A change in distribution structure affect a consumption structure which may result in considerable changes in lifestyle including food purchase. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of change of distribution structure on the indigenous fermented food purchase. The informations of this study were obtained from 407 housewives residing in Seoul and the capital area by using questionnaire during May to June, 1997 Their data were statistically analyzed based on frequency, mean, and 2-test. The results were as follows; 1) The percentages of subjects buying ready made fermented food were 69.8% for Jotkals(salt-fermented fish products), 22.3% for Kochujang(fermented red pepper soybean paste), 21.6% for Janachis(pickled basic side dishes), 21% for Kanjang(Korean style soybean sauce), 17.1% for Toenjang(Korean style soybean paste), and 3% for Kimchi(seasoned and fermented vegetables). 2) With decreasing age, preparation ability of Kanjang, Janachis, and Kimchi. The subjects living close to the new distribution channel were higher in ready made fermented food than the others. 3) Compared to the subject living far from the new distribution channel, the subject living close to the new distribution channel was high in frequency of new distribution channel utilization for indigenous fermented food purchase but low in frequency of conventional market utilization. The younger in age, higher in educational level, and nuclear family, the higher the utilization of new distribution channel for indigenous fermented food purchase.
식품의 방사선조사 기법은 지난 40여년간 세계적으로 체계적인 연구가 수행되면서 그에 대한 안전성과 기술적 타당성이 입증되고 있음에도 불구하고 아직까지도 제한적으로 이용되고 있는데 이의 주된 이유는 방사선조사 식품에 대한 소비자의 수용도를 확신할 수 없기 때문이다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 방사선조사 식품에 대한 올바른 정보를 소비자들에게 제공하기 위한 기초자료를 얻기 위해 방사선조사 식품에 대한 소비자들의 구입의도 및 구입의도에 따른 집단을 구분하는데 영향을 미치는 변수들을 분석하였다. 본 연구를 통해 얻어진 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 첫째, 우리 나라 소비자들의 식품의 안전성 및 식품의 신선도 보존에 관한 관심도는 매우 높았다. 방부제, 잔류농약, 식중독, 식품의 변패 및 식품의 신선도 보존 등의 5가지 항목 중 식품의 변패에 대한 관심도가 특히 높게 나타났으며, 그 다음으로는 잔류농약, 식중독의 순으로 관심이 많았다. 둘째, 우리 나라 소비자들의 방사선조사 식품에 대한 인지도는 대체로 낮았으며 특히 연령이 많거나 학력이 낮은 경우 방사선조사 식품에 대해 인지도가 낮은 것으로 나타나 이들을 대상으로 한 소비자교육이 보다 활성화되어야 할 필요가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 방사선조사 식품에 대한 수용 정도에 있어서는 응답자의 1/3-4/5가 방사선조사 식품의 구입에 대한 찬성이나 반대의 의사표시를 보이는 대신에 관망적인 자세를 취하고 있었다. 방사선조사 기법이 제공하는 혜택 중에서 농약 처리 후 식품에 농약이 잔류되는 것과는 다르게 방사선조사 식품에 방사선이 잔류하지 않는 경우, 방사선조사 식품을 구입할 의도가 많은 것으로 나타났다. 즉 식품의 안전성과 관련하여 많은 소비자들이 식품에서 농약의 잔류성분에 대해 우려를 하고 있는 것으로 나타났으므로 앞으로 이를 대체할 수 있는 하나의 방법으로 식품에 방사선조사 처리 기법이 활용될 것으로 예상되며, 이를 위해서는 방사선조사 식품의 안전성이 뒷받침되어야 할 것으로 보인다. 셋째, 방사선조사 식품의 구입의도 정도에 따른 집단을 구분하는데 영향을 미치는 변수를 살펴본 판별분석의 결과, 식품의 안전성에 대한 관심도, 혁신성에 대한 자아평가, 유기농작물에 대한 지불의도, 그리고 방사선조사 식품의 인지도는 방사선조사 식품의 구입의도를 구분하는 집단을 설명하는 데 있어 대체로 영향력이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 반면에 월가계소득은 5개의 판별분석에서 한 번도 유의하지 않은 것으로 나타나서 방사선조사 식품의 수용정도를 구분하는 데 있어 영향력이 없는 것으로 나타났다. 특히 소비자의 혁신성 정도가 방사선조사 식품의 수용도를 구분하는데 있어 중요한 변수라는 사실은 방사선조사 식품의 기법이나 그러한 식품이 갖는 혜택과 관련된 정보를 혁신적 소비자나 조기수용자에게 우선적으로 제공하는 것이 효과적임을 알려주고 있다. 최근 국제적으로 방사선조사 식품의 이용이 확대되고 있으며, 수출입 식품에 대한 방사선 처리가 증가되고 있는 국제환경 속에서 소비자들에게 방사선조사 식품에 대한 올바른 정보를 효과적으로 제공함으로써 그들의 식품구입 의사결정에 도움을 주는 것이 매우 필요하다. 더욱이 본 연구결과 우리 나라 소비자들은 방사선조사 식품에 대한 낮은 인지도를 가지고 있어 소비자로서의 알권리를 제대로 누리지 못하고 있는 것으로 나타나 앞으로 국내에서 방사선조사 식품이 상업적으로 널리 보급되기에 앞서 방사선조사 식품에 대한 소비자교육이 활발하게 이루어질 필요가 있다고 본다.
