The purpose of this study is to identify potentially hazardous factors which can contribute to the outbreak of food borne disease and present more practical management methods in terms of sanitary management of cooking equipment and personal hygiene. 230 Korean-style restaurants in Seoul were surveyed in the same manner on the published study-A study for the Improvement of Sanitary Condition in Korean style-restaurant in Seoul city area (I). Sanitary check-lists were developed to evaluate the sanitary status of cooking equipment and personal hygiene of employee. The sanitary condition of cooking equipment the maintenance of refrigeration, food habits and personal hygiene were assessed by the sanitary score. The sanitary condition of cooking equipment, the maintenance of refrigeration as well as food habits and personal hygiene employee was in good condition. The effective sanitation education and training for good service workers should be practice for the improvement of sanitary management of cooking equipment and personal hygiene.
전통안동식혜를 제조하여 5℃에서 보관하면서 GC와 GC-MS를 이용하여 향기성분의 원인 물질을 분석, 동정하였고 맛성분의 원인물질인 유기산의 변화를 검토하였다. 안동식혜의 주요 향기성분으로는 camphene, sabinene, 1-(1.5-dimethyl-4-hexyl)-4-methyl-benzene, α-zingibirene, farnesene, 2.6-b is-(1.1-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-phenol, β-sesquiphellandrene, calalene, tetradecanoic acid, hexadecanoic acid 및 9.12-octadecanoic acid 등을 들 수 있었다. 안동식혜의 숙성 및 저장중에 있어서 생성된 향기성분은 2.4-undecadienal, 1H-indole, 2.4-decadienal, isoterpinolene 및 D-nerdiol 5종류이었다. 비휘발성 유기산 함량의 변화를 보면 저장 초기에는 젖산 0.49 mg/100 g이던 것이 19.37 mg/100 g으로 증가하였고 다른 유기산들의 함량 변화는 거의 없었다. 안동식혜의 숙성 및 저장 기간중의 pH의 변화는 차차 감소하였고 산도는 차차 증가하여 저장 6일째 0.41이었다.
The relationship of obesity and related behaviors was analyzed among 361 primary school children, 4th and 5th grade, in one of private school in Seoul in July 1994. Compared to 1985 Korean Children's Growth Standard, the surveyed children have shown remarkable growth, which is the secular trend in growth of Korean children accompanied with rapid economic growth. But the relative incremental weight was far larger than that of height and this trend was more evident among children over 50th percentile, which shows a wide prevalence of obesity of the surveyed children. By WLI index, 15% of the children was overweight and 13% was obese. The higher the WLI, the more frequent and stronger stress they had. The nutrition knowledge score of obese children was higher compared to others. They were especially sensitive to their physical fitness but many normal or underweight-children also experienced stress due to their body weight and have tried to lose weight by incorrect methods. On the other hand many obese children thought they were optimal or underweight. These results reasserts the importance of nutrition education focused on children aheading puberty. They need to know the correct degree of obesity and to get appropriate education through teachers, dietitians, parents and doctors. The findings of this study could be applied to a nutrition implementation policy to ensure better physical fitness of children aheading puberty in the future.
본 연구의 목적은 병원급식소의 세정작업의 효율적 관리를 위하여 위탁 전과 후의 비용효과를 비교하고 자가운영과 위탁운영체제의 세정담당 종업원들의 직무만족도를 비교하여 그 비용효율성을 분석하는데 있다. 본 연구의 결과에 의하면, 세정작업의 위탁관리로 다음과 같은 잇점을 기대할 수 있었다. 첫째, 호봉이 낮고 적은 수의 종업원 이용으로 인건비의 절감을 기대할 수 있었으며, 둘째, 봉급에 관한 항목을 제외한 다른 항목에 관해서는 자가운영과 위탁운영 체제의 세정담당 종업원들의 직무만족도에 유의적 차이가 없는 것으로 나타났으며, 세째, 작업일정이나 인사배치에 있어서의 용이함으로 나타났다. 이 연구 결과를 기초로 병원급식소의 위탁관리 프로그램에 관한 지속적인 평가와 개발에 관한 연구가 이루어져야 할 것이다.
