다소간의 차이는 있으나 대체로 명도는 감소하였고, 적색도 및 황색도는 증가하였다. 동결저장의 경우 상온저장과 유사한 경향을 보이고 있었으나 상온저장에 비해 그 변화폭이 크지 않았으며, 특히 분무처리 녹차멸치는 육색이 안정하게 유지되는 것으로 나타났다. 녹차추출물을 분무처리한 마른멸치는 종래의 일반마른멸치에 비해 상온 및 -20℃ 동결저장 중 지질산화, 갈변 등 품질저하현상이 상당히 억제되었고 품질이 양호하게 유지되었다.
The objective of this study was to manufacture the sea water cooling apparatus for fish hold storage to extend the freshness of fish. Using the sea water cooling apparatus manufactured, it makes observations on the physicochemical and sensual properties of mackerel such as ATP and its related compounds, K-value, VBN, TMA, TBA, salt-concentration and skin color through storage. The results of this investigation showed that the values of physicochemical properties such as ATP and its related compounds, K-value, VBN, TMA, TBA increased gradually during storage in sea water cooling apparatus manufactured and the changes of skin color was inhibited also. From these results, it could be suggested that developed sea water cooling apparatus is effective in shelf-life extension of fishes.
The purpose of this study is analyzing the performance of sea water cooling system under various refrigerant pipe length. In sea water cooling system, the increase of refrigerant pipe length cause increases of pressure drops. These pressure drops cause fresh gas in liquid pipe and increase specific volume in gas pipe outlet, so sea water cooling system capacity is decreased by decrease of refrigerant mass flow rate. Sea water cooling system capacity in refrigerant pipe length 70m is decreased more than 30% when compared with pipe length 10m and the decrease of the coefficient of performance is nearly 20%.
전통안동식혜를 제조하여 5℃에서 보관하면서 GC와 GC-MS를 이용하여 향기성분의 원인 물질을 분석, 동정하였고 맛성분의 원인물질인 유기산의 변화를 검토하였다. 안동식혜의 주요 향기성분으로는 camphene, sabinene, 1-(1.5-dimethyl-4-hexyl)-4-methyl-benzene, α-zingibirene, farnesene, 2.6-b is-(1.1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-phenol, β-sesquiphellandrene, calalene, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid 및 9.12-octadecanoic acid 등을 들 수 있었다. 안동식혜의 숙성 및 저장중에 있어서 생성된 향기성분은 2.4-undecadienal, 1H-indole, 2.4-decadienal, isoterpinolene 및 D-nerdiol 5종류이었다. 비휘발성 유기산 함량의 변화를 보면 저장 초기에는 젖산 0.49 mg/100 g이던 것이 19.37 mg/100 g으로 증가하였고 다른 유기산들의 함량 변화는 거의 없었다. 안동식혜의 숙성 및 저장 기간중의 pH의 변화는 차차 감소하였고 산도는 차차 증가하여 저장 6일째 0.41이었다.
The objective of this study was to identify the anti-oxidation, astringent, and inhibition effects of wild Ligularia fischeri on hyaluronidase and angiotensin conerting enzyme (ACE). In order to identify the total phenolic compound (TPC), various solvents were used for extraction showing hot water extract with the highest value of 14.42 GAE mg/g. In addition, ABTS radical scavenging activity measurements revealed an anti-oxdiation effect of 98.64-99.84% a hot water extract concentration of 50-200 μg/mL and a radical scavenging activity of 95.14-98.96% at a 60% ethanol extract content. If expressed in antioxidant protection factors (PF), the hot water extract showed 0.59-1.02 PF and the 60% ethanol sample displayed 0.30-0.74 PF. To identify the bio-activity effect, the hyaluronidase inhibition effect was determined as 4.66-35.00% in a 50-200 μg/mL hot water extract. Considering ACE inhibition effect, the hot water extract and 60% ethanol sample showed 0-64.24% and 46.12-69.64% inhibition effect, respectively. Lastly, when taking into account the astringent effect, the hot water extract with 50-200 μg/mL TPC concentration showed 15.68-26.92% and the 60% ethanol sample with an equal concentration exhibited 49.48-86.84%, which indicates the possibility to apply this product as a cosmetic source for pore contraction. Therefore, wild Ligularia fischeri extract can be used for anti-inflammation, high-blood pressure prevention, and as a source for health functional food with anti-oxidative properties.