An attempt was made to provide valuable information to improve service quality and customer satisfaction for in-flight catering service. The customers' demographic characteristics that impact on service quality and customer satisfaction were examined for a group of customer. 474 customers who have been used the airplane within 1 year were participated in this study. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS software program (version 6.01) for descriptive analysis, factor analysis, t-test and ANOVA. The results of the study can be summarized as follows: 1. Service Quality in In-flight catering was assessed on the basis of 18 service quality attributes and 5 dimensions derived from a factor analysis. After comparing customers' perception to customers' expectation regarding in-flight service quality, the quality of dimensions for 'meals', and 'sanitation' were not showed any significant differences. However, the expectation for dimensions of 'diversity of menu', 'providing information', and 'the degree of concern to the customers' were rated significantly higher than the perception for those. 2. Among the demographic variables, age and gender had highly influences on the customers' expectation and perception regarding service quality and customer satisfaction. 3. The korean food that the customers wanted to have for in-flight meals was investigated. Among the kinds of gruel(jook), abalone gruel(jeonbok-jook), pumpkin gruel(hobak-jook), and pine-nut gruel(jat-jook) were chosen to have for in-flight korean meals. It was rated that the preferences for beef soup(sogogikook), hot spicy beef soup(youkgaejang), brown sea-weed soup(miyoukkook) were higher than others in soup group. The preferences for boiled rice with assorted mixture(bibimbab) showed the highest and beef and rice soup(seoleongtang), boiled rice with four the staple cereals(ogogbab) were preferred higher than the others in main dish group. Bulgogi was rated the most popular dish. Korean style punch with omiza(whachae), sweet rice dish(yaksik) and fried glutinous rice cake(gangjeong)showed high preferences in dissert.
This nutritional survey was conducted in February 25, 1999, in order to investigate the nutritional knowledge, dietary attitudes and nutrient intakes of dietitians living in Kangwon area. Subjects consisted of 250 dietitians, with 184 in school food service, 14 in hospital food service and 52 in institution food service. Data were analyzed for frequencies, means, t-test, 2-test, ANOVA and Pearson correlation using SPSS PC Package. The results obtained are summarized as follows: The average nutritional knowledge score was 10.15 out of possible 15 points, and dietary attitude score was 67.93 out of 100 points. The correlation between nutritional knowledge score and dietary attitude score was lowly(γ=-0.25). Nutrients consumed below the Korean RDA were energy (78.77%), Ca(90.5%), Fe(83.70%) and nutrients consumed above the Korean RDA were protein(110.83%), P(140.21%), vit.A(163.94%), vit.B2(126.37%), niacin(121.12%) and vit C(231.86%). Carbohydrate, protein and fat ratio on energy composition was 63%:17%:20%. The nutrient density among 3 groups of dietitian was not significantly different.