A hazard analysis which included watching operations, measuring temperatures of foods throughout preparation and display, and sampling and testing for microorganisms of total plate counts and coliform bacteria was conducted in various phases of product flow of Korean soups (Galbitang, Sullungtang, Jangkuk) prepared at Korean restaurants. Cooked foods were sometimes held at room temperature long enough to permit multiplication of bacteria that might have been present. This was confirmed by the finding of large numbers of aerobic mesophilic colonies (106) in samples of such foods after handling and holding for several hours before served. These bacteria decreased down to 101~102 while the contaminated Tang were served. And internal temperature of Tang served was approximately 70℃. Critical control points identified were, pre-preparation, handling after cooking and holding on display. Guidelines were suggested for effective quality control of Tang (Korean soups) production. Handlers of these foods need to be informed of the hazards and appropriate preventive measures.
A study has been performed on the cockroach knowledge and perception of managers, employees and consumers, and the cockroach control management in food service institutions. A total of 759 subjects including 101 managers, 293 employees and 365 consumers was surveyed in Seoul and Pusan areas from July 1994 to September 1994. The results obtained are as follows: The mean rates of the cockroach knowledge (i.e. 62.26/100.0) and perception (i.e. 23.67/30.0) of the consumers were significantly (p<0.001) lower than those of the managers (i.e. 68.87/100.0 and 25.30/30.0, respectively) and the employees (i.e. 69.09/100.0 and 26.99/30.0, respectively). In the cockroach detection rates, however, much higher rate was seen in the consumer group (i.e. 79.5%) than the manager (i.e. 43.3%) and the employee (i.e. 48.5%) groups. Forty and seventy percents of the subjects have suffered from allergies and nuisance by cockroaches, respectively. The cockroach control was performed by 75.5% of the food service institutions and 70.8% of them contracted with pest control operators to reduce the cockroach populations. The cockroach control methods of the operators were aerosol (40.7%) and insecticidal baits (30.5%). Only 33.7% of the institutions had the budgets for the cockroach control. For public health, the managers and the employees of the institutions need to be educated about cockroaches and hygiene. Also, it is suggested that cockroaches be regularly controlled by professional pest control operators.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the management practices and to measure the degree of job satisfaction of employees of hamburger chain restaurants in Seoul. Management practices were evaluated in terms of service, quality, cleanliness and shift management in 30 hamburger restaurants of 3 domestic and 3 foreign chain brands. Employee job satisfaction was measured by using questionnaires of Job Descriptive Index. 200 employees from the same 30 restaurants were participated in the survey. Results were analyzed by using SAS program in terms of t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation. The results are as follows: 1. The factor of quality got the highest score and cleanliness the second, service the third, and shift management got the lowest score in the evaluation of management practiecs of hamburger chain restaurant. The foreign brands showed significantly higher scores than the domestic ones in every measured factors. 2. The factor of coworkers got the highest score and then supervision, the work-itself, promotion and pay got the next highest scores in descending order in measured Job satisfaction. The foreign brands showed significantly higher scores than domestic ones in JDI. 3. The foodservice employees rated work-itself was considered by employees the most important job satisfaction factor, and the next important factor was pay and then coworkers, supervision, and promotion. 4. The significant positive relationship between management practice factor of shift management and all the factors of job satisfaction except the factor of pay were found.
This study researched microbial change of quality according to the various phases of product flow of cooked pea and rice, cold cucumber and seaweed soup, soybean sprouts japchae feeding urban type of a commissary school and a satellite school in Daejeon area, also it suggested the possibility that the central commissary foodservice system can be established and utilized more developmental to identify its food of variation of temperature and state of safety unitl 3 hours after cooking for the case of delay of distribution and holding because of the satellite school of geographical location and traffic problem. The critical Control Points identified for each category of menu items were: Boiled pea and rice: inadequate distribution, holding and storing before assembly; Cold cucumber and seaweed soup: pre-preparation and post-preparation after cooking; Soybean sprouts japchae: Pre-preparation, post-preparation and storing. As the result of observation of the variation of temperature and microbial safety according to the delay of distribution and holding for each food, all of them were relatively safe until 3 hours after cooking, but cold cucumber and seaweed soup being stored for 3 hours, the value of E. coli is 103 CFU/g. The variation of temperature was more extreme in soybean sprouts japchae than cooked pea and rice and cold cucumber and seaweed soup. It was proved that the stainless container was excellent and that adequate holding container should be used.