This study was designed to determine the biological activities of Chionanthus retusus flower extracts. Water and 90% ethanol extracts of C. retusus flower were prepared. The inhibitory activities of water and ethanol extracts with a phenolic content of 200 μg/mL against xanthine oxidase were 25.60% and 15.92%, respectively. Further, the water extract did not show any inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase whereas the ethanol extract showed 100.00% inhibition of α-glucosidase. The inhibitory activities of the extracts against tyrosinase were 17.27% (water extract) and 36.13% (ethanol extract), which suggest that the extracts may have a whitening effect. The water extract did not inhibit elastase activity but showed a collagenase-inhibitory activity of 20.21%. On the contrary, the ethanol extract showed 96.26% and 35.93% inhibition of collagenase and elastase, respectively. These findings suggest that the extracts may have an anti-wrinkle effect. Lastly, the extracts showed a hyaluronidase inhibitory activity of 36.96% (water extract) and 88.70% (ethanol extract), suggesting that they may have an anti-inflammatory effect. The results indicate that C. retusus flower extracts containing phenolic compounds can be used as functional resources because they have anti-gout, carbohydrate degradation-inhibitory, whitening, anti-wrinkle, and anti-inflammatory effects.
본 연구는 2015년과 2016년에 ‘상주둥시’ 감의 수확시기 를 달리하여 수확 후 PE필름, 1-MCP 및 AVG를 처리가 저온저장동안 과실의 품질에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다. 2016년 과실 수확시기는 2015년에 비하여 10일 빠른 조기 수확을 실시하였다. 과실의 에틸렌 발생 정도는 조기수확 한 과실들에서 현저히 낮았고, 과실의 경도는 저온저장동안 1-MCP 처리구들이 다른 처리구의 과실에 비하여 높게 유지되었다. 과실의 감모율은 수확기를 달리한 모든 과실 들에서 PE 필름 처리 과실들에서 현저히 억제되었다. 성숙기에 수확한 과실은 저온저장 중 과실의 꽃받침 부위과 경와부의 과피색(L* 및 b*) 변화를 보면 무처리와 PE필름 처리구에 비하여 1-MCP 처리구들이 그 변화정도가 낮았다. 과실의 부패와 연화정도는 PE필름 처리 과실들에서 높게 나타났지만 AVG 처리구들에서는 부패과 발생이 없었다. 그리고 조기수확한 과일은 성숙기에 수확한 과실에 비하여 경도가 높게 유지되었고, 과피색의 변화가 낮은 경향을 보였고, 성숙기에 수확한 과실들은 당도, 과피의 적색 (Hunter a 값) 발현 및 호흡율이 높게 나타났다. 따라서 감 과실의 저장성 향상을 위해서는 조기수확이 중요한 요인으로 작용하고 또한 수확 후 1-MCP 처리가 과일의 경도를 높게 유지하고 과피색의 변화를 억제하였으며, 과실의 감 모율은 PE 필름 처리에 의해 현저하게 억제됨을 확인하였다.
본 연구에서 마삭줄(Trachelospermum asiaticum var. intermedium Nakai)을 용매별과 ethanol 농도별로 추출한 결과, 용매별 추출에서 ethanol 추출물이 20.8 mg/g으로 가장 높은 phenolic compounds 용출량을 보였고, 농도별 추출에서 70% ethanol 추출물이 38.1 mg/g으로 가장 높았다. 물 추출물은 16.8 mg/g의 phenolic compounds 용출량을 보였다. 마삭줄을 물과 ethanol을 추출용매로 사용하여 항산화 효과와 항통풍 및 항당뇨 효과를 확인하여 건강 기능성 식품으로의 가능성을 증명 하고자 하였다. DPPH radical 소거능 측정 결과, 100 μg/mL phenolic compounds의 농도에서 물 추출물은 80.9%, 70% ethanol 추출물은 83.1%의 활성을 나타내었다. ABTS radical 소거능 측정 결과 200 μg/mL phenolic compounds의 농도에서 물 추출물은 95.0%, 70% ethanol 추출물은 95.8%의 소거능력을 나타내었다. PF 측정결과, 100 μg/mL phenolic compounds의 농도에서 물 추출물은 2.43 PF, 70% ethanol 추출물에서는 2.45 PF를 나타내었다. TBARs 측정 결과, 200 μg/mL phenolic compounds의 농도에서 물과 70% ethanol 추출물에서 89.9%와 89.3%의 활성을 나타내었다. 통풍 억제 효과 측정 결과, 200 μg/mL phenolic compounds의 농도에서 물 추출물은 33.3%, 70% ethanol 추출물은 50.5%의 저해 효과를 나타내었다. α-glucosidase 저해 효과 측정 결과, 물 추출물에는 저해 효과가 나타나지 않았고, 70% ethanol 추출물에서는 200 μg/mL phenolic compounds의 농도에서 92.6%의 저해 효과를 나타내었다. 이러한 결과들로 미루어 보았을 때 마삭줄 추출물은 항산화 작용과 건강 기능성 식품으로 활용 가능성을 확인할 수 있었다.