This study investigates the impact of International Monetary Fund(IMF) Age on the household behavior of food consumption and analysis the related factors(demographic variables, family life style) to find out the reasonable consumer's consciousness and food market conditions. The results are as follows. 1. General life style and food life style, considered as family life style, were classified into 7 types and 9 types respectively as family life style by factor analysis. 2. The rationality of using and disposing stage on food life has increased, the rationality of the planning stage on food life has decreased since the IMF age began. But the rationality of overall food consumption has hardly changed. 3. The amount of purchasing was decreased, discount store was favorite place to buy food, and safety and freshness were major determinants in purchasing for most of food items. But this was different with food items. The various information sources were used impartially to buy food, cash was used mainly, and the degree of using the discount ticket/coupon was a little low. 4. Income level is an influential factor on the rationality of the planning and purchasing stage on food life, while environment-oriented food life style has influenced on the rationality of using and disposing stage. The purchasing amount of grain products, meats, milk products, bread and snacks, drinks, alcoholic drinks, water and convenience goods has influenced by demographic variables, eating out had been influenced by general life styles, and fruits, healthy foods, processed foodstuffs, favorite foods, vegetables seaweeds, import foods and seafood had been mainly influenced by food life style since IMF age began.
This paper was developed to determine the university students' coping behavior pattern in meal management with Korean economic crisis in 1997. The data was collected from 544 university students in Ulsan areas. The coping behavior consisted of 26 items which were categorized into 4 factors; (factors were named as related to): 'decrease of intakes factor' ,: 'change to the cheaper choices factor' ,: 'increase of meals at home factor' and 'emphases on quantity sacrificing the quality factor'. Socio-economic variables affected differently the coping behavior in meal management and 4 sub factors. The amount of discretionary expenditure, the status of housing, the monthly household income and gender affected the coping behavior in meal management. The amount of discretionary expenditure and the monthly household income affected the decrease of intakes factor and the change to the cheaper choices factor. The amount of discretionary expenditure and gender affected the increase of meals at home factor and the emphases on quantity sacrificing the quality factor.
The purpose of this study is to investigate the current situation of children's milk intake at home and school in order to identify the better way to help children's milk intake. For this, 895 elementary students participated in this study through the questionnaire developed by researchers. Conclusions drawn from the results of this study are as follows : 1. Various kinds of milk should be provided for children both at home and school so that they can choose an appropriate milk for themselves. 2. Teachers at school should help children's milk intake not through forcing them but through appropriate educational approach. 3. Milk distribution system and ways of refrigeration of milk in school should be improved. 4. Nutrition education should be implemented for children so that they themselves choose milk as favorite beverage.
본 논문은 한일 양국의 가계에 있어서의 식품수요에 미치는 요인을 파악하기 위해서 종래의 수요모델에 코호트(cohort, 행동을 같이 한 집합체) 분석적인 생각을 도입하여 한일 양국의 식품수요 형태분석을 하였다. 여기에 제시한 새로운 수요분석 모델은 소비지출과 가격이 식료수요에 미치는 경제적 효과 이외에 세대주 연령효과나 출생연도와 같은 비경제적효과 등도 계량한 것이 특징이다. 분석한 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1. 한일 양국의 식품수요의 품목군별 탄력성을 보면 유지류, 음료, 조리식품의 수요탄력성은 한국보다 일본이 더 탄력적이었지만, 다른 모든 품목은 일본보다 한국이 탄력적이었다. 곡류, 육류, 외식의 외부화 식품의 소비지출과 가격탄력성은 한국의 큰 품목과 일본의 큰 품목이 서로 상충하고 있어서 일정한 경향 파악이 곤란하다. 그러나 신선식품에 대한 소비지출과 가격의 탄력성은 모두 일본보다 한국이 크다. 2. 식품에 대한 지출액은 세대 구성원의 연령을 반영하여 비교하여 볼 때 한국과 일본의 결과가 비슷하였다. 즉 세대주 연령이 젊은 계층의 가족에는 유아가 있기 때문에 유란류의 지출액이, 또한 중년층에서는 청소년이 많기 때문에 과자류의 지출액이 다른 연령계층에 비하여 많았다. 한국은 연령계층이 높을수록 2세대 가족이 많기 때문에 다수 품목에 지출액이 많고, 일본의 중년층은 과자류를 포함하여 특히 곡류, 육류 등의 에너지 식품이나 외식의 지출액이 많다. 그러나 연령이 높은 계층에서는 세대 구성원이 거의 성인이며 평균연령이 높기 때문에 곡류, 육류, 외식 등의 지출액이 적었지만 어패류, 야채류 등의 전통식품이나 조리식품의 지출이 많았다. 3. 식품소비의 패턴은 세대주 출생연도별로 비교하면 한일 양국 모두 구세대일수록 주식 중시의 경향을 나타내고 신세대일수록 축산물, 유지류, 외부화 식품의 비중이 높았다. 그러나 품목 구성의 세대간 차이는 한국에 있어서는 매우 크지만 일본의 경우는 비교적 작았다. 따라서 식생활의 서구화, 외부화는 세대교체에 동반하여 한국에는 급속히 진행하지만 일본은 점진적으로 진행한다고 볼 수 있다. 4. 가계 식품 수요의 장기 변화에 미치는 요인은 소비지출, 가격, 세대주 출생연도, 연령 등의 네 가지 요인으로 나누어서 각각의 효과를 요인간으로 비교하면 한일 양국이 함께 가격의 효과가 가장 작다. 그러나 그 이외 요인별 효과의 상대적 중요성은 양국간에 다른데 한국은 소비지출의 효과가 출생연도나 연령 효과보다 크지만 일본은 경제적 요인인 소비지출보다 세대주의 출생연도나 연령 등의 비경제적 요인의 효과가 크다.