본 연구에서는 긴병꽃풀의 항산화 효과와 기능성을 활용한 양갱을 제조하여 기계적 특성을 측정하고, 관능적 기호도 평가를 실시하였다. 생리활성 물질의 양을 측정하기 위하여 페놀성 화합물 정량을 실시한 결과 긴병꽃풀 열수추출물에서 12.99±0.30 mg/g, 70% ethanol 추출물에서 3.14±0.07 mg/g으로 나타내었다. 50-200 μg/mL의 농도에서 항산화 효과를 측정한 결과, 전자공여능은 열수추출물과 70% ethanol 추출물에서 각각 77.16-78.24%, 73.04-77.00%로 나타내었으며, ABTS는 84.35-99.75%, 83.74-99.55%로 나타내었다. Antioxidant protection factor(PF)는 1.54-1.62, 1.62-2.09 PF를 나타내었으며, TBARs는 42.93-94.09%, 91.05-95.19%로 나타내었다. 긴병꽃풀 추출물의 열수추출물과 70% ethanol 추출물은 거의 비슷한 항산화 효과를 나타내었으나, PF와 TBARs에서는 70% ethanol 추출물에서 더 우수한 항산화 효과를 나타내었다. Tyrosinase 저해활성은 열수추출물에서는 효과가 나타나지 않았으며, 70% ethanol 추출물에서는 30.32-40.56%의 저해활성을 나타내었다. Hyaluronidase 저해활성은 14.23-40.93%, 57.45-72.88%로 70% ethanol 추출물이 더 우수한 저해활성을 나타내었으며, 50-100 μg/mL의 저농도에서는 positive control로 사용한 PDTC보다 우수한 저해활성을 나타내었다. 색도는 긴병꽃풀 분말의 첨가량이 증가할수록 L 값과 a 값은 감소하는 경향을 나타내었고 b 값은 일정하게 나타내었다. 기계적 조직감은 경도와 탄력성에서 긴병꽃풀 분말의 첨가량이 증가할수록 감소하는 경향을 나타내었고, 응집성은 첨가량과 관계없이 일정한 값을 나타내었다. 씹힘성은 2.0%에서 가장 높은 수치를 나타내었으나 대조군과 첨가군 간의 유의적 차이는 나타나지 않았고, 긴병꽃풀 분말이 양갱의 기계적 조직감에 영향을 준다는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 긴병꽃풀 분말 첨가 양갱의 관능적 기호도는 점도, 경도, 씹힘성, 탄력성, 맛, 향, 전반적인 기호도 항목에서 대조군을 제외하고 1.0% 이하 첨가군에서 기호도가 높게 나타내었으며 2.0% 첨가군은 모든 항목에서 가장 낮은 기호도를 나타내었다. 위 결과에 따라 긴병꽃풀 분말을 이용한 양갱 제조에는 1.0% 이하의 농도를 사용하여 제조하는 것이 가장 적합하다고 판단되었다.
In this study, beauty food activities were determined for extracts of Saurus chinensis as functional beauty food. Tyrosinase inhibitory effect was increased as more 4 folds by ultra-fine grind technology than normal grind technology in ethanol extracts from Saurus chinensis. A ultra-fine ground technology was used to increase the extraction yield for bioactive compounds from medicinal plants. Tyrosinase inhibitory activity, which is related to skin-whitening, was confirmed to be 100% for ethanol extracts at 1,000 ppm of phenolics. Anti-wrinkle activity was determined showing 30% of inhibition effect at above 1,000 ppm phenolic concentration. The elastase inhibitory activity of water and ethanol extracts from ultra-fine ground Saurus chinensis showed higher inhibition activity than compared to extracts from normal ground Saurus chinensis. Astringent activity in ethanol extracts was determined showing over 70% at 250 ppm of phenolics. Based on these results, Saurus chinensis extracts can be used as a functional beauty food and cosmetic with whitening, anti-wrinkle and pore contraction effects.
The purpose of this paper is to investigate potential anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of Tenebrio molitor. Macrophage cell response by outside stimulation leads expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and trigger expression of genes which are affected by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), resulting in formation of inflammatory factors like nitric oxide (NO) and Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. In order to investigate anti-inflammatory agents, the inhibitory effects on the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO in RAW 264.7 cells were examined. T. Molitor significantly decreased the production of NO in a dose-dependent manner, and also reduced the expression of iNOS, a COX-2 protein. As a result, the levels of protein such as PGE2, iNOS, COX-2 and MARKs were significantly reduced compared to non-treated group in T. Molitor water extract (TDW) treated group. Also, antioxidant effect of T. Molitor were investigated using DPPH, ABTS+ and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity tests in cell-free system. Antioxidant activity of T. molitor was found low in the DPPH radical scavenging test while high in the ABTS+ and superoxide anion radical scavenging activity tests. These results show that TDW could be an effective anti-pro-inflammatory and anti-oxidant agent.