The purpose of this paper on Hoe (raw beef) is to investigate various kinds of its recipes, with equal focus on seasonings and sauces as well as its main and sub ingredients. The recipes of Hoe can be broadly classified into four large groups such as Salkogi Hoe(Red meat Hoe), Hankazi Naechang-yook Hoe(made from internal organs), Jap Hoe(1)(miscellaneous Meat Hoe) and Jap Hoe(II)(rolled with a whole pinenut) while the cook books written before 1945 indicate that the number of recipes reaches up to 21. The recipe of Salkogi Hoe comprises following three steps. Cut raw beef into thin strips and season them if necessary, then sprinkling sufficient pinenut powder on the strips. Its main sauce is hot pepper paste with vinegar. The recipe of Hankazi Naechang-yook Hoe uses kidney, manyplies, liver and tripes as main ingredients. Kidney should be thinly sliced with mixture of salt, seasame salt, seasame oil, and pepper as its seasonings. Regarding Manyplies, liver and tripes, there exists two possible ways to season them after cutting into strips. You can season with sesame oil and pepper or only with salt. Main ingredients of Jap Hoe(I) consist of beef, pork, kidney, manyplies, liver and tripes, among which minimum two ingredients are selected. Ingredients selected are sprinkled with pinenut powder after cutting into thin strips. And Hot pepper paste with vinegar is used as main sauce. The recipe of Jap Hoe(II) is to cut manyplies into pieces of 2Cm by 5 Cm without removing their black part and roll each piece with a whole peanut in such a manner that the peanut sticks from rolled piece.
The origin as well as the culinary aspects such as ingredients, types, preparation methods of Dasik and materials and ornamental patterns of Dasik mould(다식판) are discussed and analyzed through the literature survey. 1. The origin of Dasik came from the custom of Umdha(飮茶) together with the Worship of Buddhism(숭불정책) and the abundant production of rice due to the Policy for Agricultural Development(권농정책) of the Koryo Dynasty. 2. The main ingredient of Dasik was rice flour and wheat flour and thereafter, plant materials such as Song-wha(송화), Mungbean starch flour(녹두녹말가루) and Hwang-yul(황율) were followed. Honey, sugar and syrup were used as coagulating agents. Dasik was often colored by the addition of Omija(오미자), a plant material containing red pigment. 3. Originally. Dasik mould was not used until Jeungbo-Sanlim-Kyungje. Major types of Dasik were reviewed from the literature survey. 4. The materials of Dasik mould were wood or porcelain. Their shapes and ornamental patterns were reviewed. Circular design was predominant in the wood and lettered designs were predominant in porcelain. 5. Utilization of Dasik recorded in Koryo-History(고려사) and Chosun-Wangjo Shilloc(조선왕조실록) were reviewed.
The purposes of this study were to investigate changes in serum lipid levels with age and gender, and to determine which factors affect the serum lipid profiles. The anthropometric parameters(height, weight, waist girth, hip girth) and biochemical status(cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-chol.) were measured for clinically normal adults(male 89, female 91) in Yeongdong area. The results are as follows: 1. The obesity index was significantly higher in female(115.2±15.2%) than in male(109.9±13.4%), but waist/hip girth ratio(WHR) was significantly higher in male (0.89±0.05) than in female(0.81±0.06). 2. Male subjects had higher triglyceride and atherogenic index and lower HDL-cholesterol and relative cholesterol than those of female subjects. 3. Prevalences of hypercholesteolemia, hypertriglyceridemia and hypoHDL-cholesterolemia were 9.0%, 9.0%, 14.6% respectively in male and 9.9%, 2.2%, 4.4% in female. 4. WHR positively correlated with serum cholesterol, TG, LDL/HDL and A.I., and negatively correlated with HDL-chol. and relative chol. Correlation analyses indicated that WHR seemed to be more closely associated with serum lipid levels(rather than obesity index). 5. Age showed positive correlations with waist girth, WHR, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, LDL/HDL and A.I., but negative correlations with height, body weight and relative cholesterol. 6. There was significant differences in TG concentration between drinker(169.3±130.0mg/dl) and non-drinker(111.4±64.5mg/dl), and smoker(165±103.6mg/dl) and non-smoker (110.8±39.0mg/dl). That is to say that as risk factors for hyperlipidemia are obesity index, serum lipid concentration, life style(such as alcohol drinking and smoking) and age. Specially major risk factors are drinking, smoking and regulated exercise in male and age is an important risk factor in female.
The status of general food service administration and nutrition education was investigated in 111 elementary schools located in Inchon Metropolitan Area by questionnaires. The results are as follows ; 1. Most schools served 5 lunches per week. Meal cost per capita was 1212.1 won in urban type school and 979.0 won in rural type school. Most schools(91.9%) had 1 regular dietitian and 1 regular cook. With increasing number of students the number of temporary employees increased significantly. Most school dietitians(86.5%) were in their twenties and had 2 year careers. 2. Most dietitians(90.1%) planned the menu based on the RDA with the first consideration in nutritional needs of the students. Many dietitians(81.8%) surveyed on the food preferences of the students at least once a year. About 86% of the schools had the food service committee which was helpful. Dietitians were the first one in charge of food purchasing and checking, and sometimes a manager in general school affairs worked together. One third of the schools used the volunteer parents in food services. 3. Most school dietitians(97.2%) gave the students nutrition education using handouts once a week. However, they could not teach the students through the classroom lecture because they are not the regular teachers. Food garbages were removed by the professional trash collecting company or by using fermentation machines or by giving them to animals as feeds. School events concerning the food and nutrition were mostly drawing pictures and composition. Only 36.4% of the school dietitians had experienced in nutrition counseling for an individual student. Most of them(99.1%) thought that individual counseling is necessary if they have enough time and chances to do.
The purpose of this study is to examine current foodservice management practices at free congregate meal service for elderly people. Forty seven meal service centers as well as randomly selected Seoul and Kyunggido area were surveyed and interviewed and results were summarized as follows: The cost of each meal(lunch) was ranged from 1,300 won to 1,500 won and 68% of target centers were severed over 100 meals per day. Meal time for lunch begins from 10:30 am to 12:00 because great portion of elderly didn't take breakfast frequently. 52.3% of centers severed meal 5 times per week, just weekdays. 21.3% of centers employeed dietitian, 63.8% of center employeed cook. 95.7% of center were supported labor force by volunteers. Volunteer was important contribution to free meal service. Utilizing the labor force more effectively is thus a major challenge facing manager in each center. Ideal supporting system of free foodstuff, foodbank was still minor source of securing foodstuff. Most of centers(46 centers)served lunch, only one of them served breakfast and lunch. Government was the major financial sponsor, the second of them was religious organization. The large portions of financial support provided only food cost of total meal service budget. Most of center adapted self-service system. Standardized recipes were not developed and meal preparation was controlled under the experience of volunteers. Recording system of nutrition management, production control, storage and inventory control was not adapted by most of sites. It is suggested that in order to meet the change of the patterns of social and family structure, the service of the center should be offended in urban area and it is necessary to develop systematic management models for the center. It was suggested that not only financial support but also systematical support on management by the local government may be necessary to meet the goal of supply nutritionally balanced food at center.